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8 bits 1 byte

1024 bytes 1 kilobyte

1024 kilobyte 1 megabyte
1024 megabytes 1 gigabyte
1024 gigabytes 1 terabyte

The data on the computer is in binary, if the programmer needs to examine this data then pages
of 1s and 0s are not much help, but the hexadecimal equivalents are much easier to work with.
As with binary numbers, hexadecimal numbers are stored in registers and main memory.

Hexadecimal is used in the HTML code for colours.

Hexadecimal numbers are also used in MAC addresses. Media Access Control
(MAC) technology provides unique identification and access control for computers on
an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Media Access Control assigns a unique number to each IP
network adapter called the MAC address. A MAC address is 48 bits long. The MAC address is
commonly written as a sequence of 12 hexadecimal digits

Hexadecimal numbers are used in assembly languages. Assembly languages use a set of
mnemonics to represent the possible machine operations which include instructions in
Register Stands for
PC Program Counter
CIR Current Instruction Register
MAR Memory Address Register
MDR Memory Data Register
Accumulator Holds Results
Index Used by programs to adjust the address part of an instruction before the
address is used
Special Holds the address in PC to be reloaded after the completion of jump
Register instruction
Status Holds flags that indicate process status

PC - Program Counter (Alternative names; Sequence Control Register SCR, Instruction

Address Register IAR, Next Instruction Register NIR; the name we shall use forward is PC):
It contains the address of the next machine code instruction to be executed.
It controls the sequence in which machine code instructions are executed.
It is in the control unit.

MAR (Memory Address Register):

It is used to store the address of the memory location currently in use.
This address contains either the address of current instruction being loaded (in the fetch
phase) or the address of data to be used (In the execute phase) or the address of data
to be stored in memory (In execute Cycle).
It is in the processor.

CIR (Current Instruction Register):

It holds the instruction that is to be executed.
Any machine code instruction includes a part which contains an address this part called
the address part of an instruction, and another part which includes the Function.

It is in the control unit.

MDR (Memory Data Register) or MBR (Memory Buffer Register):

It acts like a buffer and holds data or instructions being transferred to and from the
memory, ready to be used by the processor or stored to the memory.

The MDR is the only route between the other registers and the main memory of the

It is in the processor.

Is a special storage register in the arithmetic unit where data is processed.

This involves arithmetic and logical operations.

It holds processing results before being transferred to memory data register and then to

Status Register:
Holds flags that indicate processor status at any time.

The index register:

Is a special purpose register used by programs to adjust the address part of an
instruction before the address is used.

It provide an efficient way of accessing a range of memory locations, such as in an array.

Use of Special Registers/Memory Addressing Techniques

The minimum number of registers needed to execute machine code instructions not
high-level language instructions.

The diagram does not show the control bus and the signals needed for instructions to be
correctly executed.

The operating system manages all other programs and applications (and hardware). On many
computers, when it is powered up, the first program that runs is stored on a ROM chip. This
program checks system hardware to make sure everything functions normally. The next thing to
check is the CPU, the internal memory and basic input-output system (bios) for errors. If all
proves to be acceptable, the bios activates the memory drives. When the drive is activated, the
operating system is found and is loaded.

The operating system is system software. It is a group of programs that manages the
computers resources. This includes the following functions:
Memory Management
o One of the main duties of an OS
o When you open an application the OS loads the necessary parts into memory
o The OS will load extra parts into memory as they are required
o If features havent been used in a while the OS will remove them from memory to
try to free up space
Peripheral management
o Manage the way software interacts with Hardware
o A device driver acts as a go between for other software to talk to the hardware
o Most device drivers are loaded into memory by the OS during booting but some
are connected with the peripheral is connected to the computer
o When you have finished with the application, the OS will remove it from memory
o Allows several processes to be resident in RAM at the same time. These
processes are in different states running, runnable or waiting.
o While a process is running, it has the attention of the CPU. Other processes
must wait.
o Operating Systems must protect processes from each other.
o Ensuring processes dont overwrite each other
o They also must protect users from each other
o Keeps track of who owns each process and each file
Providing a user interface
o Command Line
o Graphical User Interface (GUI)
o Voice Input
File Management
o A file directory is an index of the contents of a virtual container for files and sub-
directories maintained by the operating systems file manager
o In a GUI, a directory is displayed as a folder and the two terms are often used
o Facilities include: List, Move, Copy, Print

A buffer is an area of memory used to hold data temporarily to compensate for different rates of
processing data by the processor and a (slower) peripheral and allow the processor to perform
other tasks while waiting to receive or send data.

Handshaking involves sending electronic signals during transfer of data to control the flow of
data between the computer and a peripheral device (or over a network with another computer)
to prevent a delay in processing data at the receiving end resulting in lost data