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THEORY

GRAPHS

OBJECTIV

ES

After having gone over this chapter, you will be

able to:

**Define graph and represent the same in different
**

forms

Define and construct the special types of graph

**Find the degree of a vertex and the degree
**

sequence of a graph

Determine whether graphs are isomorphic or not

**Determine the adjacency and incidence matrix of
**

a graph

Define path

Define complete graphs

Define Digraphs

**Define and apply the operations on graphs
**

Graph Theory

the study of graphs which are mathematical

structures used to model pairwise relations

between objects.

Basic Concepts of a Graph

**A graph is a symbolic representation of a network and of its connectivity.
**

It implies an abstraction of the reality so it can be simplified as a set of linked

nodes.

** A graph G is a finite nonempty set of vertex v connected by
**

(possible empty) edges e. Thus G = (V, E).

**Vertex (Node) Edge (Link)
**

A node v is a terminal An edge e is a link

point or an intersection between two nodes.

point of a graph.

Order of a graph

Size of the graph

The number of

The number of edges

vertices in a graph.|V

in a graph.|E (G) |

(G) |

V(G)={v1,v2, v3, v4, v5}

Size = 5

E(G)= {(v1, v2), (v2, v5), (v5, v5), (v5, v4),(v5, v4)}

Order

G(V,E) = {{v1,=v52, v3, v4, v5}, {(v1, v2), (v2, v5), (v5, v5), (v5, v4), (v5,

v4)}}

Terminologies:

**a An edge joining a vertex to itself is [The degree of v1 is 1 so it is a
**

called a loop. [e3 is a loop ] pendant vertex]

b An isolated vertex is a vertex e A graph with only one vertex is

whose degree is 0. called trivial.

[The degree of v3 is 0 so it is an f A simple graph has no parallel

isolated vertex] edges or loops.

c Edges that have the same end g A multi-graph is graph with no

vertices are parallel. loops but with multiple edges.

[e4 and e5 are parallel ] h A pseudograph is a graph in

d A pendant vertex is a vertex which both loops and multiple

whose degree is 1. edges are permitted.

trivial

simple graph

multi-graph

pseudograph

Undirected graph

The edges of a graph are assumed

to be unordered pairs of nodes.

In an undirected graph, we write

edges using curly braces to

denote unordered pairs.

**Directed graph (Digraph)
**

In a directed graph, the two

directions are counted as being

distinct directed edges. In directed

graph, we write edges using

parentheses to denote ordered pairs.

**DEGREE OF VERTEX (Valence)
**

The neighborhood of a vertex v in a graph G is the set of vertices adjacent

to v. The neighborhood is denoted N(v).

The degree of a vertex is the total number of vertices adjacent to the

vertex. The degree of a vertex v is denoted deg(v)=|N(v)|.

deg(v1) = 2

N(v1) = {2,5}

deg(v2) = 3

deg(v3) = 2

deg(v4)= 3

deg(v5)= 3

deg(v6)= 1

N(v2) = {1,3,5}

N(v3) = {2,4}

N(v4) = {3,5,6}

N(v5) = {4,2,1}

N(v6) = {4} Size = 7

Order = 6

**Two vertices are called adjacent if they share a common edge, in which
**

case the common edge is said to join the two vertices.

Example:

**Nodes 4 and 6 are adjacent (as well as many other pairs of nodes)
**

Nodes 1 and 3 are not adjacent (as well as many other pairs of nodes)

Special Types of Graphs

1. Complete Graph

Denoted by Kn.

Simple graph that contains one edge between each pair of vertices.

Has n(n-1)/2 edges.

Example:

2 Cycle Graph

Denoted by Cn.

It is a graph that consists of a single cycle and each vertices are

connected in

a closed chain.

Characteristics:

a The number of vertices is equal to the number of edges.

b The degree of every vertex is 2.

c A cycle with an even number of vertices is called an even cycle and

cycle with an odd number of vertices is called an odd cycle.

d Cn ≥ 3

Example:

3 Star Graph

Known as N-star. Denoted by Sn

It is a tree star on n nodes with 1 node having a vertex degree n-1 and the

other

n- 1 having vertex degree 1.

Example:

4 Wheel Graph

Denoted by Wn

It is a graph with n vertices formed by connecting a single vertex to all

the

vertices of n-1 cycle.

Combination of star graph and cycle graph.

Example:

Regular Graph

** A Regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of
**

neighbors i.e; every vertex has the same degree or valence.

A Regular graph with vertices of degree r is called a r-regular.

R-regular graph

**The degree of each vertex is r, and it is regular if there exist a non-negative
**

integer r.

Example: order 6

0-degree

1-

degree

3-

degree

2-degree

4-degree

5-degree

DEGREE SEQUENCE

Degree Sequence is a sequence of deg(V1),deg(V2)…deg(Vp)of non-

negative

integers with deg(V1)≥deg(V2)≥…≥deg(Vp).Where deg(Vp) is the

minimum degree of G, deg(V1) is the maximum degree of G.

Degree sequence= 4,3,3,3,2,1

**Supposed given is a non-increasing sequence of p ≥ 1, non-negative
**

integers. If this sequence contains terms exceeding p-1, then it cannot be

graphical.

If the sequence does not contain term exceeding p-1, then the following

steps can be applied recursively to determine whether the given sequence is

graphical:

Step 1:

If all integers in the sequence are

Step 2:

0,

Reorder the numbers in the

then the sequence is graphical.

current sequence so that

If the sequence contains a negative

they

now form a non-increasing

integer then the sequence is

sequence.

not graphical.

Step 3:

Delete the first number n from

the sequence and subtract 1

from the next n numbers in

the sequence. Return to step 1.

Example:

S: 4, 4, 3, 3, 2, 2

S1:4, 3, 3, 2, 2

S1:3, 2, 2, 1, 2 Thus, it is graphical.

S1:3, 2, 2, 1

S2:1, 1, 1, 1

S3:0, 1

S3:1, 1, 0

S4:0, 0

ISOMORPHIC GRAPH

Graphs G1 ={V1, E1} and G2 ={V2, E2}are isomorphic if

**1. There is a bijection (one-to-one correspondence) f from V1 to V2 and
**

2. There is a bijection g from E1 to E2 that maps each edge (v, u) to (f (v),

f( u))

The function is called isomorphism.

Example:

V1 1 V4 2 (V1, V2) = (1,3) (V2, V3) = (3,4)

V2 3 V5 5 (V1, V5) = (1,5) (V4, V5) = (2,5)

V3 4 (V1, V4) = (1,2)

ADJACENCY MATRIX AND INCIDENCE MATRIX

**The adjacency matrix of a graph is the n × n matrix A = [ aij ] where
**

the nondigonal

entryaij is the number of edges joining i and vertex j and the diagonal

entry aij is twice the loops at vertex i.

The incidence matrix of G is a p × q matrix B = [ bij ], where p and q

are the numbers of vertices and edges respectively, such that [ bij ]=1

if the vertex viand edge xj are incident and 0 otherwise.

Examples:

Adjacency

matrix

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7

V1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

V2 0 0 0 3 1 0 0

V3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

V4 0 3 0 0 0 0 1

V5 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

V6 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

V7 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

A=

**Node 7 passing through node
**

3

Incidence

matrix e e e e e e

1 2 3 4 5 6

Node 3

V 1 1 1 0 0 0 passing

1

through

V 1 0 0 1 1 0

e6

2

V 0 1 0 1 0 1

3

B=

V 0 0 1 0 1 1

4

**Node 4 passing through
**

Paths

**A path in a graph is a sequence of vertices such that from each of its
**

vertices there is an edge to the next vertex in the sequence.

**A path may be infinite, but a finite path always has a first vertex, called its
**

start vertex, and a last vertex, called its end vertex. Both of them are called

terminal vertices of the path. The other vertices in the path are internal

vertices.

Simple path is a path with no repeated vertices.

Hamiltonian path is a simple path that includes every vertex of the graph.

Induced path is a path such that no graph edges connect two nonconsecutive path vertices.

P=(v2, e7, v5, e6, v4, e3, v3 )

is path from node 2 to node 3

Cycle

A cycle is a path such that the start vertex and end vertex are the same.

The choice of the start vertex in a cycle is arbitrary.

**Simple cycle is a cycle with no repeated vertices or edges aside from
**

the necessary repetition of the start and end vertex.

Hamiltonian cycle is a simple cycle that includes every vertex of the

graph.

Fundamental cycle is a cycle with just one edge removed in the

corresponding spanning tree of the original graph.

P = ( v2, e7, v5, e6, v4, e3, v3, e2, v2 )from the figure above is an example of

cycle.

Walk

A walk is a sequence v0,e1,v1, ...,vk of graph vertices vi and graph

edges ei such that for 1≤i≤k, the edge ei has endpoints vi-1 and vi.

The length of a walk is its number of edges. A u,v-walk is a walk with first

vertex u and last vertex v, where u and v are known as the endpoints.

Every u,v-walk contains a u,v-graph path.

**A walk in which no edge is repeated is a trail, such that the edges- e1,
**

e2, . . .ek of a

walk w are distinct. In this case, the length of w is just E(w).

A closed walk in a graph is a walk between a vertex and itself

A closed walk in which no edges repeated is a cicuit.

Walk:

uavfyfgyhwbv

Trail:

**Walk of length 4 between u Closed walk:
**

and w.

yeuavfy

1 ueyfvgyhw circuit

2 uavfydvbw yeuavgy cycle

3 uavgydxcw

4 ueygvfyhw

5 uavfydxcw yeuavbwcxdy

xdyeuavbwcx

Operations On Graphs

**The complement of the simple graph G = (V, E) is the simple graph Ǵ = (V,
**

É), where the edges in É are exactly the edges not in G.

Example:

The union of a

simple graph G1∪ G2= (V1∪ V2, E1∪ E2)

The intersection of a simple graph is G1∩ G2= (V1∩ V2, E1∩ E2)

**Example for the graphs
**

Connectivit

OBJECTIVES

After having gone over this chapter, you will be able to:

Define connected graphs

Define and represent vertex connectivity

**Define and represent edge connectivity
**

Define and represent block

**Determine the vertex connectivity and edge connectivity of a
**

graph.

**Connectivity is one of the basic concepts of graph
**

theory:

it asks for the minimum number of elements (nodes or

edges) which need to be removed to disconnect the

remaining

node from each other. It is closely related to the theory of

network flow problems. The connectivity of a graph is an

important measure of its robustness as a network.

Connected Graphs

A graph is called connected if given any two

vertices Pi,Pj there is a path from Pi to Pj .

G1 G2

G1 is called connected because every pair of distinct vertices in the graph is

connected, otherwise G2 is not a connected graph.

Terminologies

**Cut-Vertex Cut-edge
**

Cut-edge (or bridge) is a

A cut-vertex is a single

single edge whose removal

vertex whose removal

disconnects a graph.

disconnects a graph.

**Edge-cut Vertex-cut
**

Edge-cut in a graph is a set Vertex-cut in a graph G is

of edges such that G-D has a vertex set S such that

G-S is disconnected

more components than G.

Vertex Conectivity

The connectivity (or vertex connectivity) K(G) of a connected graph G is the

minimum number of vertices whose removal disconnects G.

When we remove a vertex, we must also remove the edges incident to it

When K(G) ≥ k, the graph is said to be k-connected

**A graph G is k-connected (or k-vertex connected) if G is connected and
**

K(G)≥ k. If G has non-adjacent vertices then G is k-connected if every vertex-

cut has at least k-vertices

Example:

The graph has a vertex connectivity of 1.

Deleted Deleted

vertex: 0 vertices: 1

Edge Conectivity

The edge-connectivity λ(G) of a connected graph G is the smallest number

of edges whose removal disconnects G. When λ(G) ≥ k, the graph G is said

to be k-edge-connected.

Example:

The graph has an edge connectivity of 1.

Block

**The above graph can be split up to two components by removing one of the
**

edges bc and bd.

A block is a connected graph which has no vertex-cut.

A block of a graph is a maximal subgraph with no cut vertices.

Example:

Characterization:

Block graphs are exactly the graphs for which, for every four vertices u, v,

x, and y, the largest two of the three distances d(u,v) + d(x,y),

d(u,x) + d(v,y), and d(u,y) + d(v,x) are always equal.

**They also have a forbidden graph characterization as the graphs that do
**

not have the diamond graph or a cycle of four or more vertices as an

induced subgraph; that is, they are the diamond-free chordal graphs. They

are also the Ptolemaic graphs (chordal distance-hereditary graphs) in

which every two nodes at distance two from each other are connected by a

unique shortest path, and the chordal graphs in which every two maximal

cliques have at most one vertex in common.

**A graph G is a block graph if and only if the intersection of every two
**

connected subsets of vertices of G is empty or connected. Therefore, the

connected subsets of vertices in a connected block graph form a convex

geometry, a property that is not true of any graphs that are not block

graphs. Because of this property, in a connected block graph, every set of

vertices has a unique minimal connected superset, its closure in the

convex geometry. The connected block graphs are exactly the graphs in

which there is a unique induced path connecting every pair of vertices.

**The Connector problem
**

The connector problem is to build a network connecting n nodes (towns,

computers, chips in a computer) which it is desirable to decrease the cost of

construction of the links to the minimum.

**In graph theoretical terms we wish to find an optimal spanning subgraph
**

of a weighted graph. Such an optimal subgraph is clearly a spanning tree,

for, otherwise a deletion of any nonbridge will reduce the total weight of the

subgraph.

Covering

CHAPTER circuit

3

and Graph

OBJECTIV

**After having gone over this chapter, you will be able
**

to:

Define and represent Eulerian graphs

Define and represent Hamiltonian graphs

**Define weighted graphs
**

Define and represent graph coloring

Eulerian Graph

**A closed walk in a graph G containing all “the edges” of G is called an Euler
**

line in G.

A graph containing an Euler line is called an Euler graph. Eulerian circuit

traverses

every edge in a graph exactly once, but may repeat vertices,

Examples:

Consider the road map given:

**A tourist wants to explore all the routes between numbers of cities. Can a
**

tour be found which traverses each route only once? Particularly, find a tour

which starts at A, goes along each road exactly once, and ends back at A.

**A B C D E F B G C E G F A Examples of such tour are:
**

A F G C D E G B C E F B A

**The tourist travels along each road (edges) just once but may visit a
**

particular city (vertex) several times.

Therefore, the given road map is an example of Eulerian graph.

Eulerian Digraphs

A digraph is Eulerian if there is a closed path covering all the edges. A

necessary condition is: the graph is connected and even (each vertex

has an equal number of ``in'' and ``out'' edges). This is in fact

sufficient.

Hamiltonian Graph

Hamiltonian circuit in a graph is a closed path that visits “every vertex” in

the graph exactly once but may repeat edges.. (Such a closed loop must be

a cycle.) A Hamiltonian circuit ends up at the vertex from where it started.

**Hamiltonian graphs are named after the nineteenth-century Irish
**

mathematician Sir

William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865). This type of problem is often referred

to as the

traveling salesman or postman problem.

**If a graph has a Hamiltonian circuit, then the graph is called a Hamiltonian
**

graph

Examples:

Hamiltonian circuit:

1e62e53e44e35e26e11

Hamiltonian circuits:

1e72e43e34e25e11

1e66e52e43e34e25e11

Weighted

Graph

A weighted graph associates a label (weight) with every edge in the graph. Weights are

usually real numbers. Such weights might represent, for example, costs, lengths

or capacities, etc. depending on the problem at hand.

Illustration:

Travelling Salesman

Problem

The travelling salesman problem (TSP) asks the following question: Given a list of cities and

the distances between each pair of cities, what is the shortest possible route that visits each city

exactly once and returns to the origin city? It is an NP-hard(Non-deterministic Polynomial-time

hard) problem in combinatorial optimization, important in operations research and theoretical

computer science.

TSP is a special case of the travelling purchaser problem.

**In the theory of computational complexity, the decision version of the TSP (where, given a
**

length L, the task is to decide whether the graph has any tour shorter than L) belongs to the class

of NP-complete problems. Thus, it is possible that the worst-case running time for any algorithm

for the TSP increases super polynomial (or perhaps exponentially) with the

number of cities.

**Graph coloring and Chromatic
**

number

Graph coloring is a special case of graph labeling; it is an assignment of

labels traditionally called "colors" to elements of a graph subject to certain

constraints.

**It is a way of coloring the vertices of a graph such that no two
**

adjacent vertices share the same color; this is called a vertex

coloring. Similarly, an edge coloring assigns a color to each edge

so that no two adjacent edges share the same color, and a face

coloring of a planar graph assigns a color to each face or region so

The chromatic number of a graph is the least number of colors required to

do a

coloring of a graph.

Example:

**A proper vertex coloring
**

of the Petersen graph with

3 colors, the minimum

number possible

Vertex Coloring

**A k-coloring of G is an assignment of k colors to the vertices of G in such a
**

way that adjacent vertices are assigned different colors. If G has a k-coloring,

then G is said to be

k-coloring, then G is said to be k-colorable.

Example:

Not a permissible

coloring since one of

the edge has color

blue to both nodes.

Edge Coloring

A k-edge-coloring of G is an assignment of k colors to the edges of G in such

a way that any two edges meeting at a common vertex are assigned

different colors,. If G has a k-edge coloring, then G is said to be k-edge

colorable.

Example:

**Not a permissible coloring
**

since two of the edge

colored blue meet at a

common node.

EXERCISES:

Trees

CHAPTER

4

OBJECTIV

**After having gone over this chapter, you will be able
**

to:

Define and represent trees.

Determine the shortest path of a graph.

**Determine the minimum spanning tree
**

Basic properties of a Tree

Trees

**A tree is an undirected graph in
**

which any two

vertices are connected by exactly

one simple

path. In other words,

any connected graph without

simple cycles is a tree.

**A tree is an undirected simple graph G that satisfies any of the following
**

equivalent conditions:

G is connected and has no cycles.

**G has no cycles, and a simple cycle is formed if any edge is added
**

to G.

**G is connected, but is not connected if any single edge is removed
**

from G.

**G is connected and the 3-vertex complete graph is not
**

a minor of G.

**Any two vertices in G can be connected by a unique simple path.
**

parent of a vertex is the vertex connected to

Terminologi it on the path to the root; every vertex except

es the root has a unique parent.

child of a vertex v is a vertex of which v is

leaf is a vertex of degree 1.

the parent.

internal vertex is a vertex of degree at least

2. labeled tree is a tree in which each vertex is

given a unique label. The vertices of a

irreducible tree is a tree in which there is

labeled tree on n vertices are typically given

no vertex of degree 2.

the labels 1, 2, …, n.

forest is an undirected graph, all of

whose connected components are trees; recursive tree is a labeled rooted tree where

hedge sometimes refers to an ordered the vertex labels respect the tree order (i.e.,

sequence of trees. if u < v for two

vertices u and v, then the label of u is

polytree or oriented tree is a directed graph

smaller than the label of v).

with at most one undirected path between

any two vertices. n-ary tree is a rooted tree for which each

directed tree is a directed graph which vertex has at most n children. 2-ary trees are

would be a tree if the directions on the edges sometimes called binary trees, while 3-ary

were ignored trees are sometimes called ternary trees.

rooted tree it is a rooted tree if one vertex

has been designated the root, in which case terminal vertex of a tree is a

the edges have a natural vertex of degree 1. In a rooted

orientation, towards or away from the root. tree, the leaves

normal tree it is a normal tree if the ends of are all terminal vertices;

every edge in G are comparable in this tree- additionally,

order whenever those ends are vertices of the root, if not a leaf itself, is a

the tree. Designated root is called a free terminal vertex if it has precisely

tree. one child

Example

**Search Trees and spanning
**

Tree

Search Tree

Also called as Binary Search Tree (BST)

It is a tree where each node has a left and right child. Either child, or both children, may be

missing.

Assuming k represents the value of a given node, and then a binary search tree also has the

following property: all children to the left of the node have values smaller than k, and all children

to the right of the node have values larger than k. The top of a tree is known as the root, and the

exposed nodes at the bottom are known as leaves.

**The root is node 20 and
**

the leaves are nodes 4,

16, 37, and 43. The

height of a tree is the

length of the longest

path from root to leaf.

For this example the

Insertion in BST

If we need to insert an element x, we first search for x. If x is present, there

is nothing to do. If x is not present, then our search procedure ends in a null

link. It is at this position of this null link that x will be included.

If we repeatedly insert a sorted sequence of values to form a BST, we obtain a completely

skewed BST. The height of such a tree is n - 1 if the tree has n nodes. Thus, the worst case

complexity of searching or inserting an element into a BST having n nodes is O(n).

Deletion in BST

Let x be a value to be deleted from the BST and let X denote the node containing the value x.

Deletion of an element in a BST again uses the BST property in a critical way. When we delete

the node X containing x, it would create a "void" that should be filled by a suitable existing node

of the BST. There are two possible candidate nodes that can fill this void, in a way that the BST

property is not violated: (1). Node containing highest valued element among all descendants of

left child of X. (2). Node containing the lowest valued element among all the descendants of the

right child of X. In case (1), the selected node will necessarily have a null right link which can be

conveniently used in patching up the tree. In case (2), the selected node will necessarily have a

null left link which can be used in patching up the tree.

Example:

**Delete 10 (delete a node w/ no left
**

subtree)

Delete 4 (delete

Spanning Tree

A spanning tree for a graph G is a sub-graph of G which is a tree that

includes every vertex of G.

**A spanning tree of a graph G is a “maximal” tree contained in the
**

graph G.

When you have a spanning tree T for a graph G, you cannot add

another edge of G to

Example:

**Delete 27 (delete a node w/ no right
**

subtree)

It has 16 spanning

trees

Shortest Path

The shortest path is the problem of finding a path between two vertices (or nodes) in

a graph such that the sum of the weights of its constituent edges is minimized.

**This is analogous to the problem of finding the shortest path between two intersections on a road
**

map: the graph's vertices correspond to intersections and the edges correspond to road segments,

each weighted by the length of its road segment.

**The shortest path problem can be defined for graphs whether undirected, directed, or mixed. It is
**

defined here for undirected graphs; for directed graphs the definition of path requires that

consecutive vertices be connected by an appropriate directed edge.

(A, C, E, D, F) is the

Shortest path between

vertices A and F in the

weighted directed

graph.

Minimal Spanning Tree

**Given a connected, undirected graph, a spanning tree of that graph is
**

a subgraph that is a tree and connects all the vertices together. A single

graph can have many different spanning trees. We can also assign

a weight to each edge, which is a number representing how unfavorable it is,

and use this to assign a weight to a spanning tree by computing the sum of

the weights of the edges in that spanning tree.

**Minimum Spanning Tree
**

A minimum spanning tree in a network is a spanning tree of the underlying graph which has the

smallest sum of weights amongst all spanning trees.

ADijkstra’s Algorithm

graph search algorithm that solves the single-source shortest path problem for a graph with

non-negative edge path costs, producing a shortest path tree. This algorithm is often used

in routing and as a subroutine in other graph algorithms.

For a given source vertex in the graph, the algorithm finds the path with lowest cost (i.e. the

shortest path) between that vertex and every other vertex.

Example:

Networks

OBJECTIV

**After having gone over this chapter, you will be able to:
**

Define cuts

Define flows

**Determine the maximum and minimum cut of a
**

graph.

Cuts and

Flows

Cuts

A cut C = (S,T) is a partition of V of a graph G = (V,E).

**s-t cut C = (S,T ) of a network N = (V,E) is a cut of N such that s ϵ S and t ϵ T, where
**

sand t are the source and the sink of N respectively.

The cut-set of a cut C = (S,T ) is the set {(u,v)∈E∣u∈T}.

**The size of a cut C = (S,T ) is the number of edges in the cut-set. If the edges are
**

weighted, the value (or weight) of the cut is the sum of the weights.

Minimum Cut

For a graph, a cut is minimum if the size of the cut is not larger than the size of any other cut.

Maximum Cut

For a graph, a maximum cut is a cut whose size is at least the size of any other cut. The problem

of finding a maximum cut in a graph is known as the max-cut problem. The problem can be

stated simply as follows.

Flows

**Flow network (also known as a transportation network) is a directed graph where each edge
**

has a capacity and each edge receives a flow. The amount of flow on an edge cannot exceed the

capacity of the edge.

**Often in Operations Research, a directed graph is called a network, the vertices are called nodes
**

and the edges are called arcs.

A flow must satisfy the restriction that the amount of flow into a node equals the amount of flow

out of it, except when it is a source, which has more outgoing flow, or sink, which has more

incoming flow. A network can be used to model traffic in a road system, fluids in pipes, currents

in an electrical circuit, or anything similar in which something travels through a network of

nodes.

**G(V,E) is a finite directed graph in which every edge (u,v) ∈E has a non-negative, real-valued
**

capacity c(u,v). If (u,v)∉E, we assume that c(u,v)=0. We distinguish two vertices: a source and

a sink t. A flow in a flow network is a real function f: V×V⇾ R with the following three

properties for all nodes u and v:

Capacity

f(u,v)≤c(u,v). The flow along an edge cannot exceed its capacity.

constraints:

**f(u,v)= -f(u,v). The net flow from u to v must be the opposite of the net flow
**

Skew symmetry:

from v to u.

Flow

∑ f (u , w )=0 , unless u=s or u=t. The net flow to a node is zero, except

w ∈V

conservation:

for the source, which "produces" flow, and the sink, which "consumes" flow.

**Notice that f(u,v) is the net flow from uto v. If the graph represents a physical network, and if
**

there is a real flow of, for example, 4 units from u to v, and a real flow of 3 units

from v to u, we have f(u,v)=1 and f(u,v)= -1.

**The residual capacity of an edge is cf(u,v)=c(u,v)-f(u,v) . This defines a residual network
**

denoted Gf (V,Ef) , giving the amount of available capacity. See that there can be a path from u

to v in the residual network, even though there is no path from u to v in the original network.

Since flows in opposite directions cancel out, decreasing the flow from v to u is the same as

increasing the flow from u to v.

**An augmenting path is a path (u1,u2…uk in the residual network, where u1=s, uk=t, and
**

cf(ui,ui+1). A network is at maximum flow if and only if there is no augmenting path in the

residual network.

**Should one need to model a network with more than one source, a super source is introduced
**

to the graph. This consists of a vertex connected to each of the sources with edges of infinite

capacity, so as to act as a global source. A similar construct for sinks is called a super sink.

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