Fieldand ParticlePictures
Thursday 16 JUNE 2005 Morning t hour 15 minutes

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Data,Formulae andRelationshipsBooklet

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. Answerall the questions.
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o Thenumberof marksis givenin brackets [ ] at the endof eachquestionor partquestion.
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Formulae and Relationship
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6x10-1sC 1 k= .2. the magnitude Calculate €=1.. N C-1 J C-l Wb s-l Wb m-2 Choosethe correctunitfor (a) electric fieldstrength . goldnucleus Fig.... Fig.........2 x 10-13mfromthe centreof the gold nucleus... fieldstrength l2l 2 by a goldnucleus. 2 Fol Examinefs Use Answerall thequestions.1 of theforceon the alphaparticlewhenit is at pointX. (a) Markwithan arrowthe direction t1l (b) At pointX...0x10eNm2C-2 4neo 2864/01 Jun05 .. =9.... A goldnucleusand an alphaparticlecontain79 and 2 protonsrespectively.2. SectionA Hereis a listof units.1showsthe pathfollowedby an alphaparticleas it is deflected G-... the alphaparticleis 1... (b) magnetic . of theforceon the alphaparticlewhenit is at pointX.

By measuring a suitablegradienton the graph of Fig. B Emission of a gammaphotonalwaysresultsin a lossof massfor a nucleus.1.showthatthe maximumemfacrossthecoilis about10V. +80 flux/pWb +60 +40 +20 0 _20 -40 -60 -80 Fig.1.3.1 (a) On Fig. Herearesomestatements A A stablenucleusalwayscontainsmoreneutronsthanprotons. t21 aboutparticlesin a nucleus. t1l (b) Thesecondary coilhas75 turnsof wire.3.1showshowthe flux in the secondarycoil of a transformervarieswith time. Whichone statementis correct? 2864/01Jun05 [Turnover . 3 For Examinefs Use 3 The graphof Fig. Thereis no needfor anycalculations. C A nucleuscanalwaysreducethe numberof neutronsby emittinga gammaphoton.sketchthevariation withtimeof the emfacrossthe secondary coil.3.3.

t2l 2864/01Jun05 . Show that the unitsof flux densitycan be N s C-1m-1. t2l 7 The force F on a wire of lengthI carryinga current1 at right anglesto a magneticfield of flux densityB is givenby the equation F = IlB. For Examinet"s Use 5 a goldnucleus.sketcheight linesto represent the nucleus.1. surrounding I2l 6 The electricpotentialV"r".5.5.1 the shapeand directionof the electricfield On Fig.1represents @ Fig.5.ot a point distancer from a positivechargeO is givenby the expression KQ Velec= r Explainthe meaningof the termelectricpotential. Fig.

chargeandenergy.1 t3l [SectionA Total:201 2864/01Jun05 [Turnover . Of the threequantitiesmass.t . by itself. Thecollisionreverses of thealphaparticle's thedirection velocity.chargeand energy. .1. An alphaparticlehasa head-oncollision witha goldnucleus.if increasedwould resultin moreparticlesbeingscattered outof the beamby morethan90"? answer .sketchhowthe kineticenergyof the alphaparticlevarieswithtimet. . is scattered All of the particlesin the beamhavethesamemass. fromwellbeforethecollision(f = 0) to wellafterit is over. . by nucleiin a thintarget. . 5 For Examiner's Use In a scattering a beamof particles experiment. .whichone.D \_/ On the axesof Fig. . alpha particle gold nucleus II I o .1.9. . kinetic energy time of closestapproach Fig. . . . I.9.

1the N and S poleson the fixed iron core requiredto makethe magnetisedcylinderrotateclockwise.pulsesof currentare alternately applied to the H andV coilswoundaroundthe ironcore.10. (i) Markon Fig. t1l 2864/01Jun05 . motorare shownin Fig.10.1. Computersare oftencooledby fansturnedby brushlessmotors. a pulseof currentis providedin the H coil. I1l (ii) Explainhowthe presenceof thesepolesmakesthe cylinderrotateclockwise.1. not rotating Fig. 6 For Exaninefs Use Section B 1 0 Thisquestionis abouta typeof electricmotor.10.Thissetsthe magnetised (a) lnitially.10. Detailsof a simplebrushless fixed iron core.1 To makethe cylinderrotatearoundthe fixedcore. startingfromthe positionshownin Fig. cylinder rotatingclockwise.

2 showshow the currentin the H coil changeswith time. t2l (ii) Suggest and explain one modificationto the motor which will result in a larger turningforceon the cylinder.10.10.sketchthe pulsesof currentin the V coilwhichwill keepthe magnetised cylinderrotating.2 On Fig.10. 7 For Examinefs Use (b) 1ickeep the cylinderrotating.2. t2l (d) (i) Suggestand explainone modification to the motorwhichwill makethe cylinder rotatefaster.10.2to explainwhy the maximumspeedof the cylinderwill be 25 rotationsper second. current/mA Fi9.a seriesof pulsesof currentare providedin both H and V coils. tzl [Total:1ti] 2864/01 Jun05 [Turn over . The graphof Fig. tzl (c) Use datafrom Fig.

andhenceidentifyit. 1 (a) Hafnium-178is created by bombardinga targetof tantalum-181 with highenergy by the This processis represented protonsfrom an accelerator.1 1 . l a b e l l e dM i n Fig. Fig. ln a recentexperiment.1 7 8n u c l e i c r e a t e d a r e i n t h e e x c i t e ds t a t e .4 8 groundstate F i g .0 ng of hafnium-178was createdin state M. (i) Calculatethe mass of a singlenucleusof hafnium-178.1 x 1g-10s-l. 1u=1.7x10-27kg 2864/01Jun05 .11. For 8 Examinet's Use the rapidreleaseof gammaphotonsfroma nucleus.11. Calculate 121 ( b ) S o m e o f t h e h a f n i u m . equation 1!lra+ + ll8rnt+x lp the massandchargenumbersof particleX. 11 Thisquestionis abouttriggering of hafnium-178.with a decayconstantot7.1showssomeof theenergylevelsfora nucleus energy/MeV 2'5o 2 .1.a sampleof 5.Nucleiin stateM decayvery slowly.

activity . Includethe unitof youranswer. c = 3 .. (i) Showthatthe energyof eachX-rayphotonis 0........... t3 l (c) The sampleof hafnium-178in stateM was exposedto a one secondpulseof X-ray photons of wavelength6. = .020MeV.. tizl [Total:14] 2864/01 Jun05 [Turnover . Explainhowthiscouldaccountforthe increasein activity.... TheenergylevelK is 0.........6x 1O-34J s €=1.. I For Exaninefs Use (ii) Showthatthe samplecontainedabout2 x 1016nucleiofhafnium-178.. activity..020MeVabovethe levelM.2x 10-11m.0x 1 0 8 ms-1 h = 6..6x10-1eC t3l (ii) TheX-rayphotonsareabsorbedby the sample..... l2l (iii) Absorptionof the X-rayphotonsby the sampleresultsin a largeincreasein Nucleiin the energylevelK havea largedecayconstant.... unit . Explainhowthisfactcouldaccountfor the absorptionof the X-rayphotons. t1l (iii) Calculate the activityof thesample.....

10 particles 1 2 Thisquestionis aboutaccelerating to highenergies. Use the relationshipErest= mcz lo showthat the energy27OGeYis about300 times the restenergyof the protons. By usingthe expressions and magneticforceon the protons.1.7 x 10-27kg e'= t'O x 1O-1eC c= 3. - Bq 2864/01Jun05 .2 (a) A particleacceleratorof this type at CERN acceleratesprotonsto a total energyof 27OGeV.as shownin Fig. in a ring-shaped areaccelerated Particles tube.12.1 Fig.Theseforce protonsmovingalongthe tubeto followa circularpath. (i) Low energyprotonsof mass m and chargeg moveat speed v throughthe for the centripetalforce magneticfieldof flux density8.0x 108ms-1 t3l (b) Fig.evacuated a>beamor Protons Fig. evacuated magnet \ tTt to tube I | .2showsthe magnetsaboveand belowthe evacuatedtube. ffin= the radiusr of the circularpath is givenby the expression mv r.

. the radiusrof the circularpathis givenby the expression In theseconditions. fluxdensity T [.whena protonand an antiproton collide. ( i ) Su g g e stw h y p ro to n sa nd antipr otonstr avelin oppositedir ectionsin th e evacuatedtube.. (ii) Completethe equationfor the decay of the Z parlicle....... cBq Calculatethe magneticfluxdensityrequiredto keep27QGeVprotonsin a circular pathof radius1.. (iii) The experiment Suggesthowthisis determined by theexperiment.a particlecalledthe Z is created. 11 For Examinels Use (ii) Protonswitha largetotalenergyE moveat almostthe speedof lightc.. evacuatedtube.1 e=1. lll Sometimes......showingnucleonand chargenumbers. 3z+ l2l showsthatthe Zparticlehasa restenergyof 93GeV... 2] travelin oppositedirectionsthroughthe protonsand antiprotons (c) In an experiment.4/01 Junos [Turnover .. c = 3 .6x10-1eC = .. tzl [Total:12] 286.. TheZ particleis unstableanddecaysquicklyintoa positronandan electron.8 x 103m. 0x 1 0 8 m s .......

l1l (ii) Explainwhy the intensityof gammaphotonsdecreases with increasing distance fromthesource.13. the riskto workersexposedto radioactive Disposablesurgicalinstrumentsare sterilisedby gammaphotonsfrom a sampleof cobalt-60.1.13. as shownin Fig. andare exposedto a highintensityof gammaphotons. Boxesthattheyloadontothe conveyor beltpassmuchcloserto thecobalt-60. standshere operator Fig. Showthat the intensityof gammaphotonsfor the operatorswouldbe about 2 x 1013 Bqm-2in theabsence of shielding. Explainwhy the beta particlescontribute very littleto the absorbeddose of the operator. cobalt-60 source view from above 10m . t1l 2864/01Jun05 .F conveyorbelt O.quicklyfollowedby (iii) A nucleusof cobalt-60 a pairof gammaphotons.1 (a) Operatorsare requiredto standon a spot that is 10 m from the cobalt-60source. tzl releasesa betaparticlewhenit decays. 12 For Examiner's Use 13 Thisquestionis aboutcalculating materials.4 x 10168q.The instruments in theirairtightplasticbagsare packedintoboxesand placed on the conveyorbelt.The intensity 1of gamma photons at a distancedfroma sourcewhichemitsphotonsat a rateA is givenby the expression J= 4nd2 (i) Thesourceemitsgammaphotonsat a rateof 2.

show that the operator absorbs about 1 x 10-4Jof energyin each eight hour workingday.2m thick wall of concrete is placedbetweenthem and the source.8 x 10-13J tzl (iii) The averagemass of an operatoris 75 kg.13. energyof photons= 1.0 x 10-2mthickness (i) The intensity of concrete thattheypassthrough. Show that the absorbeddose of the operatoris belowthe recommendedsafe limit of 4. cobalt-60source concrete conveyorbelt operatorstandshere Fig.13.a 1.2 m th i cknessof concr eter educesthe intensityof gam m a photonsfor the operatorto about2 x 104Bqrn-2. and the gamma photonshave a quality factorof 1.as shownin Fig.0 x 10{Sv per day. lf all of the photons are absorbed by an operator.2 of the photonsis halvedfor each4. Sh o wth a t th e 1 . 13 For Examinefs Use (b) ln orderto reducethe intensityof gammaphotonsfor the operators to a safelevel.80m2forabsorption an average photons. l2l 10] [Total: of Written Quality Communication [4] [SectionB Total:50] PAPER ENDOF OUESTION 2864/01 Jun05 .2. l2l presents (ii) Eachoperator of thegamma areaof 0.