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**

ANDRSAEXAMINATIONS

OXFORDCAMBRIDGE

AdvancedGCE

PHYSTCS B (ADVANCTNG PHYSICS) 2863101

RiseandFallof theClockwork

Universe

Tuesday 20 JANUARY2OO4 Morning t hour15 minutes

**Candidatesansweron the questionpaper.
**

Additional

materials:

Data,Formulaeand Relationships Booklet

Electronic

calculator

Candidate

CandidateName CentreNumber Number

rT-l-l-l

TIME t hour15 minutes

TO CANDIDATES

INSTRUCTIONS

a Writeyournamein the spaceabove.

o WriteyourCentrenumberandCandidate numberin the boxesabove.

o Answerall the questions.

o Writeyouranswersin the spacesprovidedon the questionpaper.

o Readeachquestioncarefullyand makesureyou knowwhatyou haveto do beforestartingyour

answer.

. Show clearlythe workingin all calculationsand give answersto only a justifiablenumberof

figures.

significant

INFORMATION FORCANDIDATES

o Youare advisedto spendabout20 minuteson SectionA and 55 minuteson SectionB.

o The numberof marksis givenin brackets[ ] at the endof eachquestionor partquestion.

o Thereare fourmarksfor the qualityof writtencommunicationin SectionB.

o The valuesof standardphysicalconstantsare given in the

Data,Formulae andRelationshipsBooklet. Anyadditionaldata

are givenin theappropriate

required question. FOREXAMINER'S USE

Sectlon Max. Mark

A 20

B 50

TOTAL 70

**This question paperconsists of 14 printed pages and2 blank pages.
**

sP (NF/KN)546071/6

@ocR 2004 [H/100/3709] CharityNumber:1066969

Registered [Turn over

21kg specificthermalcapacityof drink= 42OOJ kg-t 6-t of drink= 20"C.. of the drink assumingno energyis lost to the can or Calculatethe final temperature surroundings."C finaltemperature [3] 28901 Jano4 ..... massof drink= 0.. SectionA 1 Hereis a listof units. 2 For Examinefs Use Answerall the questions. l2l 2 A can of drinkingchocolatecontainsa chemicalheatingpackthat releases3...... J N Jkg-t Nkg-t Fromthe listwritedownthe correctunitfor (a) the energystoredin a stretched spring (b) centripetalforce... initialtemperature of drink= ...5x 104J of energyintothe drinkwhenactivated.

in voltsacrossthe capacitor.d. whereC is the capacitance l2l (b) Sketcha graphon the axesof Fig. energystored p.3.d. can be writtenas Showthatthisexpression E=|c v2 in farads.3.1 286901 Jano4 [Turn over .1 showinghowthe energystoredon a capacitor varieswiththe potentialdifferenceacrossthe capacitor. 3 3 for the energyEstoredon a capacitor (a) Hereis an expression E=lzeV whereQ is the magnitude of the chargein coulombson eachplateof the capacitor and V is the p.acrosscapacitor Fig.

025m3 underthese conditions.3Jmol-lK-1 I2l 2863V01 Jan04 . l2l S 4.0x 10sPaandat a temperature (a) Show that one mole of heliumoccupiesa volumeof about 0. For 4 Exaninefs Ufi 4 Readthe shortpassageand answerthe questionsbelow. that leadsphysicists (a) Statean observation l1I (b) Explainwhy the secondpieceof evidencesuggeststhat all the early Universewas at approximatelythe sametemperature. Most physicistsacceptthe Hot Big Bangmodelof the originof the Universe. molargasconstantR = 8.The heliumis at a pressureof of 300 K.0g of heliumcontainsone mole (6. to suggestthatspaceis expanding. 1.Twopiecesof evidencefor this model are (i) the expansionof space and (ii) the microwavebackground radiationthat is observedto be of almostequal intensityin alldirections.0x 1023atoms).

.... of the gas...020m3.6. 6... current= mA [2] [SectionA Total:20] 26901 Jano4 flurn over . the capacitordischarges currentis about1 mA..0v C = 4700ttF R = 5.. Whenthe switchis movedfromA to B...6. Pa [2] 6 is chargedto a potentialdifference In thecircuitin Fig. Calculatethe currentin the dischargecircuitafterthe switchhasbeenclosedfor a time equaltoRC....The temperatureof the gas is kept constant.. For 5 Examinefs Use (b) The gas is compressedto a volumeof 0..the capacitor of 6.1....1 throughthe resistor.6 kC) Fig..0V. of thedischarge (a) Showthatthe initialvalue tzt (b) The timeconstantRC of the dischargecircuitis about26s. the newpressure Calculate pr essur=e .

... rateof changeof depthE ..... In thissection........ (a) Usethe graphto find (i) the maximumdepthof thewaterin the harbour depth=..1 Fig..........7... Fq 6 Examiner's Use Section B for thequalityof writtencommunication.7.... amplitude m [1] (iii) the rateof changeof depthin metresper hour(m hr-l) at f = 6 hours wheref = timeaftermidnightin hours. m hr-1 [3] 2863/01 Jano4 .lt showsthevariation harbourwithtimeoverthe periodof one day(24 hours).Showyourworking... maximum m [1] (ii) the amplitude A of the tidalmotion of motion= .....fourmarksare available 7 Thevariationin depthof waterin a harbourcanbe modelledas a simpleharmonicoscillation....1showsa graphproduced of depthof waterin a fromthemodel... depthof water/m 0 hours timeaftermidnight/ Fig..

.. Showyourmethodclearly......... t2l [Total:12] 2863V01 Jan04 [Turnover . frequency tidesperhour [3] (c) A largeboatneedsat least7 m of waterto be ableto enterthe harbour.. d..10+Asin Use your answerto (a)(ii)and this equationto showthat the lowestdepthof wateris 5m...Usethe graph to estimatethe numberof hoursin the day (24 hours)that the boat couldsafelyenter the harbour..in the harbouris ( 2 n ft ) .... 7 (b) Usedatafromthe graphto calculate thefrequencyf of the tidalmotionin unitsof tides per hour. = .... l2l (d) Theequationfor thedepthof water4 in metres.

Whenejectiontakesplace..25s. the averageforceneededto givethischangeof momentum Calculate force= 286301 Jan04 .. Onetypeof ejectionsystemusesan explosionto accelerate Theseatwastestedin a planestandingon the runway(Fig. i J I'aximum i ladditional fi ssms-1li ___...25s...1a)......la Fig...the mass to a verticalvelocityol 55m s-1. I Thisquestionis aboutthe physicsof ejectionseats. Ejectionseatsare designedto fire an aircraftpilotout of the planeat highvelocity.8. the seatupwards. = ..lb The combinedmassof the seat and pilot is 280kg..__l]"'nn' .... accelerates (a) (i) Calculatethe changeof momentumof the seatand pilot.t ____& Fig...8. t3l in (i) takesplacein a timeof 0..8.. changeof momentuffl unit. (ii) Thechangeof momentum in 0..

.8...... lgnoreair resistance.. tzl (b) 0.... [ 3] suggests (c) The heightreachedafter the ejectionis less than this simplecalculation becauseof air resistance. For I Exaninefs Use (iii) Suggestand explainhow the body of the plane may moveverticallyduringthe ejection.... 9=9'8Nkg-r height= .1b). Calculate the maximumadditional heightreachedby the seatand pilotaftermaximum velocityis attained(seeFig. forceon the pilot. Explainhowthe particlesof air exerta decelerating t3I [Total:'13] 286401 Jan04 [Turnover .25s afterthe ejectionbeginsthe seat and pilothavea maximumverticalvelocityof 55m s-1.

the massof thewaterin theflaskdecreases by 5. Showthattheenergysuppliedto thewaterin thistimeis morethan 12kJ.9.1 (a) The 50W heaterkeepsthe waterat boilingpointfor250 seconds. 10 For Exanine/s Use Fig. Showthatabout1.7x'1023molecules escapefromthewater.1showsthe apparatusused in an experimentto investigatethe energyneededto evaporate water.9.0x 1023molecules. t1l (b) ln thistime. tzl 2863/01Jan04 . 18g of watercontains6.0g. 50W heater waterat 100"C vacuumflask electronic balance Fig.

5x1O-20J) requiredfor a moleculeto escapeinto a vapour. For 11 xaminer's Use (c) Show that the energyE neededfor a moleculeto escapeinto the vapouris about 7. = t1l escapeintothevapourat 373K. . l2l by (d) The averageenergyof a moleculeat absolutetemperaturef is givenapproximately averageenerg[= kT' to estimatethe averageenergyof watermoleculesat 373K. . .1. Usethisexpression k = 1. . J. .I .4t 1g-23'16-t k T =. . . (ii) Explainwhysomemolecules tzl [Total:9] 286901 Jan04 [Turnover . . .5 x 10-20J. l (e) (i) Calculatethe value of the ratio of the averageenergy of a moleculeat 373 K to the energy(7. .

2863/01 JanO4 . = R where M is the massof the body R is the distancefromthe centreof the body. massof Earth= 5.38x 106m radiusof Earthat the poles= 6.67x 10-11p n121g-2 gravitational I2l (ii) Showthat the magnitudeof the gravitational potentialat one of the polesis about 1.25x107Jkg-t. (iii) Explainwhygravitational potentialis alwaysnegative. The gravitational potentialVg.98x 1024kg radiusof Earthat the Equator= 6. 12 10 Thisquestionis aboutthe gravitational fieldandpotentialnearthe Earth. (a) (i) Show that the gravitationalpotential at the Earth's equator is about -6.36x 106m constantG = 6.003timesthe magnitudeat the equator."rdueto the massof an approximately sphericalbodyis given by the expression _GM vgr".

... gravitational fieldstrengthby The shapeof the Earthchangesthe magnitudeof the gravitational a factorof 1. varieswithdistanceB fromthe centre of the sphere... t1l fieldat the Earth'ssudaceis not quiteconstant..003...006butonlychangesthe magnitudeof the potential gravitational by a factorof 1.There (c) The strengthof the gravitational arelocalvariationsin tietOstrengthdueto concentrationsof densematerialbeneaththe surface. strength gravitationalfield unit..... Explainwhythesetwofactorsare different. t3l (ii) The gravitationalfield strengthat one of the poles is about 1...... tzl [Total:12] Qualityof WrittenCommunication'[4] [SectionB Total:50] 2863/01 Jan04 .The shapeof the Earthalsoaffectsthe fieldstrengthon the surface' fieldstrengthat one of the Earth'spoles.....006times the fieldstrengthat the equator.-. (i) Calculatethe gravitational . For 13 Examine/s Use (b) Statean equationwhichshowshow the gravitationalfieldstrengthI outsidea uniform sphereof massM .

16 OCRhasmadeeveryefforlto lracethecopyrightholdersof itemsusedin thisQuestionpaper.butit we haveinadvertently any.we apologise overtooked 2863Y01 Jan04 .

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