Passage 1

Four minutes! Studies tell us that is the crucial period in which impressions are formed by
someone we have just met. Within a mere ten seconds, that person will begin to make
judgments about our professionalism, social class, morals and intelligence. People tend to
focus on what they see (dress, eye contact, movement), on what they hear (how fast or slowly
we talk, our voice tone and volume), and on our actual words. Bungle a first encounter, and in
many cases the interviewer will mistakenly assume you have other negative traits. Worse, he
or she may not take the time to give you a second chance.

Most employers believe that those who look as if they care about themselves are more likely
to care about their jobs. Research shows that physically attractive people are generally
perceived by prospective employers as more intelligent, likable and credible. Your goal
should be to come across in the best possible light-attractive in the way you dress, in your
gestures and facial expressions and in your speech. Here is how to make those crucial four
minutes count.

Look your best. It signals success. Studies have linked clothing consciousness to higher self-
esteem and job satisfaction. Forget about personal style. At work, your clothes must convey
the message that you are competent, reliable and authoritative. Dress for the job you want,
not the job you have. If you are scheduled for an interview at a company you have never
visited and are not sure what to wear, send for a copy of its annual report and study what the
employees pictures as wearing, or drop by ahead of time to see how they dress.

Monitor your body language. How you move and your gesture will greatly influence an
interviewer's first impression of you. In a landmark study of communications, psychologist
Albert Mehrabian discovered that 7 percent of any message about our feelings and attitudes
comes from the words we use, 38 percent from our voice, and a startling 35 percent from our
facial expressions. In fact, when our facial expression or tone of voice conflicts with our
words, the listener will typically put more weight on the nonverbal message.

To make your first encounter a positive one, start with a firm handshake. If the interviewer
does not initiate the gesture, offer your hand first. Whenever you have a choice of seats,
select a chair beside his or her desk, as opposed to one cross from it. That way, there are no
barriers between the two of you and the effect is somewhat less confrontational. If you must
sit facing the desk, shift your chair slightly as you sit down, or angle your body in the chair so
you are not directly infront of your interviewer.

Monitor your body language to make sure you don't seem too desperate for the job, or too
eager to please. When a 26-year-old telemarketing specialist applied for a promotion, her
interview went so well she was offered the job on the spot. "I was ecstatic," she recalls. "But I
reacted to the offer with too much enthusiasm. Once the boss sensed how excited I was, he
knew I wasn't going to turn him down. Consequently, he offered me a lower salary than I had
hoped for. I am convinced I could have gotten more had I contained myself."

Say what you mean. Your goal is to exude confidence and be believed. Clinch that favourable
first impression by making your words consistent with your body language and appearance. If
they are not in sync, your misled messages are bound to confuse your interviewer. Open and
close your conversation on a positive note. When you leave, summarize why you are the best

Describe how one should dress when attending an interview. (a) What is meant by 'Bungle a first encounter' ? (b) What effect will it have ? From paragraph 2 : 2. From paragraph 1 : 1. (b) Why is it important for one who is attending an interview ? From paragraph 3 : 3. (a) Explain what is meant by the expression 'in the best possible light'.candidate for the job and thank the person for his interest. Give two examples of how one can make the first interview a positive one . From paragraph 4 : 4. (a) What is meant by 'body language' ? (b) Why is one's body language important when attending an interview ? From paragraph 5 : 5.


They have in fact aggravated problems with their indiscriminate throwing of garbage which caused drains to clog. We had all thought it was our dream-house when we moved in. it is hoped that the town council workers will keep the drains free of refuse regularly. We have been facing this nightmare every time there is a torrential downpour. We have been thinking about it a hundred times. Father was so furious that he decided to dispose of the house. there was no response to our advertisements to let out the house. with built- up silt and garbage around the floodgate. It has come to a point that every time there is rain. including an internal drainage system with a retention pond. until we had the first taste of a flash flood three months later. and seek the help of the authorities to solve the problem.000 on repair. These will allow excess run-off to flow into the river without overloading the existing drains of Taman Bahagia. Old tyres. Based on reports in the mass media. the committee has been piqued by the residents for their apathy. the whole of Taman Bahagia was inundated to about 1. Father's car was so badly damaged that he had to spend more than $3. Despite the effort to solve the flood woes. Boats are on stand-by to rescue flood victims. since we moved in two years ago. Luckily the water came up to only the car porch. This is not the first time that our house. anxiety runs high again among the residents with the anticipation of the adverse effects of the approaching La Nina. After a three-hour downpour. individuals have stocked up bricks in their houses to protect their refrigerators and other electrical appliances from possible damage by flood waters. but it shows how much the flood has affected us mentally. in fact. there were no takers for obvious reasons. The residents have been advised to stock up sufficient .000 on renovation and on some new furniture. Incidentally. eventually we all agreed that the only option was to stay put. even at a loss. has been flooded. Diversion channels will be built.000. Worse still. massive floods of greater intensity would deepen the nearby river without further delay. plastic bottles. We struggled to remove our belongings to the top floor. The Drainage and Irrigation department estate. The members hope for a dialogue with the local town council so that they can work together to avoid another major flood.m. However. it is easier said than done. What could have happened at this unearthly hour ? Could it be a break-in ? I realized that it was raining. except promises that the river nearby will be deepened. Father especially has been having recurring nightmares. Father has bought this house for nearly $100. It has been two years now. My alarm clock showed that it was only 3. In fact. An action committee had been set up in Taman Bahagia. we are all kept on tenterhooks. the flood situation may even be worse. "Why don't you shift out ?" a close friend once asked. negating its mitigating function. We became disillusioned when the second flood occurred just after we had spent two days cleaning up the mess caused by the flood. tins and other refuse that are thrown into the river eventually find their way to the floodgate. Suddenly it dawned on me that our house could be flooded. The latest incident occurred about two months ago. However.I was rudely awakened by screams and shouts. Meanwhile. and nothing concrete has been done yet by the authorities. the whole housing estate of Taman Bahagia. the floodgate has not been regularly manned and monitored. they will take turns to keep vigil.00 a. The action committee together with the residents' association formed recently ahs come out with their own line of action in the event La Nina causes the river to spill over. partly from his life savings and partly from a bank loan. The amount of mud and slime took us a whole back-breaking day to clear. The committee had met a number of times. To add insult to injury. How silly of me not to think of the flood.5 meters of water. insurance agents gave us the cold shoulder when we wanted to insure our house. He spent another 10.

anxiety runs high again' ? (b) Why do they have such anxiety ? From paragraph 4 : 4.' ? (b) Why did he regard himself as 'silly' ? From paragraph 2 : 2. (a) What did the writer mean when he said. (a) What danger is posed by build-up silt and garbage around the floodgate ? (b) Give two examples of the 'line of action' taken by the action committee in overcoming the effects of La Nina.. From paragraph 3 : 3. (a) What did the writer mean when he said that he was 'rudely awakened ... the long term plan of the committee is to have a permanent solution to the floods. Explain why the writer and his family could not shift out..essential food in the house. '. . From paragraph 1 : 1. Give one reason why the action committee has been piqued by the residents. From paragraph 4-5 : 5.

one who is always changing his mind will never get anything done. A friend in need is a friend indeed A friend who helps when one is in trouble is a real friend. . A burnt child dreads fire A bad experience or a horrifying incident may scar one's attitude or thinking for a lifetime. Discretion is the better part of valor If you say discretion is the better part of valor. Where there's a will there's a way When a person really wants to do something. A man is as old as he feels A person's age is immaterial .it is only when he thinks and feels that he is ageing that he actually becomes old. first served The first in line will be attended to first. A penny saved is a penny gained By being thrifty one will be able to save up. A hungry man is an angry man A person who does not get what he wants or needs is a frustrated person and will be easily provoked to rage. A rolling stone gathers no moss A person who never settles in one place or who often changes his job will not succeed in life . Great talkers are little doers Those people who talk a lot and are always teaching others usually do not do much work. he will find a way of doing it. First come. Empty vessels make the most noise Those people who have a little knowledge usually talk the most and make the greatest fuss. you mean that avoiding a dangerous or unpleasant situation is sometimes the most sensible thing to do. An idle brain is the devil's workshop One who has nothing to do will be tempted to do many mischievous acts.Between the devil and the deep sea To choose between two equally bad alternatives in a serious dilemma. Faint heart never won fair lady To succeed in life one must have the courage to pursue what he wants. An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit It is better to be careful and discrete than to be clever.

Better late than never To do something that is right. so you shall reap One will either enjoy or suffer the consequences of his earlier actions or inactions. Eat to live. Every dog has its day Everyone will get a period of success or satisfaction during his lifetime. an informal expression. Barking dogs seldom bite Those who make loud threats seldom carry them out.) A great talker is a great liar A smooth and persuasive talker may be a good liar. you mean that they speak frankly and directly. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush Something that one already has is better than going after something seemingly more worthwhile that one may not be able to get. Call a spade a spade If you say that someone calls a spade a spade.As you sow.he was not born just to enjoy food. but do not live to eat Man was created for a divine purpose and he has a destiny with his Creator . Every cloud has a silver lining If you say that every cloud has a silver lining. Don't put all your eggs in one basket One should not risk everything he has in a single venture. or good a little late is still better than not doing it at all. Charity begins at home A person's first obligation should be to help the member of his own family before he can begin thinking of talking about helping others. often about embarrassing or unpleasant subjects. All that glitters is not gold Do not be deceived by things or offers that appear to be attractive. If you talk about silver lining you are talking about something positive that comes out of a sad or unpleasant situation. Birds of a feather flock together People of the same sort of character or belief always go together. you mean that every sad or unpleasant situation has a positive side to it. . profitable. Dead men tell no lies ( often used as an argument for killing someone whose knowledge of a secret may cause one loss or get into serious trouble.

. Fair exchange is no robbery A contract is fair as long as both the parties understand and agree to the conditions willingly. after a deal is closed neither side can turn around and say that he was unfairly treated. Any time means no time When an event is not decided on or planned earlier it will never take place.Every one can find fault. like any other manmade tool or device. few can do better It is easier to find fault in other people's actions or methods than to do it properly or correctly. will serve man well only when it is controlled and used wisely. Fire is a good servant but a bad master Fire.