# Lecture 01

Explicit Dynamics Basics

16.2 Release

Workbench LS-DYNA
(ACT Extension) Training
© 2016 ANSYS, Inc. November 25, 2016 0

Fields of application for explicit FE-programs
STATIC ‘QUASI’ STATIC DYNAMIC

PUNCH

BLANK Blankholder

DIE

structural problems metal forming impact

SF=0 SF 0 S F = ma

IMPLICIT METHOD
EXPLICIT METHOD

© 2016 ANSYS, Inc. November 25, 2016 1

Why Use Explicit Dynamics?

“Implicit” and “Explicit” refer to two types of time integration
methods used to perform dynamic simulations
Explicit time integration is more accurate and efficient for
simulations involving
• Shock wave propagation
• Large deformations and strains
• Non-linear material behavior
• Complex contact
• Fragmentation
• Non-linear buckling

Typical applications
• Drop tests
• Impact and Penetration

© 2016 ANSYS, Inc. November 25, 2016 2

Why Use Explicit Dynamics?
Typical Values for Solid Impacts
VELOCITY LOW HIGH

Deformation Global Local

Response Time ms - s µs - ms

Strain <10% >50%

Strain Rate < 10 s -1 > 10000 s -1

Pressure < Yield Stress 10-100 x Yield Stress

© 2016 ANSYS, Inc. November 25, 2016 3

Inc. November 25. Why Use Explicit Dynamics: Applications Crashworthiness analysis • Full car crash • Car component analyses • Crash in ALL vehicle industries – Car – Truck – Bus – Train – Ship – Aircraft © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 4 .

Inc. Why Use Explicit Dynamics: Applications Manufacturing process simulation • Deep drawing • Hydro forming • Superplastic forming • Rolling • Extrusion • Stamping • Machining • Drilling © 2016 ANSYS. November 25. 2016 5 .

2016 6 . Inc. Why Use Explicit Dynamics: Applications Pipe whip (ANSYS News 3/93): • Impact of a pipe with a rotational velocity of 50 rad/sec • Extremely fast run time compared to implicit solution © 2016 ANSYS. November 25.

Inc. • 2500 solid elements. Why Use Explicit Dynamics: Applications Stress wave propagation. 2016 7 . November 25. © 2016 ANSYS.

November 25. Why Use Explicit Dynamics: Applications Bird-strike simulation • Simulate an impact from a moving bird to the blades of a rotator machinery Bus roll-over simulation © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 8 . Inc.

2016 9 . November 25. Inc. Theory © 2016 ANSYS.

10- November 25. Inc. 1 DOF system – equation of motion k p(t) M c equilibrium: fI  fD  fS  p(t) inertia force: f  M ü I u(t) – displacements damping force: f  Cu D inertia force fI elastic force: f  K u S elastic force fS external forces p(t) M damping force fD equation of motion : M  ü(t )  C  u (t )  K  u(t )  p(t ) equation of motion depends on time t  time discretization necessary!  2 possibilities: implicit or explicit time integration © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 10 .

g. implicit implicit time integration e. Comparison explicit vs. at the begin of the current time step) Mn  ün  Cn  u n  Kn  un  pn © 2016 ANSYS. November 25.e. Newmark-method  The equations of motion are evaluated at time tn+1 (i. Inc. central difference scheme  The equations of motion are evaluated at time tn (i.g. at the end of the current time step) Mn1  ün1  Cn1  u n1  Kn1  un1  pn1 explicit time integration e. 2016 11 .e.

t. and F(t) is the load vector. Basic Formulation – Implicit Dynamics • The basic equation of motion solved by an implicit transient dynamic analysis is mx  cx  kx  F (t ) where m is the mass matrix. k is the stiffness matrix. Inc. c is the damping matrix. November 25. 2016 12 . The time increment between successive time points is called the integration time step. © 2016 ANSYS. this equation can be thought of as a set of "static" equilibrium equations that also take into account inertia forces and damping forces. • At any given time. • The Newmark or HHT method is used to solve these equations at discrete time points.

November 25. Basic Formulation – Implicit Dynamics For linear problems: • Implicit time integration is unconditionally stable for certain integration parameters. so each time step may have many equilibrium iterations. • The time step will vary only to satisfy accuracy requirements. • The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear dynamic equivalent stiffness matrix. • Convergence tools are provided. • Small. but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. © 2016 ANSYS. iterative time steps may be required to achieve convergence. Inc. For nonlinear problems: • The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method). 2016 13 .

so conservation of mass is automatically satisfied. define the complete solution of the problem. together with a material model and a set of initial and boundary conditions. momentum and energy in Lagrange coordinates. The density at any time can be determined from the current volume of the zone and its initial mass:  0V0 m  V V © 2016 ANSYS. These. Inc. November 25. Basic Formulation – Explicit Dynamics • The basic equations solved by an Explicit Dynamic analysis express the conservation of mass. • For Lagrange formulations. the mesh moves and distorts with the material it models. 2016 14 .

Basic Formulation – Explicit Dynamics • The partial differential equations which express the conservation of momentum relate the acceleration to the stress tensor ij:  xx  xy  xz x  bx    x y z  yx  yy  yz y  b y    x y z   zy  zz z  bz  zx   x y z • Conservation of energy is expressed via: e  1   xx   yy  yy   zz  zz  2 xy  xy  2 yz  yz  2 zx zx   xx © 2016 ANSYS. Inc. 2016 15 . November 25.

these equations are solved explicitly for each element in the model. However. Basic Formulation – Explicit Dynamics • For each time step. mass. 2016 16 . momentum and energy should all be conserved. based on input values at the end of the previous time step • Only mass and momentum conservations are enforced. November 25. Inc. © 2016 ANSYS. in well posed explicit simulations.

November 25. • With the accelerations at time n . The semi-discrete equations of motion at time n are: Mx P  F H n n n n where M is the diagonal mass matrix. the velocities at time n + ½ at direction i (i = 1. Basic Formulation – Explicit Dynamics • The Explicit Dynamics solver uses a central difference time integration scheme. Fn is the stress divergence vector. n Pn are the external and body forces.2. 2016 17 . Inc. Hn is the hourglass resistance.3) are found from n 1 2 n 1 2  xi  xi t n n xi © 2016 ANSYS. x are the components of nodal acceleration.½ determined.

All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector © 2016 ANSYS. There is no requirement for iteration during time integration – No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled – No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required. Inc. November 25. Basic Formulation – Explicit Dynamics • Finally the positions are updated to time n+1 by integrating the velocities n 1 n 1 2  x i  xi t n1 2 n xi  • Advantages of using this method for time integration for nonlinear problems are: – The equations become uncoupled and can be solved directly (explicitly). 2016 18 .

Scheme of an explicit FE-program loop over all time steps © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 19 . Inc. November 25.

November 25. 550000 Degrees of Freedom Memory Requirement in MByte: Implicit Front-Solver 48 MB Explicit 36 MB Sparse 373 MB PCG 414 MB Disc Requirement in MByte: Implicit Front-Solver 9260 MB Explicit 0 MB Sparse 1930 MB PCG 1060 MB © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 20 . explicit time integration Required hardware resources Example: 90000 Shell-Elements = ca. implicit vs. Inc.

h is the characteristic dimension of an element and c is the local material sound speed in an element © 2016 ANSYS. the size of the time step used in Explicit time integration is limited by the CFL (Courant-Friedrichs- Levy[1]) condition. November 25. f is the stability time step factor. 2016 21 . Stability Time Step • To ensure stability and accuracy of the solution. • This condition implies that the time step be limited such that a disturbance (stress wave) cannot travel further than the smallest characteristic element dimension in the mesh. • Thus the time step criteria for solution stability is h t  f     c  min where Δt is the time increment. in a single time step. Inc.

"On the partial difference equations of mathematical physics". h. pp. is calculated as follows in LS-DYNA: Hexahedral The volume of the element divided by the area of the /Pentahedral largest side Tetrahedral The minimum distance of any element node to its opposing element face Quad Shell The area of the element divided by the maximum edge or diagonal length Tri Shell The area of the element divided by the maximum edge length Beam The length of the element [1] R. Inc. IBM Journal. Stability Time Step The element characteristic dimension. Lewy. 2016 22 . Courant. March 1967. Friedrichs and H. K. November 25. 215-234 © 2016 ANSYS.

November 25. Stability Time Step • The time steps used for explicit time integration will generally be much smaller than those used for implicit time integration – e.556 time steps • The minimum value of h/c for all elements h in a model is used to calculate the time step. for a mesh with a characteristic dimension of 1 mm and a material sound speed of 5000 m/s.g.18 µ-seconds. t  f     c  min This implies that the number of time steps required to solve the simulation is dictated by the smallest element in the model.1 seconds will require 555. 2016 23 . The resulting stability time step would be 0. Inc. h – Take care when generating meshes for Explicit Dynamics simulations to ensure that one or two very small elements do not control the time step © 2016 ANSYS. To solve this simulation to a termination time of 0.

Stability Time Step and Mass Scaling • The maximum time step that can be used in explicit time integration is inversely proportional to the sound speed of the material and therefore directionally proportional to the square root of the mass of material in an element l n . Inc.2. min E 1 1 m t specified  and c t    c  (1   2 ) c Cii VC ii  (t specified ) 2  E  n  l n  (1   2 ) 2 • where Cij is the material stiffness (i=1. and reduce the number of time increments required to complete a solution © 2016 ANSYS. November 25. ρ is the material density. 2016 24 .3). m is the material mass and V is the element volume • Artificially increasing the mass of an element can increase the maximum allowable stability time step.

2016 25 . this can be a useful mechanism for reducing the number of time steps required to complete an Explicit simulation • Mass scaling changes the inertial properties of the portions of the mesh to which scaling is applied. Stability Time Step and Mass Scaling • Mass scaling is applied only to those elements which have a stability time step less than a specified value. Inc. Be careful to ensuring that the model remains representative for the physical problem being solved © 2016 ANSYS. If a model contains relatively few small elements. November 25.

Start the simulation for at least one time step.74094E-03 .60030E-03 shell 100659 0.74094E-03 shell 106739 0. search for the “100 smallest timesteps” in file d3hsp: 100 smallest timesteps ---------------------- element timestep shell 107136 0. otherwise a small element may get heavy nodes. © 2016 ANSYS.Difference between smallest and largest time step size in this list  this is a criterion for nonuniform mesh  mesh may be improved (where are the smallest elements and why?) . November 25. Mass Scaling How to get a recommended mass scaling: .57161E-03 shell 107679 0.  may yield to unrealistic stresses and strains near small elements. although the total mass increase is important.73850E-03 shell 108365 0.57161E-03 shell 100631 0. Inc. shell 106479 0..60030E-03 .Added mass must not be to large.. 2016 26 .

MSSCL=2 is set) – recommended !! © 2016 ANSYS. d) Element based added mass as a Fringe plot inFcomp – Misc .time step size (only if *DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY. November 25.mass scaling (only if *DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY. Mass Scaling Different possibilities to check the added mass: a) total added mass over time for the whole model in ASCII file GLSTAT (Added Mass) b) Total percentage mass increase in mass for the whole model in ASCII file GLSTAT (% Mass Increase) – Attention: The existance of large rigid masses may reduce the percentage mass increase significantly! c) Added mass over time for each part in ASCII file MATSUM (Added Mass) – Attention: for Parts with many many elements this may not be very meaningfull. e) Nodal added mass as Fringe plot inFcomp – Misc . STSSZ=3 is set). Inc.mass scaling (only if *DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY. 2016 27 . MSSCL=1 is set) f) Nodal percentage mass increase as Finge plot in Fcomp – Misc .

2016 28 . Inc. November 25.e. an elastic wave travelling down a long slender rod). Under uniaxial stress conditions (i. additional components of stress lead to a more general expression for the longitudinal elastic wave speed K4 G cP  3  © 2016 ANSYS. • The primary elastic wave is the longitudinal wave. Elastic Waves • Different types of elastic waves can propagate in solids depending on how the motion of points in the solid material is related to the direction of propagation of the waves [Meyers]. the longitudinal wave speed is given by: E c0   • For the three-dimensional case.

2016 29 . ISBN 0- 471-58262-X © 2016 ANSYS. Inc. interfacial waves and bending (or flexural) waves in bars/plates [Meyers] Meyers M A. (1994) “Dynamic behaviour of Materials”. Elastic Waves • The secondary elastic wave is the distortional or shear wave and its speed can be calculated as G cS   • Other forms of elastic waves include surface (Rayleigh) waves. November 25. John Wiley & Sons.

the elastic portion of the wave travels at the primary longitudinal wave speed whilst the plastic wave front travels at a local velocity d c plastic  d  • For an elastic perfectly plastic material. • Under uniaxial strain conditions. it can be shown [Zukas] that the plastic wave travels at a slower velocity than the primary elastic wave. Plastic Waves • Plastic (inelastic) deformation takes place in a ductile metal when the stress in the material exceeds the elastic limit. Under dynamic loading conditions the resulting wave propagation can be decomposed into elastic and plastic regions [Meyer]. so an elastic precursor of low amplitude often precedes the stronger plastic wave K c plastic   © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 30 . November 25. Inc.

time step size depending on frequencies of interest . central difference scheme  The equations of motion are evaluated at time tn (i.equilibrium at time tn. Newmark-method  The equations of motion are evaluated at time tn+1 (i. 2016 31 . non-equilibrium at time tn+1 . convergence may be a problem .two step method. November 25. implicit implicit time integration e.e.equilibrium must be satisfied at time tn+1 . Comparison explicit vs.only conditional stable.g.one step method.iteration within time step.g.accelerations calculated to shift the system towards balance .e.few but large time steps . self starting explicit time integration e. not self starting © 2016 ANSYS.many but very small time steps .thus necessary to solve a large system of equations . Inc. at the begin of the current time step) • Characteristics: .CPU time per time step depends on equation solver . at the end of the current time step) Characteristics : .usually no problems with convergence .no large system of equations to solve . time step must be small enough  time step size depends on highest natural frequency .

characteristic element length . 2016 32 . Explicit versus Implicit Factors Influencing Numerical Costs Implicit Explicit • Model size (number of DOF) • Model size (number of DOF) • Size respectively grade of nonlinearity • Size of the critical time step • Number of time steps to simulate . November 25.sound of speed in the material (Young’s moduli & density) • Size of the physical time window to be simulated (termination time) © 2016 ANSYS. Inc.

In ANSYS WORKBENCH LS-DYNA. A reduced integration brick element has one integration point at its centroid. fully integrated brick elements have eight integration points and fully integrated shells have four in-plane integration points (with multiple points through the thickness). • Reduced integration saves CPU time by minimizing element processing. November 25. Therefore. 2016 33 . but still has multiple integration points through the thickness of the shell. A reduced integration shell has one in-plane integration point. © 2016 ANSYS. it is the default formulation most often used in ANSYS WORKBENCH LS-DYNA. • Fully integrated elements are typical in implicit ANSYS. Inc. Reduced Integration Formulation • A reduced integration element is an element which has a minimum number of integration points.

Inc. © 2016 ANSYS. November 25. 2016 34 . – The accuracy of stress results is directly related to the number of the integration points. • Two basic disadvantages of reduced integration elements are: – Deformations with zero energy modes are possible (Hourglassing). ANSYS LS-DYNA elements can undergo much greater deformations than standard ANSYS implicit elements. single point integration elements are also extremely robust in large deformation. … Reduced Integration Formulation • In addition to saving CPU time.

© 2016 ANSYS.. the results are suspect. 2016 35 . even an hourglass ratio of 5% can be considered excessive. Hourglassing modes result in stable mathematical states that are not physically possible. Determining the level of hourglass energy can be found from LS-DYNA ASCII output files GLSTAT and MATSUM.g. In some cases. November 25. Single-point (reduced) integration elements with linear displacement functions are prone to zero energy modes (hourglassing). – Use default unless additional documentation is consulted. – All under-integrated isoparametric elements (one Gauss point) have hourglassing present.pdf) – If the overall hourglass energy is more than 10% of the internal energy of a model. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag deformation appearance to a mesh. Inc. (e. see Review of Solid Element Formulations Erhart. Hourglassing • Hourglassing is a zero-energy mode of deformation that oscillates at a frequency much higher than the structure’s global response.

zero energy modes. Hourglass control brings additional stiffness or viscous damping to minimize these non-physical. November 25. … Hourglassing • Zero energy deformations for the one-point integrated solid element: • This mesh distortion produces no strain or volume change in the mesh. 2016 36 . Inc. © 2016 ANSYS.

if possible. which are known to excite hourglass modes. 2016 37 . Since one excited element transfers the mode to its neighbors. However. The higher order tet element is not subject to hourglass modes. point loads should not be applied. but a larger model corresponds to increased solution time and larger results files. robustness. a few fully integrated “seed” elements may be dispersed through the mesh to minimize hourglassing. Alternatively. but it is not as robust as the lower order tet . penalties in solution speed. © 2016 ANSYS. which do not experience hourglassing modes. November 25. … Hourglassing • Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS WORKBENCH LS-DYNA: – Avoid single point loads. – beams are not affected by hourglassing. Inc. depending on the application. – Use fully integrated elements. Try to apply loads over several elements as pressures. – Refining the mesh often reduces hourglass energy. and even accuracy may result.

metal forming and crash).g. Values above 0.15 have been found to over- stiffen the model’s response during large deformations and cause instabilities. © 2016 ANSYS. This can be done for the entire model by increasing the hourglassing coefficient in Hourglass Control defined in Analysis Settings: • Stiffness hourglass control is recommended for problems deforming with lower velocities (e. 2016 38 . … Hourglassing • Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS WORKBENCH LS-DYNA (continued) – Globally add elastic stiffness to reduce hourglass energy.. November 25. • Care should be used when increasing the hourglassing coefficient. Inc.

• LS-DYNA locally applies hourglass control on a Part ID basis (not on a material basis). 2016 39 . Inc. November 25. so any Part with the specified material will have this hourglass control. … Hourglassing • Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS WORKBENCH LS-DYNA (continued) – Locally reduce hourglassing in high risk areas of a model without dramatically changing the model’s global stiffness. The added Hourglass Control by Body is used to apply hourglass control only to a specific material. • LS-DYNA ID 5 is often used to reduce hourglassing. © 2016 ANSYS.

November 25. stiffness-based hourglass control causes overly stiff response even with a reduced hourglass coefficient. Control Hourglass Deformation • In order to avoid such hourglass instabilities. © 2016 ANSYS. 2016 40 . LS-DYNA ID=4.03 for metal and plastic parts. a set of corrective forces are added to the solution – The corrective forces are called as Hourglass Damping – Always recommended for reduced-integrated solid/shell elements • To specify Hourglass locally or Globally • Recommend stiffness hourglass control. with hourglass coefficient QM = 0. Inc. • Recommend viscosity-based hourglass control for foams and rubbers (LS-DYNA ID =2 or 3) or hourglass formulation 6 – In soft materials.

consider to – Refine the mesh in your model – Re-run the model in double precision © 2016 ANSYS. Control Hourglass Deformation • Always check hourglass energy from Material output (MATSUM) and Global data (GLSTAT) – The Hourglass Energy should be much less than the Internal Energy • If hourglass energy is very high. 2016 41 . November 25. Inc.

default settings) for solid elements (elastic) ihq=6. default settings) for solid elements (foam.0 (stiffness form) for solid elements (plastic) ihq=6. Hourglass control Recommendation for *HOURGLASS and. viscoelast.) ihq=7. 42- November 25. default settings) for solid elements (in general) ihq=5 (stiffness form. Inc. 2016 42 . honeycomb) ihq=3 (viscous form.001 (stiffness form) for solid elements (rubber.qm=1.01-0.7 is a special solid element formulation according to Belytschko-Bindemann Danger: Default ihq=1 it not orthogonal to rigid body rotation  do not use ! © 2016 ANSYS.qm=0. *CONTROL_HOURGLASS for shell elements ihq=4 (stiffness form.qm=1 (stiffness form) Note: ihq=6.

15  Type 1: standard (cheapest)  Type 2: Flanagan-Belytschko (default)  Type 3: Flanagan-Belytschko with exact volume integration (better for skewed elements) • 2 forms of stiffness HG control for solids  Hourglass coefficient should not exceed 0. 9. 0. 7. November 25.1. 10 (see next 2 slides)  Hourglass coefficient can range from 0.0 © 2016 ANSYS.03 is better  Type 4: Flanagan-Belytschko  Type 5: Flanagan-Belytschko with exact volume integration • Types 6. 2016 43 . Inc.1 to 1. Hourglass Control for Solid • 3 forms of viscous HG control for solids  Hourglass coefficient should be less than 0.

2016 44 . Inc. November 25. Why use Explicit? • No convergence problems in highly nonlinear problems • No equilibrium iteration needed • Material failure and erosion easy to model • High frequencies are naturally resolved because of small time steps • Implicit-explicit switching capability for efficiency • Suited to a wide range of complex nonlinear problems © 2016 ANSYS.

Inc. November 25. fragmentation. large nonlinearities) • Manufacturing simulations – (large deformations. blast wave-structure interaction) © 2016 ANSYS. Extend the Range of Structural Problems • Drop test simulations – (short time dynamic range. large nonlinearities) • High-speed Dynamic analyses – (failure. 2016 45 . high frequencies) • Problems including complex contact situations – (large geometrical nonlinearities) • Problems including sophisticated material damage and failure – (large nonlinearities. element erosion) • Load limit analyses – (large deformations.

November 25. 2016 46 . Inc. Workshop 1 – time step & Hourglass Goal: Understand effects of Time Step & Hourglass Walkthrough © 2016 ANSYS.