Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65

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Journal of Sound and Vibration
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi

Multi-cracks identification method for cantilever beam
structure with variable cross-sections based on measured
natural frequency changes
Kai Zhang a, Xiaojun Yan a,b,c,n
a
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
b
Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191, China
c
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, Beijing 100191, China

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: Cantilever beam's crack identification can provide critical information which is helpful to
Received 5 June 2015 determine whether the structure be healthy or not. Among all crack identification
Received in revised form methods, the methods based on measured structure's natural frequency changes own
24 August 2016
advantages of simplicity and easy for operation in practical engineering. To accurately
Accepted 20 September 2016
identify multi-cracks’ characteristics for cantilever beam structure with variable cross-
Handling Editor: I. Trendafilova
Available online 21 October 2016 sections, a mathematical model, which is based on the concept of modal strain energy, is
established in this investigation. And to obtain cantilever beam's natural frequency result
Keywords: with higher resolution, a signal processing method based on Hilbert-Huang Transform
Cantilever beam
(HHT) is also proposed, which can overcome the disadvantage of fast Fourier transform
Variable cross-sections
(FFT) in the aspect of frequency resolution and incapability of handling nonlinear vibra-
Multi-cracks identification
Frequency changes tion caused by crack breathing phenomenon. Based on above mathematical model and
Time-frequency analysis signal processing method, the method of identifying multi-cracks on cantilever beam with
variable cross-sections is presented. To verify the accuracy of this multi-cracks identifi-
cation method, experimental examples are conducted, and the results show that the
method proposed in this investigation can accurately identify the cracks’ characteristics,
including their locations and relative depths.
& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

For cantilever beam structures in practical engineering, existed cracks will lower their loading capacity, and may cause
fractures and further serious faults. Crack identification is considered to be an efficient way to avoid such faults. It can
provide critical information to help determining whether the structure should be maintained or replaced. For crack iden-
tification, the vibration based method is usually adopted because of its advantage of identifying crack with no requirement
to access to regions near the crack location, and consuming less time and cost [1]. Since the structure to be tested does not
need to be disassembled from the whole system in most of the cases, the vibration based crack identification is very suitable
for on-line monitoring [1–4]. For example, Xingwu Zhang et al. [5] presented a method based on the measured natural
frequencies to identify one crack on a beam. M. El-Gebeilya and Y.A. Khulief [6] used the measured vibration signal and

n
Corresponding author at: School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.
E-mail addresses: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn, buaa405@sina.com (X. Yan).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2016.09.028
0022-460X/& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

to obtain cantilever beam's natural frequency result with higher resolution. this mathematical model can be easy derived from its vi- bration equation [11–13].54 K..17]. by substituting the measured natural frequency changes into the mathematical model.24].15]. X. and presented a method to identify gear's crack by ana- lyzing the measured vibration signal. which describes the relationship of cracks’ characteristics and cantilever beam's vibration related parameters. its variable cross-sectional area and moment inertia make it difficult to establish such mathematical model based on its vibration equation. following issues should be considered. After above mentioned mathematical model is established. In general. . For easy of on-line monitoring application. Principle of multi-cracks identification To identify multi-cracks on variable cross-section cantilever beam based on the measured natural frequency changes. The method can decompose cantilever beam's vibration signal into several signal components. Another important factor that should be considered when establishing the model for multi- cracks identification is that different combinations of existing multi-cracks may cause same changes of vibration related parameter [14. So usually more than one vibration related parameters are adopted for identifying multi-cracks [8. since HHT has capability of processing nonlinear vibration signal [23.9]. cantilever beam's natural fre- quency changes are required to be accurately measured. such as dynamic response. including their location and depth etc. experimental verifications are also conducted in this investigation. Firstly. a mathematical model which describes relationship between cantilever beam's natural frequency changes and cracks’ characteristics is established. However. Thus. By introducing the concept of modal strain energy. But for variable cross-section cantilever beam. the primary work for vibration based crack identification is to establish a mathematical model. the cantilever beam's accurate result of natural frequency is obtained. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 wavelet transform to identify crack on the inner surface of pipe. 1. another key issue for identify variable cross-section canti- lever beam's multi-cracks is how to measure its natural frequency changes. a more complex measuring system is usually adopted in present researches [16. And secondly. 2. which is a linear differential equation with constant coefficient. structure's natural frequency can be obtained by processing its vibration signal [20]. the relationship between variable cross-section cantilever beam's natural frequency and its modal strain energy is derived. just by taking natural frequency changes as measuring parameters. Experimental results show that the method presented in this investigation can accurately identify multi- cracks of cantilever beam with variable cross-sections. the nonlinear vibration caused by crack breathing phenomenon [21] makes this single processing be difficult [22]. and to obtain these parameters. then a mathematical model describing variable cross-section cantilever beam cracks’ characteristics and natural frequency changes is established. the characteristics of cantilever beam's cracks can be obtained. For uniform cross-section cantilever beam. Zhang. A cantilever beam's model. which have different frequency band and are respectively related to cantilever beam's natural frequencies in different vibration modes. Zhixiong Li et al. this investigation proposes a signal processing method based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). [7] measured the vibration of complex gear transmission systems in wind turbines by multi-channel sensors. To accurately identify the existed cracks’ characteristics. Fig. modal shape or natural frequencies [8–10]. this investigation only takes natural frequency as a measuring parameter. And applying HHT on those decomposed signal components. which is in- dependent of selection of measuring point and can be obtained by one measuring point [18.19]. To verify the correctness of the multi-cracks identification method. Thirdly.

i = 2 ∫0 (3) Considering the expression of cantilever beam's natural frequency in Eq. And the relationship of cantilever beam's modal parameter and crack's characteristics will be further discussed by introducing the concept of modal strain energy. The product of E and J(x) reflects the cantilever beam's stiffness at the location of x.i(x) to be ωc. A(x) and J(x) denote the cross-sectional area and moment of inertia at the location x.i in the ith vibration mode is expressed as Eq.2. Zhang. as expressed in Eq. its modal strain energy Wh. i = 2 (4) 2. i ( x) ⎤⎦ dx 2 Wh. ρ and E respectively denote the cantilever beam's length.1. the ith natural frequency of cantilever beam ωi can be expressed as Eq. As a result. 1 l EJ ( x) ⎡⎣ Yh″. (1) and (2).231 ⎜ c ⎟ + 10.710 ⎜ c ⎟ + 30. It has natural frequency ωi and modal shape function Yi(x) in the ith vibration mode. (6). It will affect cantilever beam's stiffness near the crack area. as expressed in Eq.i and the released strain energy δWi yielded by crack surface. (8) [28–30]. Ω is the area of crack surface. as shown in Eq.1.550 ⎜ c ⎟ − 21. (3) [26]. i Wh. (6). i = Wh. For an edge cracked beam shown in Fig. μ is the Poisson's ratio of cantilever beam material.i(x) (Note that. the ith natural frequency and modal shape function change from ωh. According to the cantilever beam's vibration equation [26]. (2). i Wc. The crack existing in a cantilever beam is usually described as its location lc. (1). 2σ m y σ ( y) = h (9) where sm is the nominal stress at the top layer. (7). 2. 1. (4). ωh2. its modal strain energy Wc. It is expressed as Eq. l. ( 1 − μ2) KI2 dΩ δWi = ∫Ω GdA = ∫Ω E (6) In Eq. (9). 1. since the parameter ρ and A(x) is constant. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 55 2. i − δWi = ´ 2 (5) where δWi can be calculated by referring to strain energy release rate G defined by Griffith [27]. (7). Natural frequency of cracked structure For a cracked cantilever beam as shown in Fig. (7) denotes the nominal stress at different layers of cracked location. and KI denote the stress intensity factor.i and Yc. X. 1. For a healthy cantilever beam.1. but not change mass. ⎛d ⎞ ⎛d ⎞ ⎛ d ⎞2 ⎛ d ⎞3 ⎛ d ⎞4 F ⎜ c ⎟ = 1. K. the term F(dc/bc) is a geometrical factor depending on relative crack depth dc/bc.382 ⎜ c ⎟ ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎝ bc ⎠ (8) And s(y) in Eq. the subscript h and c respectively stand for “healthy” and “cracked” structure). Since modal shape function Yi(x) is usually normalized by mass.i can be considered as the difference value between healthy cantilever beam's modal strain energy Wh.122 − 0. ω2c. It is expressed as Eq. (5). as shown in Fig. (2) [25]. the value of KI is expressed as Eq. ⎛d ⎞ KI = πd c F ⎜ c ⎟ σ ( y ) ⎝ bc ⎠ (7) In Eq. sm can be . the relationship of cantilever beam's natural frequency and modal strain energy can be expressed as Eq. l ρA ( x) ⎡⎣ Yi ( x) ⎤⎦ dx = 1 2 ∫0 (1) l ωi2 = ∫0 EJ ( x) ⎡⎣ Y ″i ( x) ⎦ dx ⎤2 (2) In Eqs. density and Young's modulus. 2.i and Yh.1. Natural frequency of healthy structure The structure's modal strain energy can be used to indicate the relationship of structure's strain energy and modal shape. Mathematical model describing relationship between cantilever beam's natural frequency change and crack characteristics Sketch of a typical cantilever beam structure with variable cross-section is shown in Fig. in the status of free vibration. depth dc and width wc [11].

1. i j = 1 ⎝ bc( j) ⎠ j ( ) (17) . as shown in Eq. as expressed in Eq. the released strain energy δWi can be written as Eq. Thus. i ⎝ bc ⎠ 2 (13) where function f is related to relative crack depth dc/bc and function Si is related to crack's location lc. 2. (16): η = π ( 1 − μ2 ) (14) ⎛ d ⎞ ⎡ d ⎛ d ⎞ ⎤2 f ⎜ c ⎟ = ⎢ c ⋅F ⎜ c ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎣ bc ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎦ (15) Si ( lc ) = bc ⋅EJ ( lc )⋅⎡⎣ Yi″ ( lc ) ⎤⎦ 2 (16) If a cantilever beam has more than one crack. (17): m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ η d ri = 2 ⋅ ∑ f ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ Si lc( ) ωh. (14) to Eq. f and Si are respectively expressed as Eq. π ⎡ d ⎛ d ⎞ ⎤2 1 − μ2 )⋅⎢ c ⋅F ⎜ c ⎟ ⎥ ⋅bc EJ ( lc ) ⎡⎣ Yi″ ( lc ) ⎤⎦ 2 δWi = 2 ( ⎣ bc ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎦ (11) 2. Zhang. the natural frequency change ratio in the ith vibration mode can be expressed as Eq. and two functions f(dc/bc) and Si(lc). i ωh. (10). η. (13).3. X. i (12) While it also can be written as a product of a constant η/ωh2. Cracked beam and its stress intensity s and stress intensity factor KI. expressed by modal shape function Yi(x). its total released modal strain energy is considered to be the summation of the released modal strain energy caused by every signal crack [31]. Δωi ωh. (11). (13). Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 Fig. i ωh. π (1 − μ2 ⎤2 ) ⋅⎡⎢ dc ⋅F ⎛⎜ dc ⎞⎟ ⎥ ⋅b EJ ri = ⎣ bc ⎝ bc ⎠ ⎦ c ( lc ) ⎡⎣ Yi″ ( lc ) ⎤⎦2 ωh2. i . the change ratio of the ith natural frequency ri and released strain energy δWi has following relationship. i − ωc. i 2⋅δWi ri = = = ωh. In Eq. i η ⎛d ⎞ = ⋅f ⎜ c ⎟⋅Si ( lc ) ωh. Relationship between natural frequency changes and crack's characteristics According to the expression of healthy and cracked cantilever beam's natural frequency. Eh ″ σm = Yi ( lc ) 2 (10) Thus.56 K.

To solve this set of nonlinear equation. and processing this signal by spectral analysis [11]. 3. the original vibration signal is decomposed into several signal components by utilizing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) [32]. 2.1. an equation set with 2m equations and 2m unknown parameters is formed. all of the 2m unknown parameters are worked out. as expressed in Eq. The existence of cracks is detected by comparing the measured natural frequencies of the cantilever beam in working status and initial healthy status. and make it vibrate with its natural frequencies. X.2. the natural frequencies of the cantilever beam can be obtained.3. First. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 57 Fig. . 3. After the existence of cracks is detected. (19). And solving this equation set. ⎧ m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ ⎪ r = η ⋅ ∑ f ⎜ d c ⎟ S l ( j) ⎪ 1 2 ( ) ωh. The vibration signal excited by hammer test has several major signal components. K. And. which means that all of the m cracks’ location lc and relative depth dc/bc are identified. which are respectively related to cantilever beam's natural frequencies. (17). Eq. Its resolution of frequency analysis is limited by original vibration signal's sampling frequency and signal size. For purpose of obtaining accuracy result of cantilever beam's natural frequencies. And the average value of each signal components’ transient frequency is considered to be the can- tilever beam's natural frequency in different vibration modes. In reverse. cantilever beam's natural frequency can be measured by hammer test. (18) is a nonlinear equation set. which is expressed as Eq. A hammer applies a pulsed excitation to cantilever beam. Zhang. Then. For m cracks on cantilever beam. measuring the vibration signal in time domain by a sensor. cantilever beam's crack identification requires natural frequency results with higher resolution. While each signal component's frequency is supposed to be equal to cantilever beam's natural frequency in different modes. because one crack is described by two characteristics: crack location lc and relative crack depth dc/bc. Traditional method of spectral analysis is FFT [20]. The next issue for identifying cantilever beam's crack is to measure cantilever beam's natural frequencies respectively in healthy status and cracked status. first. Usually. by utilizing HHT [34]. If these two sets of measured natural frequencies are equal. Though it has good performance of analyzing linear vibration's frequency characteristic. to make the decomposed signal components have purer frequency spectrum. Hammer test method for natural frequency measurement. the difference between these two sets of natural frequencies indicates that can- tilever beam has cracks. a vector x is defined. 2 m characteristics are needed to be determined.1 j = 1 ⎜⎝ bc( j) ⎟⎠ 1 c ⎪ ⎪ m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ ⎪ r = η ⋅ ∑ f ⎜ d c ⎟ S l ( j) ⎨ 2 ωh2. Detection and identification of multi-cracks on a cantilever beam According to the discussion in Section 2. that means the beam in the working status is still healthy. However.1.36] is applied in this investigation. the vibration of cracked cantilever beam is usually nonlinear because of crack's breathing phenomenon [21]. the signal components’ transient frequency varying with time is obtained. Then. identifying multi-cracks in a cantilever beam with variable cross-sections claims to detect the existence of cracks. band pass filters [33] are applied on each signal components. identify the cracks’ location and relative depth.2m j = 1 ⎝ b ⎠ c ( j) ( ) r2m = 2 ⋅ ∑ f ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ S2m lc( ) j (18) It should be pointed out that. By substituting the measured natural frequency change ratios in 2m vibration modes into the mathematical model established in Section 2. 2. At last. cracks’ characteristics are supposed to be identified.2 j = 1 ⎝ bc ⎠ ( ) ⎜ ( j) ⎟ 2 c ⎪ ⎪ ⋮ ⎪ m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ ⎪ η d ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ω h. so FFT is no longer feasible to process nonlinear vibration signal [22]. Measurement of cantilever beam's natural frequency After obtaining the mathematical model of Eq. (18). and further obtain the natural frequency change ratio. as shown in Fig. the Newton iteration method [35.

(14) to Eq. In this step.2m j = 1 ⎝ b ⎠ ( j) j c ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (20) Thus. ( k ) ∑i = 1 x2( i − 1 ) − x2( i −) 1 + m k+1 1 l m ( ) − x( ) ) ∑i = 1 x2( i k+1 k 2i <ε m ∑i = 1 (x ) + (k) 2i − 1 1 l m ∑i = 1 ( x( ) ) k 2i (22) where ε is a convergence factor. Among all these m’ identified cracks. and its natural frequency change ratios are measured in 2 m’ (m’ 4m) vibration modes. which describes natural frequency change ratio and cracks’ characteristics. Zhang.. While the false cracks’ relative depth are identified to approach to zero. the procedures of crack identification can be summarized as shown in Fig. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 ⎧ ⎪ d( ) 1 ( 2) ( m) ⎫ x=⎨ c l ( 1) dc l ( 2) . (18). the number of measured natural frequencies in different vibration modes should be no less than twice of cracks’ number. as shown in Eq. (21). 3. The second step is detection of cracks. The actual cracks’ relative depths are significantly greater than zero and smaller than one. The actual cracks’ relative depth is identified to be significantly greater than zero and smaller than one. as a form of equation set Eq. the detailed characteristics of cracks on cantilever beam can be obtained.58 K. the measured cantilever beam's natural frequencies in healthy status and working status are compared. (20). the cantilever beam's natural frequencies in 2m’ vi- bration modes are respectively measured in the initial healthy status and working status by utilizing hammer test and spectral analysis method proposed in previous. X. (18) as Eq. can be expressed as Eq. 1]. The third step is establishment of a mathematical model. ⎧ m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ ⎫ ⎪ r − η ⋅ ∑ f ⎜ d c ⎟ S l ( j) ⎪ ⎪ 1 ωh2. which is used to solve Eq.. But in fact. (22). Procedures of multi-cracks identification According to the principle of multi-cracks identification in Section 2. . and two functions f(dc/bc) and Si(lc) in the mathematical model are respectively calculated. In this step. The final step is to locate and evaluate the cracks. And the mathematical model is further established. while the false cracks’ relative depth is identified to approach to zero. If a cantilever beam has m cracks. and utilizing Newton iteration method. it usually can be guaranteed that the number of measured natural frequencies is more than twice of number of cracks.1 j = 1 ⎜⎝ bc( j) ⎟⎠ 1 c ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎪ m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ ⎪ ⎧ 0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ F2 ⎪⎪ ⎪ r2 − η ⋅ ∑ f ⎜ dc ⎟ S2 lc( j) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F=⎨ ⎬=⎨ ωh. (18). Iteratively calculating Eq. all of the 2m’ natural frequency change ratios should be substituted into Eq.2 j = 1 ⎜⎝ bc( j) ⎟⎠ 2 ( ) ⎬ = ⎨ 0⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⋮ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⋮ ⎪ ⎩ F2m ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⋮ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎪⎭ ⎪ m ⎛ ( j) ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ η d ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ r2m − 2 ⋅ ∑ f ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ S2m lc( ) ω h. there are m actual cracks and m’-m false cracks. In this step. and there will be m’ identified cracks. dc l ( m) ⎪ ⎬ c c ( m) c ⎪ ( ⎩ bc 1) ( bc 2) bc ⎪ ⎭ (19) And rewriting Eq. According to above analysis of cracks identification. So the natural frequencies in different vibration modes are needed to be measured as more as possible in this investigation. (18). (21) until the vector x(k) and x(k þ 1) satisfies Eq. the iterative equations. the convergence criterion is defined as Eq. m’ cracks are identified (including m actual cracks and m’-m false cracks). to identify all cracks’ characteristics. and lc is greater than 0 and smaller than the whole length of cantilever beam l. (16). And the existence of cracks is detected based on the difference of these two sets of natural frequencies. −1 ( ) F ( x ( )) x ( k + 1) = x ( k) − F′ x ( k) k (21) Considering the value of dc/bc belongs to a range [0. And because practical cantilever beam only has a few cracks. the number of actual cracks is unknown before the identification. according to the cantilever beam's detailed geometry and material attributes. In this step. (22). which should be chosen as a much small number. The first step is measurement of natural frequencies. The natural frequency change ratios in 2m’ vibration modes are further calculated. 4. (18). the constant η. the measured natural frequency change ratios in 2m’ vibration modes are substituted into Eq.

8 mm Width in the fixed end b1 12 mm Width in the tip end b2 22 mm Mass density ρ 8900 kg/m3 Young's modulus E 97  109 N/m2 Poisson's ratio μ 0. These two cantilever beam have the same geometric parameters and material attributes. the following steps are needed for cracks identification: (1) measurement of natural frequencies. According to the summarized procedure of the multi-cracks identification method presented in previous. (4) localization and evaluation of cracks. as listed in Table 1. Description Symbol Value Length l 130 mm Thickness h 1. The second beam has two cracks: one locates at lc/l¼ 3%. different cases of cracks are machined in these cantilever beams. At last. 5. the cracked cantilever beams’ natural frequencies are further measured. (3) establishment of mathematical model describing natural frequency change ratios and crack's information. as shown in Fig. its relative location is lc/l ¼32%. In this example. and has relative depth of dc/bc ¼10%. (2) detection of cracks. Example of multi-cracks identification To prove the accuracy of the multi-cracks identification method presented in this investigation. two cantilever beams with variable cross-sections are adopted.27 . Summarized procedures of multi-cracks identification. 4. X. Table 1 Geometric parameters and material properties of the cantilever beam. 4. and the crack's relative depth is dc/bc ¼10%. and has relative depth dc/bc ¼25%. Zhang. but different crack cases.1. The first beam has one crack. experimental example is conducted. 4. All these cracks are machined by wire-electrode cutting in the edge of beam. And then. another locates at lc/l ¼50%. their natural frequencies in initial healthy status are measured at first. K. Measurement of natural frequencies For the two adopted cantilever beams in the example. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 59 Fig.

From Fig. 6. numerical simulation is conducted by using finite element method (FEM). a mathematical model is supposed to be established for help of identifying cracks’ characteristics. both of the two cracked beams’ natural frequencies in the first four vibration modes are different compared with their natural frequencies in healthy status. the curves denote the cantilever beam's natural frequency change ratio results.030 Hz. 5.505 Hz. According to the established mathematical model and FEM result. Detection of cracks From the measured natural frequencies of the cantilever beam in healthy status and two cracked statuses. That indicates cracks’ existence in cantilever beam.625 Hz. the constant η is calculated to be 2. Applying the same method. This vibration signal is decomposed into four signal components. which are 46. The average value of each signal components’ transient frequency is considered to be the cantilever beam's natural frequency in corresponding vibration mode. The acquired vibration acceleration signal of cantilever beam in healthy status is shown in Fig. it can be observed that. 4. Substituting the detailed geometry parameters and material attributes of cantilever beam into the mathematical model's general expression. 10. X. the cracked cantilever beams’ natural frequencies in the first four vibration modes are also measured and listed in Table 2.1.3. 10. the cantilever beam's natural frequencies in the first four vibration modes can be observed. In Fig. Vibration acceleration signal of the cantilever beam. 7.799. For the cantilever beam in the healthy status. 8. 6. To verify the validity of the mathematical model. the cantilever beam's natural frequency change ratio varying with single crack's lo- cation and relative depth is calculated and plotted in Fig.345 Hz and 1866.60 K. the four decomposed and filtered signal components. 7. The healthy and cracked cantilever beams are respectively modeled as shown in Fig. 9. Establishment of mathematical model After cracks’ existence is detected. And band pass filters are applied on these signal components to make their frequency spectrum be purer. which are calculated by the established mathematical model. hammer test is utilized to make cantilever beam vibrate with its natural frequencies. and their corre- sponding transient frequency varying with time are shown in Fig. After that. Zhang. 4. Crack cases for identification examples. In the measurement of natural frequencies. 336. The general expression of this mathematical model is established in Section 2. and the function f(dc/bc) and Si(lc) are also calculated and shown in Fig. 992. . which are respectively related to cantilever beam's natural frequencies in the first four vibration modes. The calculated natural frequency change ratios of the cantilever beams for two crack cases are listed in Table 3. and the points are the FEM Fig. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 Fig. these decomposed and filtered signal components are processed by HHT to acquire their transient frequency varying with time.2.

X. 7. (c) The 3rd signal component and its transient frequency varying with time. 10. (b) The 2nd signal component and its transient frequency varying with time. K. which verifies that the mathematical model proposed in this in- vestigation is correct. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 61 Fig. it can be observed that. (a) The1st signal component and its transient fre- quency varying with time. (d) The 4th signal component and its transient frequency varying with time. From Fig. results of cantilever beam's natural frequency change ratios. the results obtained by mathematical model and FEM are almost the same. Decomposed and filtered signal components and their transient frequency varying with time. Zhang. .

dc /bc ¼0. the convergence criterion of case 1 is smaller than 1E-4 after five iterative calculations.5.3 l.040 Hz 1865. Calculated curves of function f and Si.345 Hz 1866.5. iteratively calculating Eq. That means the (1) (1) (1) (2) (2) (2) initial cracks’ characteristics are assumed to be lc ¼0. it can be seen that.475 Hz Crack case 2 46.103E  03 Crack case 2 5. And an equation set with four unknown parameters and four equations is formed. Zhang.859E  03 Fig. 4. (b) Cracked cantilever beam.030 Hz 992. 11. the convergence criterion is smaller than 1E-4. are required to be substituted in the established mathematical model. Vibration 1 2 3 4 mode Crack case 1 1. Fig. this equation set is worked out. 0.5. to locate and evaluate the cracks information.011E  03 3. the results of vector x and convergence criterion in each step are obtained and listed in Table 4.072E  03 8. Healthy and cracked cantilever beam's model. dc /bc ¼0. (21). .6 l. 0.505 Hz Crack case 1 46. the natural frequency change ratios in four vibration modes. X. (a) Healthy cantilever beam.121E  03 3. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 Table 2 Measured natural frequency results for healthy and cracked beam structure.000 Hz 990.900 Hz Table 3 Calculated natural frequency change ratios.600 Hz 336. In Newton iteration method.4.928E  05 6. 8. From Table 4.850 Hz 1862. 0.3 l.141E  03 6.625 Hz 336.015 Hz 992. Utilizing Newton iteration method. Localization and evaluation of cracks For each crack case.5 and lc ¼0. and for case 2. after nine iterative calculations. the initial vector x(0) is chosen as {0. and two cracks are identified. 9. which are measured in Section 4.1. And the detailed identification results of multi-cracks on cantilever beam are shown in Fig.6 l} for each crack case.62 K. For each crack case.146E  04 1. That means the cracks identification iterative calculations for all crack cases are convergent.505 Hz 335. Vibration mode 1 Vibration mode 2 Vibration mode 3 Vibration mode 4 Healthy status 46.

39563 4 0.10436l 0.51108l 0.06746l 0.16984 4 0.28334 0. which indicate that this identified crack can be ignored.50011l 0. However.03112l 0.11044 0.33125 0.11796 0.00401 0. For case 2.50010l 0.11047 0.00712 0. X.21365 0.120475 0.03994l 0. Zhang.01974 5 0.11469 0.16806 3 0.03112l 0.50011l 2.41887l 0.01138l 2.120474 0.2E  05 For case 1.11032 0.28231 0. Curves of natural frequency change ratio varying with crack location and relative depth.21365 0. and the result of cracks’ relative depth are also acceptable.00101 8 0.01139l 0. the first identified crack has a relative depth approach to zero.28927 2 0. and the relative depth of these two cracks are re- spectively evaluated to be dc/bc ¼11% and dc/bc ¼28%.50012l 0.320226l 0.124463 0.44762 0.28230 0.28466 0.03211l 0.12774 0.004032 5 0.00014 9 0. the two identified cracks respectively locate at relative location of lc/l ¼1% and lc/l ¼32%.50012l 0.50667 3 0.32412l 0.00165 7 0.03124l 0. The identification result show that the multi-cracks identification method presented in this investigation can accurately identify the cracks’ locations.00401 0.03146l 0.28946 0.32147 0.6E  05 Crack case 2 1 0.01324l 0.11043 0.03111l 0. 10. .50012l 0. The relative depth of the actual relative crack locating at lc/l ¼ 32% is identified to be dc/bc ¼12%.28230 0. the two iden- tified cracks locate at relative location of lc/l ¼3% and lc/l ¼50%.12479l 0. K.11043 0.32022l 0. Table 4 Results of iterative calculations for each crack case.01051 6 0. Iterations ⎛ ( 1) ⎞ (k) ⎛ ( 1) ⎞ ⎛ ( 2) ⎞ (k) ⎛ ( 2) ⎞ Convergence criterion (k) d x2 ⎜l (k) d x4 ⎜l x1 ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ x3 ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ bc( ) ⎠ ⎝ bc( ) ⎠ 1 2 Crack case 1 1 0.37963 0.31445l 0.17865 2 0.52449l 0.27462 0.320463l 0.37963 0.50014l 0. Yan / Journal of Sound and Vibration 387 (2017) 53–65 63 Natural frequency change ratio Natural frequency change ratio dc/bc=10% Model FEM dc/bc=10 Model FEM dc/bc=20% Model FEM dc/bc=20 Model FEM dc/bc=30% Model FEM dc/bc=30 Model FEM Relative crack location [%] Relative crack location [%] (a) The1st vibration mode (b) The 2nd vibra tion mode Natural frequency change ratio Natural frequency change ratio dc/bc=10% Model FEM dc/bc=10% Model FEM dc/bc=20% Model FEM dc/bc=20% Model FEM dc/bc=30% Model FEM dc/bc=30% Model FEM Relative crack location [%] Relative crack location [%] (c) The 3rd vibration mode (d) The 4th vibration mode Fig.

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