Electronic stability control

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Electronic stability control (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program
(ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology [1][2] that
improves the safety of a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction
(skidding).[3] When ESC detects loss of steering control, it automatically applies the
brakes to help "steer" the vehicle where the driver intends to go. Braking is
automatically applied to wheels individually, such as the outer front wheel to counter
oversteer or the inner rear wheel to counter understeer. Some ESC systems also
reduce engine power until control is regained. ESC does not improve a vehicle's
cornering performance; instead, it helps to minimize the loss of control. According to
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration, one-third of fatal accidents could have been prevented by the
technology.[4][5]

Contents
 1 History

 2 Introduction

 3 Operation

 4 Effectiveness

 5 Components and design

 6 Availability and cost

 7 Future

 8 Regulation

 9 Product names

 10 System manufacturers

 11 References

 12 External links

developed a system to reduce engine torque to prevent loss of control and applied it to the entire BMW model line for 1992. called AdvanceTrac. working with Robert Bosch GmbH and Continental Automotive Systems.S. an onboard computer monitored several vehicle operating parameters through the use of various sensors. That same year BMW. the "Electronic Stability Control" identity is used for GM overseas brands. supplied by Bosch. Developed to help the driver maintain the intended path through a corner. the system has since evolved into Mitsubishi's modern Active Skid and Traction Control (ASTC) system. engine output and braking are automatically regulated to ensure the proper path through a curve and to provide the proper amount of traction under various road surface conditions. Although not a ‘true’ modern stability control system. was launched in the year 2000. [edit] Introduction In 1995. The TCL system's standard wheel slip control function improved traction on slippery surfaces or during cornering. the earliest innovators of ESC. there was no yaw-rate input. StabiliTrak was made standard equipment on all GM SUVs and vans sold in the U. From 1987 to 1992. while taking a curve.S. While the "StabiliTrak" name is used on most General Motors vehicles for the U. GM worked with Delphi Corporation and introduced its version of ESC called "StabiliTrak" in 1997 for select Cadillac models. While conventional traction control systems at the time featured only a slip control function. Traction control works by applying individual wheel braking and throttle to keep traction while accelerating but. Named simply TCL in 1990. it is not designed to aid in steering. Mercedes-Benz and BMW. Mitsubishi developed a TCL system which had a preventive (active) safety feature. supplied by Bosch and ITT Automotive (later acquired by . Mercedes-Benz. such as Opel. it also worked together with the Mitsubishi Diamante's electronically controlled suspension and four-wheel steering that in order to improve total handling and performance. Mercedes-Benz and Robert Bosch GmbH co-developed a system called Elektronisches Stabilitätsprogramm (Ger. This improved the course tracing performance by automatically adjusting the traction force. Ford's version of ESC. automobile manufacturers introduced ESC systems. unlike the ESC. In addition to the TCL's traction control feature. market. thereby restraining the development of excessive lateral acceleration. Ford later added Roll Stability Control to AdvanceTrac[11][12] which was first introduced in Volvo XC90 in 2003 when Volvo Cars was fully owned by Ford and it is now being implemented in many Ford vehicles. Holden and Saab. and Canada by 2007 except for certain commercial and fleet vehicles. however. while turning. trace control monitored steering angle. throttle position and individual wheel speeds. except in the case of Saab's 9-7X which also uses the "StabiliTrak" name.[edit] History In 1987.[6][7][8][9][10] BMW. When too much throttle has been used. "Electronic Stability Programme" trademarked as ESP) to control lateral slippage. introduced their first traction control systems. was the first to implement this with their W140 S-Class model.

the system may reduce engine power or operate the transmission to slow the vehicle down.[22] [edit] Operation Main article: Directional stability During normal driving. ESC estimates the direction of the skid. All Lexus. It compares the driver's intended direction (determined through the measured steering wheel angle) to the vehicle's actual direction (determined through measured lateral acceleration. and Scion vehicles have ESC. the Swedish journalist Robert Collin of Teknikens Värld (World of Technology) in October 1997[14] rolled a Mercedes A-Class (without ESC) at 78 km/h.[23] This may happen. when skidding during emergency evasive swerves. when the vehicle is not going where the driver is steering. as recent as November 2010.[21] The NHTSA requires all passenger vehicles to be equipped with ESC by 2012 and estimates it will prevent 5. and after the 2011 model-year. understeer or oversteer during poorly judged turns on slippery roads.[13] Meanwhile others investigated and developed their own systems. . a preventive system called VDIM) appeared on the Crown Majesta in 1995. because steering input may not always be directly indicative of the intended direction of travel.e. vehicle rotation (yaw). Toyota's Vehicle Stability Control system (also in 2004. which became famous in Germany as "the Elk test". i. ESC works in the background and continuously monitors steering and vehicle direction.[20] General Motors had made a similar announcement for the end of 2010. ESC intervenes only when it detects a probable loss of steering control. and then applies the brakes to individual wheels asymmetrically in order to create torque about the vehicle's vertical axis.[18][19] However. Ford still sells models in North America without ESC. Additionally.000 A-Class cars with ESC.Continental Automotive Systems).600 annual fatalities once all passenger vehicles are equipped with the system.[16][17] Ford and Toyota announced that all their North American vehicles would be equipped with ESC standard by the end of 2009 (it was standard on Toyota SUVs as of 2004. ESC may also intervene in an unwanted way during high-performance driving. During a moose test (swerving to avoid an obstacle). they recalled and retrofitted 130.[15] The availability of ESC in small cars like the A-Class ignited a market trend so that ESC became available for all models at least as an option.300–9. or hydroplaning. Today virtually all premium brands have made ESC standard on all vehicles. and the number of models with ESC continues to increase. November 2011 and by the end of 2013 all old models without ESC may not be sold anymore. As a consequence the European Union decided in 2009 to make ESC mandatory – all new models must be equipped with ESC since 1. This produced a significant reduction in crashes and the number of vehicles with ESC rose. Because Mercedes-Benz promotes a reputation for safety. the last one to get it was the 2011 model-year Scion tC). Volvo Cars[citation needed] began to offer their version of ESC called DSTC in 1998 on the new S80. and individual road wheel speeds). opposing the skid and bringing the vehicle back in line with the driver's commanded direction. for example. Toyota.

Toyota offered a Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) system that incorporated formerly independent systems. the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration confirmed the international studies. In simpler systems. In July 2004. from dry pavement to frozen lakes. the wheels that ESC would use to correct a skid may not even initially be in contact with the road. and fatal single-vehicle rollovers by 77–80%.[28] In the fall of 2004 in the U. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with stability control are involved in 67% fewer accidents than SUVs without the system. including ESC. Additionally. many vehicles have an over-ride control which allows the system to be partially or fully shut off. The United States Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) issued its own study in June 2006 showing that up to 10. but rather a safety technology to assist the driver in recovering from dangerous situations. even if it is possible to more precisely match it. ESC systems typically inform the driver when they intervene. Using electric variable gear ratio steering power steering this more advanced system could also alter steering gear ratios and steering torque levels to assist the driver in evasive maneuvers. This worked not only after the skid was detected but also to prevent the skid from occurring in the first place.S. For this reason. resulting in loss of control. fatal single-vehicle crashes by 56%. some intentionally allow the vehicle's corrected course to deviate very slightly from the driver-commanded direction. while more complicated setups may have a multi-position switch or may never be truly turned fully off. reducing its effectiveness. More generally. releasing results of a field study in the U. of ESC effectiveness. Most activate a dashboard indicator light and/or alert tone. this led to some concern that ESC could allow drivers to become overconfident in their vehicle's handling and/or their own driving skills.[26] In fact. so that the driver knows that the vehicle's handling limits have been approached.000 fatal US crashes could be avoided annually if all vehicles were equipped with ESC[29] The IIHS study concluded that ESC reduces the likelihood of all fatal crashes by 43%. . thereby saving lives and reducing the severity of crashes.[27] Indeed. For example. ESC does not increase traction.ESC can work on any surface. on the Crown Majesta. in a severe hydroplaning scenario. ESC works within inherent limits of the vehicle's handling and available traction between the tires and road.. often before the driver is even aware of any imminent loss of control. [edit] Effectiveness Numerous studies around the world confirm that ESC is highly effective in helping the driver maintain control of the car. A reckless maneuver can still exceed these limits.[24][25] It reacts to and corrects skidding much faster and more effectively than the typical human driver. Due to the fact that stability control hinders[citation needed] high-performance driving.S. The NHTSA in United States concluded that ESC reduces crashes by 35%. a single button may disable all features. so it does not enable faster cornering (although it can facilitate better-controlled cornering). all ESC manufacturers emphasize that the system is not a performance enhancement nor a replacement for safe driving practices.

e. i. E-Safety Aware. when necessary. The control algorithm compares driver input to vehicle response and decides.).[37][38] [edit] Components and design ESC incorporates yaw rate control into the anti-lock braking system (ABS). ESC achieves a different purpose than ABS or Traction Control. The data from the yaw sensor is compared with the data from the steering wheel angle sensor to determine regulating action.[35] Csaba Csere.  Wheel speed sensor : measures the wheel speed.[31] Administrator of the NHTSA. Yaw is a rotation around the vertical axis. The most important sensors are:  Steering wheel angle sensor: determines the driver's intended rotation.[30] including Nicole Nason. Anti-lock brakes enable ESC to brake individual wheels.[32] Jim Guest and David Champion[33] of Consumers Union [34] of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). Other sensors indicate the actual state of the vehicle (response). etc. i. long time ESC proponent of Continental Automotive Systems[32] The European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) "strongly recommends" that people buy cars fitted with stability control. which senses drive-wheel slip under acceleration and individually brakes the slipping wheel or wheels and/or reduces excess engine power until control is regained. This kind of sensor is often based on AMR- elements.[25] The ESC system uses several sensors to determine what the driver wants (input). where the driver wants to steer.[36] and Jim Gill. editor of Car and Driver. Many ESC systems also incorporate a traction control system (TCS or ASR). They have to be resistant to possible forms of interference (rain. However.  Yaw rate sensor : measures the rotation rate of the car. The sensors used for ESC have to send data at all times in order to detect possible defects as soon as possible.e. Measures the lateral acceleration of the vehicle.[39] The ESC controller can also receive data from and issue commands to other controllers on the vehicle such as an all wheel drive system or an active suspension system to improve vehicle stability and controllability. spinning left or right.ESC is described as the most important advance in auto safety by many experts.e. to apply brakes and/or reduce throttle by the amounts calculated through the state space (set of equations used to model the dynamics of the vehicle).  Lateral acceleration sensor: often based on the Hall effect[citation needed]. i. The IIHS requires that a vehicle must have ESC as an available option in order for it to qualify for their Top Safety Pick award for occupant protection and accident avoidance. holes in the road. Other sensors can include: . how much the car is actually turning.

The ESC will automatically reactivate at highway speeds. a steering wheel sensor. a lateral acceleration sensor. Traction control system. climate control. which may be desirable when badly stuck in mud or snow. its gradient and the wheel speed. Via a Controller Area Network interface the ECU is connected with other systems (ABS. unplugging a wheel speed sensor is another method of disabling most ESC systems.  Roll rate sensor: similar to the yaw rate sensor in design but improves the fidelity of the controller's vehicle model and correct for errors when estimating vehicle behavior from the other sensors alone. and all ESC-equipped vehicles are fitted with traction control. ESC is rarely offered as a sole option. and an upgraded integrated control unit. The desired vehicle state is determined based upon the steering wheel angle. The brain of the ESC system is the electronic control unit (ECU). Many ESC systems have an "off" override switch so the driver can disable ESC. only. ESC additionally needs to increase pressure in certain situations and an active vacuum brake booster unit may be utilized in addition to the hydraulic pump to meet these demanding pressure gradients.) in order to avoid giving contradictory commands. so the cost of a package that includes ESC could be . or driving on a beach. the same ECU is used for diverse systems at the same time (ABS. etc.). can be temporarily disabled through an undocumented series of brake pedal and handbrake operations. Some ESC systems that lack an "off switch".  Longitudinal acceleration sensor: similar to the lateral acceleration sensor in design but can offer additional information about road pitch and also provide another source of vehicle acceleration and speed. However. it is frequently bundled it with other features or more expensive trims. ESC defaults to "On" when the ignition is re-started. The ESC implementation on newer Ford vehicles cannot be completely disabled even through the use of the "off switch". and is generally not available for aftermarket installation. etc. Instead. The ESC components include a yaw rate sensor. Often. ESC cost a further US$111. ABS needs to reduce pressure during braking. A similar modulator is used in ABS. as a stand-alone option it retails for as little as $250 USD. The retail price of ESC varies. ESC uses a hydraulic modulator to assure that each wheel receives the correct brake force. Some systems also offer an additional mode with raised thresholds so that a driver can utilize the limits of adhesion with less electronic intervention. The input signals are sent through the input-circuit to the digital controller.[41] However. Simultaneously. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) research. the yaw sensor measures the actual state. ABS in 2005 cost an estimated US$368. [edit] Availability and cost ESC is built on top of an anti-lock brake (ABS) system. such as on many recent Toyota and Lexus vehicles. The various control techniques are embedded in it. The controller computes the needed brake or acceleration force for each wheel and directs via the driver circuits the valves of the hydraulic modulator.[40] Furthermore. and below that if it detects a skid with the brake pedal depressed. or if using a smaller-sized spare tire which would interfere with the sensors.

increased awareness will increase the number of vehicles with ESC on the used car market. In Australia. and standard on the SEL and SES models[47] ESC is also available on some motor homes. and is standard on the top-of-the-line GT version.[44] Availability of ESC in passenger vehicles varies between manufacturers and countries.several thousand dollars. provides a global perspective on ESC. for the 2010 Mazda3. Nonetheless. The 2009 Toyota Corolla in the United States (but not Canada) has stability control as a $250 option on all trims below that of the XRS which has it as standard. SUVs. The Swedish road safety administration issued a . Denmark. and buses from manufacturers such as Bendix Corporation. trailers. the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) website[55] shows availability of ESC in individual US models and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA website)[15] lists US models with ESC. However. though the 2008 model years of the Nissan Altima and Ford Fusion only offered ESC on their V6 engine-equipped cars.[45] contrasting with 78–96% in other European countries such as Germany.[53] and light passenger vehicles.[49] including transport trucks.[50] WABCO [51] Daimler. Denmark.[12][54] The ChooseESC! campaign. Luxury cars.[52] and Prevost. In 2007. ESC is available on cars. ESC is considered highly cost-effective[42] and it might pay for itself in reduced insurance premiums.[41] In Canada. ESC is as an option on the midrange GS trim as part of the moonroof package. and crossovers are usually equipped with ESC. consumer awareness affects buying patterns so that roughly 45% of vehicles sold in North America and the UK are purchased with ESC. there are vehicles such as the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu LS and 2008 Mazda6 that have traction control but not ESC. run by the EU's eSafetyAware! project. especially in European countries such as Sweden. Midsize cars are also gradually catching on. SUVs and pickup trucks from all major auto makers. One ChooseESC! publication shows the availability of ESC in EU member countries. sports cars. While few vehicles had ESC prior to 2004.[46] The 2009 Ford Focus has ESC as an option for the S and SE models.[56] [edit] Future The market for ESC is growing quickly. While ESC includes traction control. Scania AB. Elaborate ESC and ESP systems (including Roll Stability Control (RSC)[48]) are available for many commercial vehicles. and Sweden. in 2003 in Sweden the purchase rate on new cars with ESC was 15%. For example. In the US. the National Roads and Motorists' Association NRMA shows the availability of ESC in Australian models. ESC was available in roughly 50% of new North American models compared to about 75% in Sweden. and Germany. ESC is rare among subcompact cars as of 2008.[43] Federal regulations will require that ESC be installed as a standard feature on all passenger cars and light trucks beginning in 2012.

75% of 2010 models. making it compulsory for carriers of dangerous goods (without data recorders) in 2005. and all 2012 models. the purchase rate on new cars had reached 69%[57] and by 2008 it had grown to 96%. sensors may detect when a vehicle is following too closely and slow down the vehicle. Just as ESC is founded on the Anti-lock braking system (ABS). and for all new vehicles from November 2013. and/or slows down the vehicle. ESC advocates around the world are promoting increased ESC use through legislation and public awareness campaigns and by 2012.[15] Canada[61][62] will require all new passenger vehicles to have ESC from 1 September 2011.[60] The United States was next. avoiding and/or preparing for a crash.[67] [edit] Product names . When RSC detects impending rollover (usually on transport trucks[51] or SUVs[58]).strong ESC recommendation and in September 2004. the purchase rate was 58%. phasing in the regulation starting with 55% of 2009 models (effective 1 September 2008).[64] The European Parliament has also called for the accelerated introduction of ESC. 16 months later. induces understeer.[66] The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has passed a Global Technical Regulation to harmonize ESC standards. For example. RSC applies brakes. 95% of 2011 models. ESC is the foundation for new advances such as Roll Stability Control (RSC) [12][54] that works in the vertical plane much like ESC works in the horizontal plane. reduces throttle. straighten up seat backs. most new vehicles should be equipped with ESC. addressing other causes of crashes.[59] others implemented or proposed legislation. The computing power of ESC facilitates the networking of active and passive safety systems.000 pounds (4536 kg).[63] The Australian Government announced on 23 June 2009 that ESC would be compulsory from 1 November 2011 for all new passenger vehicles sold in Australia. and tighten seat belts. A stronger ESC recommendation was then given and in December 2004. with all new cars being equipped by 2014.[65] The European Commission has confirmed a proposal for the mandatory introduction of ESC on all new cars and commercial vehicle models sold in the EU from 2012. [edit] Regulation While Sweden used public awareness campaigns to promote ESC use. The Canadian province of Quebec was the first jurisdiction to implement an ESC law. requiring ESC for all passenger vehicles under 10.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2009) Electronic stability control (ESC) is the generic term recognised by the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA). Active Handling (Corvette only)  Chrysler: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Citroën: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Dodge: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Daimler: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Fiat: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC)  Ferrari: Controllo Stabilità (CST) . However. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the North American Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. This section needs additional citations for verification. vehicle manufacturers may use a variety of different trade names for ESC:  Acura: Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA)' (formerly CSL 4-Drive TCS)  Alfa Romeo: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC)  Audi: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Bentley: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  BMW: Co engineering partner and inventor with Robert BOSCH GmbH and Continental (TEVES) Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) (including Dynamic Traction Control)  Bugatti: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Buick: StabiliTrak  Cadillac: StabiliTrak & Active Front Steering (AFS)  Chery Automobile: Electronic Stability Program  Chevrolet: StabiliTrak. and other worldwide authorities.

 Ford: AdvanceTrac with Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Interactive Vehicle Dynamics (IVD) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP). Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) (Australia only)  General Motors: StabiliTrak  Honda: Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) (formerly CSL 4-Drive TCS)  Holden: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Hyundai: Electronic Stability Program (ESP). Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA)  Infiniti: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC)  Jaguar: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC)  Jeep: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Kia: Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Lamborghini: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Land Rover: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC)  Lexus: Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) with Vehicle Stability Control (VSC)  Lincoln: AdvanceTrac  Maserati: Maserati Stability Program (MSP)  Mazda: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) (including Dynamic Traction Control)  Mercedes-Benz (co-inventor): Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Mercury: AdvanceTrac  MINI: Dynamic Stability Control  Mitsubishi: Active Skid and Traction Control MULTIMODE and Active Stability Control (ASC)  Nissan: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) .

 Oldsmobile: Precision Control System (PCS)  Opel: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Peugeot: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Pontiac: StabiliTrak  Porsche: Porsche Stability Management (PSM)  Proton: Electronic Stability Program  Renault: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Rover Group: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC)  Saab: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Saturn: StabiliTrak  Scania: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)[68]  SEAT: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Škoda: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Smart: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Subaru: Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC)  Suzuki: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Toyota: Either Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) or Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM)  Vauxhall: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Volvo: Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC)  Volkswagen: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Opel: Trailer Stability Program (TSP)[69] [edit] System manufacturers ESC system manufacturers include: .

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" Prepared for ROADS AND TRAFFIC AUTHORITY OF NSW."ISSUE 2007.[edit] External links  Bosch ESC Information  ChooseESC! a combined initiative from the European Commission. "ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC). 2005  UK ESC Video by What Car  Four Little Words: "Does it have ESC?" . Number 3. Claes Tingvall. and Euro NCAP  E-Safety list of ESC Media Articles from eSafety Support  NHTSA on ESC including US Regulation and list of US vehicles with ESC  Canadian Association of Road Safety Professionals on ESC  Transport Canada on ESC  Australia (Victoria) on ESC  NHTSA announces mandatory ESC all light US vehicles by 2012  Proposed Canadian ESC Law  European ESC Mandate for Trucks and Coaches  European ESC Campaign  Glen Nicholson."  Michael Paine. "REAL WORLD CRASH EVALUATION OF VEHICLE STABILITY CONTROL (VSC) TECHNOLOGY. Bahouth. The Official Newsletter of the Canadian Association of Road Safety Professionals  Anders Lie. and Anders Kullgren. eSafetyAware. 2005  Australian (Monash) ESC Study  G."ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL: REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND REGULATIONS. "The Effectiveness of ESC (Electronic Stability Control) in Reducing Real Life Crashes and Injuries." of the 19th Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conference. Maria Krafft.

 ABC News ESC Video  .