Journal Review

Journal Review of Cyanobacteria

Alexander Richard Congreng (1400610001), Michael Pangestu (1400610010),
Stephanie Christy (1400610006), Vania Eveline (1400610005), and Yoana
Aprillia (1400610021)
Departement of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Clean and Climate Change,
Surya University
Abstract: Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are the oldest
photosynthetic organisms. It has become the subject of substantial amount
of research due to its multi usages and advantages which orginate from its
unique anatomy and properties. It also eliminate extensive carbon sources
into reduced form. Thus, Cyanobacteria are ideal biosynthetic instruments
for sustainable chemical synthesis. Cyanobacteria contain high contents of
nutrition such as proteins, pigments, lipids, carbohydrates, and biomass
resulting a mass production and research development on extraction.
Cyanobacteria has been used as food additives, food supplements, paints
and dyes due to its high-value of proteins. It also contain lipid and
carbohydrates which can be reduced into biofuels such as biodiesel and
ethanol. Several studies also suggest antimicrobial and anticancer
activities. Thus, Cyanobacteria has a promising future in pharmaceutical
and energy industries.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria, nutrition, industry, bioproduct

INTRODUCTION
Cyanobacteria, also known as the blue-green algae, are the oldest
photosynthetic organisms on earth that originated approximately 2.6–3.5 billion
years ago (Hedger, et al. 2001). These names are used because of the presence of
a blue–green colored pigment, c-phycocyanin (C-PC), which is a pigment used for
photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria have multipurposes and advantages due to their
unique anatomy and properties. They are prokaryotic morphologically exist and
diverse in forms including unicellular, filamentous, planktonic or benthic, and
colonial (Lau, Matsui and Abdullah 2015).
Cyanobacteria, gifted with photosynthesis system to fix carbon dioxide into
reduced form, are ideal biosynthetic instruments for sustainable synthesis of
chemicals and bioproducts. To enact such processes, Cyanobacteria require only
sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and low concentration of nutrients for growth,
eliminating the cost of extensive carbon sources and complex growth media. It
can also convert solar energies into biomass at 3-9% efficiency (compared with
terrestrial plants at 0.25-3%) (Dismukes, et al. 2008). Not only that, they are
carbon neutrals organism which fixate the same amount of CO2 that it released

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Journal Review

(Ducat, Way and Silver 2011).

Figure 1. Biofuel Production by photosynthesis (Ducat, Way and Silver 2011)

As prokaryotes, they have a simple genetic markers that eases
manipulation. In addition, even after the extraction process, Cyanobacteria still
contain high-value nutritions which can be converted into organic fertilizer or
animal feed. During the past years, researches focused on high yields methods of
extraction and production (Garcia-Mier, et al. 2014). Cyanobacteria contains high-
value nutritions, such as proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals,
etc. For example, Spirulina, a well-known cyanobacteria, contain 65% protein
compared to soybean flour with 37% of proteins (Ali and Saleh 2012). Either than
higher content of protein (60–70 %), Spirulina is also a rich source of vitamins,
especially vitamin B12 and pro-vitamin A (β- carotene) as well as minerals. Thus,
Spirulina are also used as food supplements due to its nutritions, compounds, and
its digestibility (El-Sayed, et al. 2010). Other cyanobacteria may contain materials
for biofuels, such as bioethanols, alkanes and biodiesel. Experiments shows that
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a cyanobacteria, produce bioethanol with 5500
mg/mL yield (Lau, Matsui and Abdullah 2015).
Cyanobacteria also require less area of land for cultivation (Lau, Matsui and
Abdullah 2015). Their natural diversity make them capable to live in an area that
is uninhabitable for terrestrial plants. For example, the cyanobacteria Spirulina
maxima can develop well under alkaline conditions (pH ≅ 11) and high salinity
(1.2M Sodium carbonate) (Ducat, Way and Silver 2011). Hence, cyanobacteria
does not have to grow with other terrestrial plants and can live at non-productive
lands. Therefore, Cyanobacteria will not compete with daily crops.
A major concern of photosynthesis and green-based process is the
requirement of fresh water supplies. The application of cyanobacteria in green-
based process support water conservation. As a matter of fact, Arthrospira

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This journal will focus on reviewing cyanobacteria and its bioproducts. This review will also discuss the products derived from the bioproducts and the methods of extracting and purifying. THE STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONS OF CYANOBACTERIA The constituent cell structure of Cyanobacteria is similar to Gram-negative bacterial cell. On the surface. The cell wall is the one that is responsible for giving the permanent shape of algae and also protecting all contents of the cell. β high electron density lipid β-granules. Way and Silver 2011). an anti-cancer agent is produced by cyanobacteria Nostoc Sp. the spines. Therefore. with the main characteristics of Cyanobacteria is to have cell walls that contains peptidoglycan thin layer (Baulina 2012). General scheme of a cyanobacteria vegetative cell in section. 2011). Cs carboxysome. sheath. CQ 3 . et al. CM cytoplasmic membrane. and carbohydrates. Cyanobacteria have a possibility of being used as precursor to many bioproducts and chemicals. and glycoprotein S- layer can be found (see Figure 2). Figure 2. α glycogen α-granules. Latest research also found a possibility of anti-cancer substances produced by cyanobacteria. There are also other substances that were found by Singh et al (Singh. pili. the bioproducts are proteins and pigments. This is only 25%. corn and beef respectively (Ducat. fatty acids and lipids. biomasses. As stated before. A number of studies suggests that cryptophycins. CG cyanophycin granule. Journal Review platensis uses 2000L of water to produce 1 kg of dry proteins. 17%. and 2% of the amount that needed to produce 1 kg of dry proteins in soybean.

Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment in cyanobacteria (Miyashita. IV (= Nostocales) and V (=Stigonematales) (Komarek et al. PS periplasmic space. 2014). I and II. as well as various microtubules and microfilaments (Berner 1993). a trichome (chain of cells) which grows by intercalary cell division (Rippka et al. It took several years from 1925-1979 for the best classification to occur. T thylakoid(s). In the other three sections. 1979). These membrane structures may form a single system. Sh sheath. S S-layer. (1979) recommended five sections. She describes her first two sections. called as thylakoid networks (Nevo et al. OM outer membrane. The main components include gas vesicles. almost in the central part of the cell. Rippka et al. Other various structures and inclusions are present in the cells. III (= Oscillatoriales). and polyphosphate granules as the sources of phosphorus. et al. Pg peptidoglycan. lipid granules (β- granules). GV gas vesicles. consisting of a unique polypeptide built of the L-arginine and L-aspartate residues and acting as an alternative nitrogen source. ribulose-1. granules of glycogen (α-granules). cells single or forming colonial aggregates held together by additional outer cell wall layers. cyanophycin granules. The nucleoid with (poly) ribosome are located between the thylakoids. I (=Chroococcales). phycobilisomes are located. 4 . TAXONOMY AND CLASSIFICATION Several systems of higher level classification of Cyanobacteria have been published (Komarek. which became the primary basis for the non-nomenclatural classification in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. et al. PP polyphosphate granules. On the outer side of the membrane elements of the photosynthetic apparatus. deposits of the key enzyme catalyzing CO2 fixation. 2014). N nucleoid. which recognized five subsections instead of orders. PBS phycobilisome. There are also other inclusions. TM thylakoid membrane (Baulina 2012) The intracytoplasmic membrane structures responsible for energy supply (thylakoids) fill most of the cytoplasm. she describes as Filamentous. 2012). and granules of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate acting as sources of carbon and energy. R ribosomes. Pi pili. 1997). II(=Pleurocapsales). The thylakoids are formed by paired membranes containing chlorophyll a as a component of the photosystems.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). which promote floatation of the cell within the water column in order to get sunlight to pursue photosynthesis. Rippka divides the cyanobacteria into five sections. Phb poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules. III to V. as Unicellular. Journal Review sell wall. their set depending on the species and growth conditions of cyanobacteria. Sp spines. carboxysomes (polyhedral bodies).

by cells Filamentous. cells Reproduction by binary fission or Section I single of forming by budding colonial aggregates Reproduction by multiple fission held together by giving rise to small daughter cells Section II additional outer cell (baecytes). Ultrastructure of Anabaena variabilis. or by both multiple wall layers fission and binary fission Trichome always Division is only one Reproduction by composed only plane random trichome of vegetative Section III breakage. and Synechococcus sp (Baulina 2012) 5 . a formation of In the absence Division in only trichome (chain of hormogonia of combined one plane cells) which grows (Section IV and nitrogen. Major sub-groups of cyanobacteria (Rippka et al. Section IV by intercalary cell V only) and trichome division sometimes by contains Division in more germination of heterocysts. 1979) Unicellular. Chlorogloeopsis fritschii. Journal Review Table 1. than one plane akinetes some also Section V produce akinetes Figure 3.

and by formation of hormogonia. heterocyst are exclusively Cylindrosperum terminal. mature trichome is composed of cells of even width. Journal Review Table 2. ispdiametric or cylindrical 6 . 1979) Group Identifications Trichome helical. hormogonia give rise to young filaments that bear a terminal heterocyst at only one end of the cellular chain. vegetative cells are disc-shaped. akinetes are not initiated adjacent to heterocysts Reproduction by random trichome breakage. cylindrical or disc-shaped. and by formation of hormogonia. Identifications Groups of Cyanobacteria (Rippka et al. cells composing trichome are disc Oscillatoria shaped. heterocyst are intercalary or Nodularia terminal. hormogonia give rise to young filaments Nostoc that bear a terminal heterocyst at both ends of the cellular chain. akinetes are always adjacent to heterocysts. ovoid or cylindrical. vegetative cells are spherical. vegetative cells are spherical. heterocysts are predominantly intercalary. ovoid. vegetative cells are disc-shaped Reproduction by random trichome breakage and by germination of akinetes. reproduction by transcellular Pseudanabaena or intercellular trichome breakage. by Scytonema germination of akinetes. by germination of akinetes. reproduction by transcellular trichome breakage Trichome straight. reproduction by transcellular trichome breakage Trichome straight. vegetative cells are isodiametric or cylindrical Reproduction by random trichome breakage. position of akinetes is variable. cells composing trichome are Spirulina isodiaetric. or cylindrical Reproduction by random trichome breakage and by germination of akinetes. cells composing trichome are isodiametric or cylindrical. heterocyst are intercalary or Anabaena terminal. cells contain polar gas vacuoles Reproduction by random trichome breakage and by germination of akinetes. position of akinetes is variable.

hormogonia are produced within terminal heterocysts. one of cyanobacteria organelles that consist of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme Ribulose-1. hormogonia composed of small cylindrical cells which enlarge and become spherical heterocysts develop in terinal and intercalary positions. cells in the mature trichome divide in more than one plane Fischerella Reproduction by random trichome breakage and by formation of hormogonia. These are the energy storage components that form a potential feedstock which can be converted into bioenergy (see Table 3). mature trichome tapers grom base (which bears a terminal heterocyst). Carboxysomes. lipids and proteins. AND LIPID CONTENT Cyanobacteria is a photosynthetic organisms that use the sun’s energy.5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is the living proof that protein is one of biological molecules that exist in cyanobacteria. cells in th mature trichome divide more than one plane PROTEIN. 7 . GLUCOSE. Journal Review Calothrix Reproduction by random trichome breakage. hormogonia composed of small cylindrical cells which enlarge and become rounded. Of these three biochemical fractions. ispdiametric or cylindrical Chlorogloeopsis Reproduction by random trichome breakage and by formation of hormogonia. 2011). H2O and CO2 to synthesize their energy storage components. lipids have the highest energy content (Quintana et al. i.e. vegetative cells are disc shaped. Cyanobacteria also have granules of glycogen (α-granules) which is the source of glucose and lipid granules (β- granules) that are responsible for producing lipid (Berner 1993). hormogonia give rise to young filaments that bear a terminal heterocyst at only one end of the cellular chain. and by formation of hormogonia. hormogonia are produced from the ends of trichomes. carbohydrates. by germination of akinetes.

They are also crucial chemicals that form DNA. Sample was homogenized. blood plasma. C-phycocyanin are discovered to be a good inhibitor for free radicals such as cyclooxygenase (Hosseini. et al. Romay. As stated before. In general. The C-phycocyanin concentration (C-PC) was evaluated through optical density. 2000).08 g mL-1 (Silveira. During photosynthesis. Ultrasound emits a high frequency waves which causes cells to break resulting a very high yield PC. Silveira et al who studied the C-phycocyanin concentration in Spirulina Platensis through cell lysis. et al found that phycocyanin has an antioxidant activity. phycocyanin is a phycobilinproteins which can be purified with proteins precipitation technique. phycocyanin only exist in cyanobacteria. pigments. They conducted 4 different types of extraction. mainly from Spirulina Platensis. organic acid. Cell lysis is a principal method of proteins extraction from cyanobacteria. etc (Nelson and Cox 2004). and ultrasound. nitrogen containing substances. The results indicated that the best CPC was achieved at 4 hrs and 0. Inorganic acid causes proteins to denature resulting in low PC. The result indicated that the highest C-PC was obtained using with ultrasound treatment while the lowest C-PC was acquired by inorganic acid extraction (Moraes. It was shown that C-phycocyanin could reduce peroxyl radicals by one half (Romay. 2011). C- phycocyanin concentration (C-PC) was investigated through sampling after some hours. sunlight is captured by light-harvesting pigments. As stated before. pH 7 buffer. frozen. 2007). contain 65% protein compared to soybean flour with only 37% of proteins (Ali and Saleh 2012). et al. After extraction. Cyanobacteria are known as blue-green algae which contain C-phycocyanin (blue-green pigments) and a small amount of Allophycocyanin (purple pigments). Cyanobacteria mostly compose of proteins and pigments. For instance. Cyanobacteria stored proteins in inner cells. particularly in carboxysome. muscles. Studies have discovered various ways to extract phycocyanin. Cells need to be broken down to extract proteins. phycocyanins and phycoerythrins are part of phycobiliproteins which have certain pharmacological properties. 2003). Proteins are precursor to many vital biological substances. particularly C-phycocyanin. there has been an urgency to find best methods to extract C-phycocyanin. 2013). hemoglobin. such as antibodies. Due to this discovery. such as phycocyanin and chlorophyll (Satoh. and stirred for 30 hour. Moraes. et al investigate the C-PC and EP (Extract Purity) 8 . While chlorophyll exist in many other plants. a well-known cyanobacteria. et al. et al also investigated the best conditions that would result in the best yields. et al. Journal Review PROTEIN AND PIGMENTS Proteins. Spirulina. are one of the most essential nutrition a human body needs. et al. Silva. Experiments were varied over biomass concentration and stirring duration. The samples were treated with inorganic acid. the samples must be purified. enzymes.

2006). Thus it is showed the high lipid productivity that are the most desirable for producing biodiesel (Spolaore. et al. bioethanol. such as biofuels-biogas. As food additives. Lipid content in cyanoacteria forms 20 to 50 % of the weight of dry biomass. microalgae like Cynaobacteria were added to improve the nutritional value of foods such as bread and cookies (Hosseini. LIPID Cyanobacteria contains lipids (fats and oil) with compositions similar to vegetable oils. glycolipids. All of the extraction and purification techniques have the same purposes. 2013). 2013). butanol. et al. or biodiesel (Nicole. etc. As food supplements. Proteins can be converted into food supplements. The results showed EP at 0. The phycocyanin and other phycobilinproteins can also provide color and health benefits. Some of cyanobacteria have large quantities of unsaturated fatty acids (25 to 60 % of the total) (Parker. 2009). Journal Review with ammonium sulfate precipitation.8 (Silva. The fatty acids are essential components of the diet of humans and animals and it is important as feed additives in aquaculture (Borowitzka 1988). et al. plants. Cyanobacteria have plenty proteins that can be commercialized and used for health benefits. waxes. the other major lipids of cyanobacteria are sulphoquinovosyl diglycerides (SQDG). Cyanobacteria are characterized by rapid photoautotrophic growth and high speed of biomass accumulation that are important as renewable energy alternatives for petroleum-based fuels. Sometimes this can be higher than 80 %. Elumalai and Mohommad Arif 2011) and can be produced from biological lipids through transesterification (Williams and Laurens 2010). It can be used as food coloring agents such as candies and bakery products (Hosseini. et al. 2003). The lipids of Cyanobacteria are esters of glycerol and fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated) that comprise of organic compounds including fats. 9 . The lipids of some cyanobacteria species are rich of fatty acids such as linoleic and gamma linoleic acids (Mongra and Agrawal 2014). Van Baalen and Maurer 1967). food additives and precursor for chemicals. Spirulina biomass were stirred with 50% and 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate at low temperature. spirulina can be packed as tablets or capsules that are made for human consumption. et al. et al. Biodiesel is a biofuel that comprises of mono alkyl esters that are derived from organic oils. Other than these. Romay et al also found an anti-cancer activity which is a promising future for pharmaceutical industries (Romay. LIPID CONTENT About 80 % of the total lipid fraction in cyanobacteria are triglycerides and fatty acid as shown in Table 4 (Klyachko-Gurvich 1974). or animals (Sakthivel. such as paints and dyes. 2013). phospholipids.

9 6. P. 15 40 60 50 20 50 10 30 40 40 30 40 30 10 content. MGDG represents 50-60 % of the total glycerolipid monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG). 9. Journal Review phosphatidyl glycerol (PG). 9 9. Hader 2002) 14 : 0 16 : 0 16 : 1 16 : 2 16 : 2 17 : 1 18 : 0 18 : 1 18 : 2 18 : 3 18 : 3 18 : 4 20 : 1 6. SQDG. 9 9. Sinha and P. digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) and 10 . . 9. 9. 12 . and DGD. 12 11 12 15 12. 6. . and PG each represent only 10-20 % (Murata 1989). Composition of Fatty Acid in Cyanobacteria (C. Singh. 12. . Table 4.

Fatty Acids Position of Double Bond Percentage of Total Fatty Acids Journal Review 11 .

The percentage of lipids is different in each species of cynobacteria. and the environmental conditions (Karatay and Donmez 2011). 2013) (2) 12 .12 ± 0. depends on the storage structure of the organism (Rittmann 2011). that particularly contain large amount of gamma linolenic acid (Mahajan and Kamat 1995). contains lipids and fatty acids. It is then allowed to stand for the separation of two layers. Spirulina platensis as an example.19 (Albion) Micro-phytoplankton ND (Flic en Flac) Symbiodinium clade C 38.39 ± 6. the enzymes (Wada and Sato 2010). The extract filtered with filter paper and add distilled water to remove water-soluble impurities. Journal Review The quantification of the total lipid content of some species of cyanobacteria has been illustrated in Table 5. The lower lipid layer is separated by sodium sulfate crystals and then dried.21 (Albion) Leptolyngbya sp. 19.26 (Belle Mare) Nodularia harveyana 10.) culture in different media. and Synechococcus sp. Table 5.58 (Flic en Flac) LIPID EXTRACTION METHOD Lipid Extraction from Biomass Lipid can be extracted from biomass of cyanobacteria strains (Lyngbya sp. Percentage of Lipid (Beetul. 2. The lipid content and weight is calculate by the following equations : Weight of lipid = (weight of container + extracted lipid) – weight of container (1) !"#$%& !" !"#"$ !"#$%&#!' ! Lipid content (%) = !"#$%& !" !"#$#%&' !"#$%& ! x 100 % (Selvan.75 ± 0. Cyanobacteria cell pellet is ground using a mortar and pestle by adding pulverized glass powder and extraction solvent (chloroform : methanol.09 ± 0. 2014) Microalgae Percentage of Lipids Leptolyngbya sp. et al. 2:1).. et al.

The diagram process of transesterification is illustrated in Figure 4. 10 : 1 : 1 v/v/v) BIOMASS 60 minutes. CHCl2-2MeOH-W-S:2*1 minute Figure 4. HCl. 60. at 90oC Acid Transesterification (MeOH : HCl : CHCl3 . Journal Review Transesterification Transesterification of the dried crude lipid can be carried out using a method from Sato and Murata (1988) and Liu et al. Mcmeekin 2000) Alcohol quantity. 10.. c. et al. and catalyst concentration are some factors that influence the transesterification reaction. CH3OK. Water-MeOH- CHCl2-S. 20 mg (GC/CG-MS) b.H2O then MeOH then CHCl3. a transesterification reaction requires 3 mol of alcohol for 1 mol of triglyceride to produce 3 mol of fatty acid ester and 1 mol og glycerol. et al. . 13 .8 v/v/v) or . and organic sulfonic acid (E. Alkali catalysts which are commonly used are NaOH. Reaction Duration : 15. 10 : 1 : 1 v/v/v) Analysis of Fatty Acid Treatments : Methyl Esters a. and Bhatia 2009). Theoretically. 5.Solvent addition sequence : . Rittmann 2011). Typically. Transesterification could be processed without prior extraction (Sheng. at 90oC Lipid Extraction (Dryer) Treatments : a. 2005). Nichols and A. b. Sample Size : 1. 3. Acid Transesterification (MeOH : HCl : CHCl3 . Flow Diagram of Transesterification (Lewis. MeOH concentration : CHCl2-2(MeOH)-Water:2 * standard concentration. 30. biodiesel production used an excess of alcohol to ensure the oils or lipids are completely converted to esters (D'Oca. CH3ONa.CHCl3 then MeOH then H2O (1:2:0. Transesterification is catalyzed by alkali and acid catalysts. T.This method is an important step in the overall process of lipid extraction and biodiesel production. and KOH (Kasendo. K. H3PO4. (2005). Vannela and E. reaction time. Sonication : CHCl2-MeOH-W-S. 120 minutes. BF3. reaction temperature. 2011). For acid catalyzed systemscan be used sulfuric acid.

Journal Review GLUCOSE AND CELLULOSE Cellulose is a polysaccharide which is made of sugar molecular that are linked and then form a long chain. The structure of cellulose (Gibson 2012) Cyanobacteria produce extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) which can be used to protect them from dehydration and to maintain their cells (Jia. Figure 5. the presence of cellulose in cyanobacteria can be detected (Nobles. cellulose is also found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes including cyanobacteria. it needs Glycogenin enzyme. (2011). Glycogen is the major carbon in cyanobacteria. the organism can extend dark anaerobic survival. probably because of lack of abundance (Kawano. Romanovicz and R. 2011). and then. Ethanol and 14 .) Having use the glucose as a substrate for fermentation. (Senese 2015). 2007). Because of this. et al. Besides plants. but the amount of cellulose is unknown. The survival’s time is prolonged when sodium thioglycolate or titanium (III) citrate is increasing and then lowering the environmental redox potential (Richardson and Castenholz 1987). et al.d. Malcolm Brown 2001). it needs enzyme called glycogen phosphorylase (Schutten n. Glycogen phosphorylase breaks glycogen down to Glucose 1-phosphate (Schutten n.). It means that all glucose which has been produced during the day will be changed into glycogen at night. Cyanobacteria has been known to store the energy at night but needs the sun for energy source. the green-blue algae store the energy as the glycogen. et al. When glycogen turns back into glucose. According to Quintana. By using cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI)-gold labeling and x-ray diffraction. It is usually found in plants and become a major food source. Figure 6.d. It functions as the energy storage polysaccharide and will be synthesized during light period in the cell. The method can only detect the presence of cellulose.

Acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide will be produced by PDC by catalyzing the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. formate and acetate are also the fermentation product of cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria produce ethanol in a small amount because the efficiency of photosynthesis is quite low. Moreover. The efficiency is about 10% of the total energy which will be stored as chemical energy (Brenner. et al. Pathway of heterolactic in fermentation in Oscillatoria limosa (Stal and Moezelaar 1997) Nowadays. The dark phase of the light-dark cycle is the state when sugar catabolic pathways are active. (Quintana. Journal Review lactate are the fermentation product formed from the degradation of glycogen. Figure 7. et al. As stated before. cyanobacteria store the energy at night. 2010). 15 . 2006). et al. 2011). A sucrose–D-fructose–D-glucose assay kit can be used for determining the sugar production by cyanobacteria. ADH will turn acetaldehyde into ethanol (Deng and Coleman 1999). Besides ethanol and lactate. hydrogen. Sugar production is optimally going on at an optical density at 750nm (Niederholtmeyer. carbon dioxide. (Stal and Moezelaar 1997). the world has paid many attention to biological ethanol production. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) are two enzymes that catalyzed the process of ethanol synthesis.

biofuel that are can also be produced by cyanobacteria. It can produce isoprene which is a volatile precursor that can be polymerized into synthetic rubber (Ducat. et al. biochemical natural product has been produced by marine cyanobacteria (Burja. 2012) 2 Synechocystis sp. In pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria can produce some product that can be useful in industrial area. Spirulina is used in beverages and bakery products. Journal Review Table 6. 2011). PCC6803 is the best for ethanol production because it can produce about 200 milligram per liter per day which is economically good for future development. 2014) Synechocystis sp. healthy drink such as sour milk and green tea to increase their nutritional value. Other than ethanol and hydrogen. Ethanol yields production by cyanobacteria No Species Times Production References 1 Synechococcus sp. Finally.2 mmol unit-1 liter-1 day-1 (Dexter and Fu 3 at OD730 2009) 4700 mg liter-1 (Dienst. hydrogenase activity is reversible which means that many strains of cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen. 2013). An evidence shows that the polysaccharides of Spirulina can repair the damaged DNA which prevent tumor growth in hamster cheek pouch mucosa (Hosseini. (Hosseini. (Quintana. it can be concluded that Synechocystis sp. this green-blue algae also can synthesized alkanes or alkenes which can be used for combustion. spirulina functions as an anti-cancer effects. et al. Furthermore. Furthermore. a tool against UV radiation. cyanobacteria can produce biopolymers which can replace petroleum-based plastics that has a promising application in biomedical and pharmaceutical industry (Lau. et al. 16 . 2013). oxygen sensitivity of hydrogenases make the production of hydrogen from cyanobacteria to become low. Moreover. PCC6803 5. PCC6803 212 mg liter-1 day-1 (Gao. Besides. 2001). Way and Silver (2011). However. It can be added to bread. Currently. according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. strain PCC Day 3-6 54 nmol unit-1 liter-1 day-1 (Deng and Coleman 7942 at OD730 1999) Synechocystis sp. et al. Spirulina is an ideal food which is very popular as a dietary supplement (Ali and Saleh 2012) . et al. Matsui and Abdullah 2015). Way and Silver 2011). Way and Silver 2011). PCC6803 4 Day 18 According to the table of ethanol yields production by cyanobacteria. this green-blue algae also produced mycosporines (Ducat. et al. according to Ducat.

From the de-fatted biomass. 1997). fuel (Hirano et al. RESIDUAL BIOMASS Residual biomass is a term that is used to describe waste products from biomass resources (Mona 2013). Even though there has been an elaboration of target metabolites. Furthermore. Furthermore. i. for example. acetogenesis. for example. From the lipid extracted biomass we could convert the residuals to fertilizer by anaerobic digestion. Thus biomass can still provide the necessary nutritions to used as food additives at the end of processing stage. Spirulina is ten time higher on vitamin A than carrots. FUTURE DIRECTION Cyanobacteria is an autotrophs organisms which needs photosynthesis process which really affect the production of ethanol. 2015). This will make Cyanobacteria a valuable commodity even after the extraction process. we only focus on the lipid-extracted residual biomass. 2013). spirulina have a role in prevention of cellular ageing and infectious diseases (Ali and Saleh 2012). tocopherol (Ali and Saleh 2012). a series of biological processes in which microorganisms break down the biodegradable materials in the absence of oxygen. residual biomass also still contains vitamins and minerals. hydrolysis. such as Vitamin C and A in beverages like tea (Hosseini et al. can add nutritional values. acidogenesis.33 gr provitamin per 100 gram biomass. In anaerobic digestion there are 4 main stages. and many more. Fermentation is also an anaeorbic disgestion process which the process is kept at pH between 6-9 and it will produce methane that can be converted into electricity (Ueda et al. For comparison. Ethanol production by metabolites in cyanobacteria has been explored since 1999. the product from metabolites in cyanobacteria is not as economical as fossil fuel which come from bio-industrial processes (Dexter. The most simple way to convert the remaining biomass slurry is do an ferment. et al. and methanogenesis. we can convert to food to recover the remaining protein. Other than this. We can use the residual biomass to produce fertilizer (Spalaore et al. chemical feedstocks. the residual slurry of microalgae biomass which contains high nutritional value can also become food for animals. The biomass. Journal Review Furthermore. To convert the residual biomass into a fertilizer.e. In this case. the photosynthesis process is not optimal so that the yields of products produced by cyanobacteria are relatively 17 . Spirulina. and many more valuable product depending on how the residual biomass condition. Another concern is the antioxidant such as. feed or food. These high value antioxidants is a promosing future in pharmaceutical industries. There are many way to valorize the residual biomass of algae. contain 2. it must be treated by anaerobic digestion i. 2006).e. 1996).

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