April

NATIONAL

ADVISORY

COMMITTEE

1943

FOR AERONAUTICS

CASE
Fi LE
COPY

ltrllRTIM! ,] RI Pi)RT
ORIGINALLY

ISSUED

April 1943 as
Memorandum Report

FLYING

QUALITIES
OF NORTH

AND STALLING

AMF_CAN

(A.A.F.

XP-51

CHARACTERISTICS
AIRPLANE

No. 41-38)

By Maurlce D. White, Herbert H. Hoover,
and Howard W. Garrls

Langley

Memorial

_.,

Aeronautical

_o_, v_

Laboratory

FILE

COPY

To be returnedtol
th_ flies of the National
/_J,_;ory Committee
_G_'
Aeronautics

A

WASHINGTON
NACA
WARTIME
advance research

REPORTS
are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
results to an authorized group requirlng them for the war effort. They were pre-

viously held u_der a se_urity status but are now unc[assi.fied. Some of these reports were not technlcally edited. All have been reproduced
without change in order to expedite genera/ distribution.

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,_-'_'
=_ op ecd
s_e,e,i

tlJerefor'e,

t},e

.':-f{'_c
__

tha_±

the

ranj:es.

fo_.-,ce 8radients,
,-,i::
l:_Ate

bv

re-

st:_:""_.,

the
In

ti_c,
]

to:,

inch

....
_e_..t¢cl,
""
_,,as

air-

the

r'(arv,'ard

e>:'_.mr.!e,

_._....==<kt
_'

witl_

the

acco_,ipani£@

more

for

c%,n<lit.'ons

',.,(:rec9n:_idePe<!

oJ

vet.,< s.<al]_.

_:),.,,:).<:ss

.of the

cuz'ves

.....
"_r.t 9.]_tir)ush

c[,.nditi.s_s_

respective

t'_,le

_..iit7

.....
'-" ,")thez_ :K_rs_:it-t=r,e

t_,_

f_rce

_{tab

"
__n
figures

use

ce.zter-

_.c

whicL,

c.._s::'t!ons,
._..
2

eac]_

star

_-cj:
. macnitu_e

that

S

was

-''_r_ su 0+s
.....

necessary

re<! _ired

a7l

In

of

at

Nowcver,.

s<:eeds

_ _)os't_(_rls,
was

and

. l_pes

}'i _._:,
"_- s bee ds
_=

fl_g_'_t
.......

clir:bin

center-of-_£[ravitp

2 .....

low

•o._
_ .
_,_i'<:reRce
..

_:ovement

,,c.

sneeds.

v.:ith

-:,br

-.7........,_es.

,.'light

aipsr;eed,

at

the

at

of

ne.S::_o_

at

to

cor_marab]e

st'e_

the

than

deflection

the

are

te ,'_- ",_, st].cI::-_±..:ed
_'_

trim

sideslip

throus

was

whicl:

pr_cc.T:in_

u_ainst

conditions,

more
by

te_t_,

conditio_.s

of-gra_,]t?
.........
:_oslti_'l

on

-

concius]ons._
1.

',;as

!0

o .... _iI
.....

ti:<

of
fr_::%

vL:r._a-

but

stuble

Despi_e

the

tl;e

force

t._,_epilots.

c!.,arac-

- II

-

'T}m_ center-of-dravity
lon._:_t_dinal
st[c]:-free
neutral

stabil_tv

for

ar,J,..1,
ist,ec7 in

po:.nts

ere

as

dCh/d.,],
,
-r,

and

cravitv

_":._u!d_ccur

conditions

_{tability

d6e/c,C _L

_'.o.4,.tions at

which

stick-_"'_cl

table

iI.

deteP_ined

and
__.:_sc

b-, plottin,g

of

a funotio']

neutral

.... _t,.r

position,

V.'1"_e l'C

0e

elevator

deflection

C:
h

O.]eV,'_tOf
..

_''

CL

ai_'7)]i,

l_.ft

rLl],':'

"

F1O,tll@ ;.1 c,

coefficient

It w'.ll be

_oted

effect

the

little
7.
j

on

that

Zongitudina!

a:_ Eeasured

freelnZ

on

thc

co_itre!s

}m.,d but

stability.

the

ground,

v_a_

'_-,bout

t]_e f_,_cti,)n
....

in

the

]

e.7ev_t_r

c.ontrol

s;,.Tst_._

1_9 !,ounds.

(see

£.

_m-{_.,_s t"riction

tabl _.,i.)
control

fr..;,_l
re_

fo!!,owin_

an

tion

of

tn,

trim

T)o._''Ltio_l

1,.i.k_ imt_ediatel.v

abrupt

],

i.uflue_me

tl,e c,.a,,.,,.-,,in
_.......
I_,

c_nbr_

tO

-,t
....

since
reach

the

effect

sticx
_
_n

illustrated.

in. ft_ure

t]moug}_

the

to

to

its

of
the

s_e_d7
,,

the

T_osit_",n

Due

to

vibra-

_,_culd cr'ee_) to':_:-c'dits
the

e h'Lst-cr "V SiLOwI_
_-" _1::.

fr[ct',,n,
t_"V)rcc

.
position

tk,.cr'e
'_

c_'z.v,";:s

s_;ff:'ci,.;nt ti,m _ was
its

pr_vcnt_

tr!m

c_e.,].ection (_.-_5. _,:)

_irn!ane,
as

v.-as s_i'i'icient

.,.f

.F_ . _',....
...... :_ i0

allow_:_
tn

,

each

foc
case.

tLe

,

all

in
i-C.

I_,:)_,.,.

f_@

ce]_e.>':_ted

flii_,ht

i:'__2N,;:

t-.e

su:..::_?::,,::e.t"

__.
.......
,v'-_s

e ....

i0

all

_-'e,:te

;,i:,.e(l

chord,

t.]L'u

,

travel

....

x; D

(fig.
?
a..

throu/p
v&Piat

l
t"
t_,_£,

<

]_]

!

.", r, ,:-:.

:.'t _

["_

of
P'3i'f},_::

co,::t":

.LO_-......

S}i.):.';K

aL:.:l
o'-

stc:,tdv

].o"_

tJ:P,

<..f

]'(

.'..c

• ......

to

r:.l'

] '"

,: ....

tL,]"TLS

<
+_;,.Oq,:_

,-)f

'4:,<'

b_,i
+"_ :

_]e_r:<.l,_'_,_

C i_@Lr&t_,%',/'

de_.;-'=of
_t=

.:.7 _:__-,_... tk(.
........

/ _iel_t

canter,-_'.'-.£mmv].

tpr_

_qLt

--

.,'J-_.:_ r.ev,)r

,_iL<l_
"

]'crt.r_,_,;

_

. ,:_

:t

:tu"",.,_

in

< t:, L,,/,, _

£:.t'

testS,

__:'" _c.'-

control

.pC:.py,0_eN%.

:_]:{..'r,.t_:'_l

one

;_el]. ',:'it:,i_:

tr.;.,l_:

_,';-_s

< .._r'C_,;_'i_S.i!kc

9.,..t&]?i-:'(:

_ ;_"ic'

.

• t_r

:[r_

_:

°::ick
..

:C_ (:.)).

.,t ,U

20,

_

}?--_,,.. r±_:

_5

L:p-Li._i_p

, •

_ }'..'< ;

bO

_+-_,4

,_,:_;v'tl;cz

;-1:,,_

av',ii:_!:.7_.<

in
[,<

conh?ol

,_:".

fo.'S

s_'_';ci.%nti,_
f&C

t_r,_

::)f

__ ],

:,._]:"

_',._:

of

r_

];C!,i%iOli::_

the

war

I-:::!:_:,_2.
r,'__:<i"v_

IS]_]_0\t:

m

io: _ trim

fst,0i_:;.0S

as

AI,_.},.-_,,:
.:t_.

_-:

_;. I,:

S

_
_
extrc:_c::_;._.tio:-_

_?.t

iri

.[']L_,3

[_.,;'.::P,_

c¢.nt"o

'b._,
:"o

.

....
_'

at,.tu:].'_:

_,

o1' fl.!S_:t

I

by,,

req_llr_:d

Ch<Pact_rir'tics

C,}",£V,:rl

ms:r

elev::tor

eon:kLti,an=

]_ ;£,',) -:

tests

The

hi'

the

'
.........
L,b."__ _"

suru?.,::._

r_.l' "_.]._)V,,':;t07

.-, ...c,

,

.]_t_

:, ..... 7<

....

.....

i:,.:::£,_'.

....

'

.s: , :;t ]-., Z_:

'

".0

<'

:.:._,,.:t-.:

_.
] ,

2L(s),

: +

'

....

L;:

.

,,

' _,._ ....

.....

-

it

is

seen

that,_ with

."ti_:k-_.x,sq

of

.,
;,track

lift

s t 4_
_ ok

from

.ncs:i

+.i__o_.

'it1.:

the

of

1

suited

;;as

cent£r

2

_

in

of

co.

_" i ty ,

@.
" ' :kC
"
:_
._:;
....

_t

2.,,I. inche._
o _..... [-.He

t]R::

:_u!,i
....

_t

0.. g

1',_'

UC'

Ck!_iYi

:'m,

.}.2

k.'>

_'

_-"l_tC:_

mean

...n(-ro.:_,.7"r_mic,.

center-of-

r_oz_cent

cor]"espondkn_

:iilr':L@

.L_ kCi T'i"O_.m,,

a

28.%_

I

%}.]C

k,].th

of

stic_c

c _'

cl",'_<
_'..,

.,

13t'_:,._ 7i_r_-'Ti

t_,.r.rel

v, as

" "
alr,

..,

%=''::_':_-':J-_r'
at
9bcut

,r_
_ t _''_ ,;[
r._/_,.__,.1

6r,:_vit"r_

C'.:ZrX,d,

d.e

......

t

of4

....

movement

,_._.:::-_} pe'"c-cnt,

'_e.:_Od*'_''__,,_._-,.
....r"
only

cn_ter

_._._L_

_

r_ ].i]

coefficient

-

th£

tum_.._<:

_L±l£ ,
"_-

j

15

pt_no

beinf:

_:_,:_ stick,

'.;om,::',,'h_t

a.c

illus

sc.,n'"_tlve

......

_"

to 9

,:;-ue

to

b_:

t!::c

a±,,.,.,.:

i:

s::_.',i]_

"h-.O

the

:,:,orm_] i

pepoopt{i,],

of

th.e

t.,}N_:-_:_

,%_ ic

},

f s

v_ris:tton

;,r:
t _,

of

/'].:sht.

to

the

;.r<r,e n,)s

::ioasur:-.d

'-C!:i::
pilot

,_'_.-'ck-forc,:
"_,V' !'e

in

.:Ls, wn

.;.li
!rl

t_Lr

._!OVe]:'i{:fltS.

_:_,Vnh]_'_liSS

]_ o-._.,_
" " " ions

celepnsion.

c,rv,

r.u_tions

l:.,

"i-uo

:_ cJ.b>_rn%or

_r_ ,._"_sfact,

p<-_suitin_

;-.r.:.v:]

s c;ce.!e_a,_ir:.r_

Yir)'_r_rllJXf£3_

::2!'d!c-n

]Ler'.t

_',i.q.!.i

.soln],at

W,t_.t]

SO

:['o.':"

]..ine_:]

_ vsrlatlon

is

__:_,,.obt::i.!_tn[.]

.__nc

.__l:]]ii[-';._.,

....

---

.\_:_toz _

1.}

C:,b

bl±t_

.._b],:,,t:CLozl'?.b\o
1-ke

tupn::,

a.:_,!

:.n-

]_ c.3;:.'.sed

,-[i0_,",].

,-, o
log

ster-d',

_ ]

F

con;'..rr,Pe,!

_"f.!_._1_<. 2!(b)
boll:

_,.;

t',c

c,_;:_t£:r,-ot'-

r::,,_t_s:,_,-.
:b:ar;irqb:.e
_,,

"_, ....... ]_

'_vcr<

,:'_:K]__%_,-._zis
:}s
s_o-

on

atd

':-,.
with

I:_

fisur'e

,_cceLerat_on .
'_

_)ir_

_'orv,,apd

the

mU,:kn

rc,,EePence

or

o.f"

2,

to

i_.I',,
r_ound,

_;)l)eI[2S

llO

i'OPCe

_, ].ep

value

I'OPCO

'"_=. _;l

.dvnr._m:[c
in

t:urns
.....

i}}

_>,_;._u

c.hcpd
inO,

v,',t

....

:...,

o["

obt_kinod
ic.utins

,

O

]

"

*'

_

:_ e

,.,_

:

,,,

u}-,

...
t;,_,_,,:..,,..---

t},,e

v

.L

=t

.Cp',',]'.,::',t

.,.lth

)

i

....

qu_t._d

-

C_'._!:<.2

""

NO._G'-{1

<,("

the

O0

c,:,.

.

tOC@

q t.I':
.... <.t£OM

dat_.,

,7";-'_-, "i-

s<::_o

" ,;:.,,,,,.
,-- r

...........
,-

v_,rl

.";',']SYi

.....
_',.,

)i-

st

%_.'_;_
"

]l"

_

8]:C,;

: _' .

tke

r,l_Lisolq:ib2._;

,<]',O&ll

no.._tion""
Oi.

(:-:_),

oenteP

v.q:',4h

s,/S]'_I(,s

O f'-

,)r

tho

21

.

(]

r_,3_r.)t['7"_r_ll,

..,+-ick,.
',.,,T,R

(Ei.;[

OX:_)P.L'OI'_O'

_o.-Ltion"
'

}_;£'2,,:1i@.'-]

r_
the

%

4,11].d i_!:_L'DIA'
"
',:.,,
"° _l

, ............

[LLI<I

'

to

'.."]'tk';

O_'tlis''-,'

......

8

pr, co::_-.

::_t:i b_.-_._,r,_e
_' .... --,_

} ri ....ton
b

l{i.-i.

c*_).: eer-te,_'-of'-_Ps"'_t..;.
.....

_]radi£rlt

_

t:be

A,' t

N.

q.%

t'IzzO

_a_,._i c._

to

:-e-,,

.,.:__'

_.....
.... tl " _::'__

_P:_CilOl-t

i[]

O

vi_,r ...........
_ .,..e .%.D,_ ,v i

_'Z'O!£L

DUP_lS

C]n%

.:," <.,:.,:_t:_:::

_

_,e i_ _:_,_
,=:, ;?__

cruzsi_,.g
e,:;_ai

L[

_, f'or',

(2_.,

su},seq'aenI

pounr!r,

stic

pcv_ids

ooth

<Iris' , ao ,_t_
_.""

8

• ,

i,v'.....]1 1

made

<: b__u],[-Eopoe

Tt

,<tOqdV

J t:io.,i

-

_.....

v;_:...s r-}.bouO

co:

-"]

'
,
O_]t:_c_,

,}
,[:.;i

.,_,,_

. ........

iilr_j_t !'o_r'

b,_

E.os

rob.co

""

of

_'eu.'Lv

-¢,.__ue"_
'
of'

pevis<d

-"

This

)
is

test_

%['.,c

t,.,pe.,

been

bzlIt

t:0

cho

limit

t:h,_-: b.:_,_±s

hr_.s

v:>._:_tion

,-

ae:_'.od_,n_m_

ur':,e_

nn

o_
._:.Ow,_

_'_:'Sz:_.Lvskue

mended
(On

is

t!H_

center-o;-__zLt

condi,-ions._

as

21(b)

CV,'-_._30p

.:_r
..../'o--

;-, .... =-'.:n
l'].O'_t

__1,'"

_

-

The
ab.')ut
will

above

"._000

res_its

feet.

the

in

tncre_
;_t a

%he

,n.ear

_50

of

values

At
lower

50
be

required.

tn

e._oab].is}._
o'-

2;% •.c)

..
percent

02

as

tl_e

pos.i_tior,

be

those

for

for
t}-e

where
nl_ttc.d

the

the

$S

mean

25.D

in

,

2

]?or

t,n
c,-ulsi!] C

f_,rthcr
val_._c

a!'t.

_-->ec:ified

res_.:_cs

.._-ear

aei_oi.-niamt,:

of

t:_c

pcsiti,oh
sb':_e_"

of

21(b)

the

pel'cc,_tt

forward

_?_rcent

nece',ssarj

:u__ni_tux

the

t_ost

co.mbat

cr,aisin

S

c}.-)rd
7uean

at

ferce;_,

which
":_,_

the

elevstor

"_ tests

_.!evator

az'<

condition

cor._pa:_'ui:,.l_

with

condition,

_f

required

for

detePmine

la_n_._d{n
o<-are

'deflection

l_,_,din,"s.
....

control

to

a',, the

-_,_;',inst center-of-gravit

of' three-Point

of

9

positions

refere,_ice

_ ....

deflection,

iroJ_

satis/_'£ed.

Characteristics
i

be

These

and
tire

,of

Values

I-D.

as

re@uiremcnts.
will

fl_:p_:'e.

data

the

will

turns

o?

pou_.,ds,

2,

the

the

.['actor

reference

chord

t.o tr',.e

r_:_u]t.l.nS

£_

wi!]

in

aerodFn._:,mic

L'.::rccs

cue

o<

certer-of-gz'avit[;

rearmost

le-::er

<_ositi,,nn

pouhds

load

than

<.f

,".f t_,]pn.

tl_e. allowable

condition,

sl_itu:ie

de_t[!_:_ct_on

ch:::rd_

t'o_.ce

an

%'_:_.vc:u
acce!<_r_ti_n

center-of-mavitv

a

oh<air

fa,lius

to

altltu3es,

elevator

aer,-'dvnam_c

indicate

l,lci:er

eo_ _ a

required

_ed

-

cor_._espond
At

toe ex_er:[enc<:d

decrease

15

_
It

is

tl,e

.__ng

oi_ .....
_,

s]_own

in

_i__tre'_
_
22:_

Lime

_f

cow,tact

pea'tier
seen

_..:, [!:-.-:

t!m _

rot

a

is

_-r,<>u_.o

_-_'"-_,e
e_"evator

- 16

power

is

sufficient

t}:e center
the

of

to

gr_vitv

in

elevator

tions

of

than

and

foz'w',rd

!andint_s

_i_z£Io_

_.erc,ent

:_o perce_tii_,!e

i,s evident

with
of'

dif!cr<'_ice

" _

, .......

35 °

elevator

those

three-point

c_or_l.

requ'remen_s

50o

The

execute
a_: Far

-_,ean aerodvnamic

-

deflections

required

to

noted

_ta.il

_t

are

abo_t

altitude

in

__:_grea_zez.
the

same

condition.
2.

The

landings

stick

were

well

recommended
(fig.
20

in

furt]:er

the

is

history

raised
indicate

i0 °

tail

tr'.m-tab,

elevatoz's

based
o-

a

the

control

m_,,e
_"

limit

",;?_ic_

force

three-n_oint

of

,_ tv_0ical

stic_

_'5 _ounds

landing

befor_

corres_,,onds,

he_vy,

of
were

could

be

as

t]J,_ elevator
:_'_'_q_ate,__
to

history;

contact
to

a

reduced

sr-:eed

movements

raise

was

ob .....
rations

take-o

:)re_ _nte{"

control

,:',{_slr_ddurin[

bilat':_

t,,nical

quic],:l_T, is

u_per

2.

take-,Di'f

on

to

o -_

trim....
_......
}.....

def!ec.tiozl.

anj.le

.... 9ne-_,,,].f

conclusion
time

of

attitude

apnroximate7

the

a maximum

Characteristics
The

adjust

below

_"_,_._s va ,t,_c,

tab. setting

i-k.

req'_ired

reference

")3) shov;s

pounds.

by

forcus

in

tuke-off

tT:_e tail

or

ta]:c....<_.....+
reuc..;e,=

2!_-_s
;';_-_'e g).. :l

¢_¢'_.n ',vhicl-tL[- .....
i ,,r_

.s

_s:;

.....

re_,_u_i_ed dut_::n&1 the

,
"_-

,,,_

- I?

i-N.

Trim

changes

i.
or

Trir:

ai1_lane

chan6es

chanL<es

_er

e]evator
hour

be

seen

thrcR_sh

1_)

speeds,

1'rom

the

that

t]_ese

."n

r_lost

t],e._uDDer,.. 7_i,_-.
_ts
A
of

cbanse,,

in

up-elevator'S-

side

was

!-O.

invest"
trim

tabs,

_

trim

sett{nss

and

"_'t

fisure

trim-tab
flight

25

_,i_7

we're

were

c<.,nelt'.ons.

the

sP_own

_s

due

coffin S

to

vJe!l

'_'

"',.-.

a:_ounting
from

in

to

0.,._°

ooening

the

sc_-_
table

lon_jltudinal

IIi,

trlm_ain

pov._e,r o?

rqade

chanse
",lotted

Combining

no_ition
the

small.

of

t]:e

tke

sr_eeds

the

i0

othe_

c _k_nse_
' .......

s_aail,

it

(fi£s.
f_r

elevato_

kqe
in

stick

against
thes(

6

device

61eva%-;r

......_,_ent

several

120

,_,_'cfor

curve:;

".n refere_ce

"

det]ection

tableVi7

__e_=. radiat.or

c_,a:_t_es
_,_'
.....

the

(,_r

enclosure.

var;,ru_._." -'--

of

These

-'!.

given

d._.e_

resultec

cockpit

condition

pos;tion,

trin,

as

'_vhere

table

are
in

howe_.;ep,

deternine

req,_ired

in

chanses

'
iga_e(_;

_0_,asurements

fli_ht

in

stabi!_It.-!

ionsitudinaT_

Charact,_'_risties
To

static

_

of

i.

values

recol_qende,_

The

resultin[

forces

are

th_

also

and

condition

',vinclo_vs of

in

shoran

de '_'_=ection,

effect

changes

center-of-gravit_

cases,

:_].ght

flaFs

a_'e

All

same

and

to

ans]e

the

in

c!ance

power

clue

only.

approx!_,mtel,,,,
may

to

configuration

in

:_iles

due

-

trim

_ forces

triL%-tab

......

1

force

,_

ar£

.::,erdeglree

}'_irsp,eed
data

sho_,n

v:!ti_

___'o
_ four
t .....

-

_tat!c

stability

evictent

_"
_
___t

satisY_

the

of

sra_,it.v

as

power

far

were

it

:_ossib!e

to

the

above

oercent

120

would
Lateral
I!-A.

the

of

tabs

most

forward

example,

a

given

the

airl)lane

and

t iona!

landing

and

be

trL_aed

minimum

speed.

in
at

of

for

later_llv_

the
taken
hour.

dctermin_d

condition

releasing

sideslip

at

and
all

!ev,ql
then

....

control

cruls_

all

El 0

sr,eeds

and

di_'ec-

qu'.ckl;/

lateral
tLe

airplane

_a_
_ _,, s_ecd_

de flectin:<

i:_ec:_,rdswere

the
taken

and
rudder
of

the

, _.n,- _
_;itc]_!_n_
,_
° velocities,
fc, rces,

oscillations.

several

.?l!.4_t._.
at

controls,

_"_!ing,

angle,

resulting

the

notion

b.7 trimming

of

percent

u_ic<<'itro].!ed lateral

were

variation

120

Control

osc'.llaticns

and

condition

!n]de_'initely.

:_f control-free

flig_ht

wKicb.

tril,mming, device

characteristic._

stra_g_,t.
_.: .

center

t]_c ,mean
at

between

_,in!_ ....speed

settinc

of

is

to

tLe

position

in

it

amDle

2 with

.............

tLe

13,

is

2[_.5 percent

could

Ck-aracterist_cs

The

trim

through

chan<ed_, man_:_'__Iv_, the

Stability

i.

i0

reference

as

the

airplane

Unless

retain

trim

of

cond'Ltion,

_._.

of

m_r

IIi_0 percent

the

forward

made.

-

figures

of

c]_.ord, the

tests

and

i!.

t_e

of

requirements

aerod;;namic

is

data

18

a_ ....
_._,_e
_

a_d
Ti_ese

_:<_sit__ons in

control

measurements

b_t-' _.._•_':;iand

were

_!,z miles

L.-,_.e-

_er

_

tion

The

variation

an.q

of

t_e

]G

of

t_'e

_L_m_ber

of

period

of

the

c[-c]es

to

damp

lateral
to

oscilla-

cne-ILaif

lan<ir_
_._ons"

q.re

tTe

_,_teral

in

less

];'."

a

.7

s}:own

:._"

fi;pme.

c,sc_i!at:k.on

tk3an

one

s.

than

c:<n]es

2.

"o

records

,,::,:ailerons

t_<e

";_
_.._

_,
t_©

wepe

_.o!lowin

control,

__otions

6

an

to

the

control
is

of

. ..

liildeP

nosit_on_

tr'.m

tile

_ _..... c;z

PC_SI;_

dvnamic
,

by

i_.l,__trated

),istr)ries

effect

t0os[tion

induced

istic

to

oo

than
was

more

PeNces
_ ....
_)csition

OF

the

the.

2,_

_:e
_, Id

was

tend

return

-_
._:._
... <:)

of

z'elease

".ndicate

that"

syste:r_,
t_._,., it

tic_an at

o.f tLe
ch_ra.cter-

S

Pud.de_
the

sideslin,
there

low

retuzm

s!_o:',_iK;:t-<b_ic_ll
abrupt

,of

at

less

and

Ti_.is

!'ol].o'{.,in

_ro_lo_loeJ

werr

oscillations

o_cil].a_ien

following

inf.]ue:'_ce

tri.<i and

2

iP. less

rudder-control

an

fiF[_ire

w__,:; released
tb.e

the

deflection°

r:w)tions

l_ei'eFerioo

aumlitud.e

require:nent

followin_i
abr_mt

meeting

cur,,pe_"
'
d.._

in

b-_

tested,

obsel"vations

meet

amolitude

deflection

satisfactorily

failed

trim

abrupt

]:,ut pilot's

are

ru&der

one-half

peqlJiI,e:r]le_;_&s

of

i -.

s_,.,_v,,o_-,
.....
ti.at

condit:.ons

obt_.ined

±r._ction
the

all

to

2_

G<_._:p [;o one-hal

two

.of the

/'or

...."
,._r:

Fi_:ure

._s A,,_,_d

cycle

or):lsid.c:!'Rb]_@

o

26.

d

by .

sr)eeds
the
i_J_"h

kicks.

.....
at

ti'ne

it
a

came

<li.Fferent

fz_i.ction
where

This

.
tlie

rudder

to

speeds,

a:_<i

aero-

its
a _" a

- 20

resu].t

the

following
If--B,

the

recording

tion._
and

and

landing
in

the

with

table

forces
the

28

force

stick

spee@s.

Figure
of

flight

w_th
in

obtained

aileron

were

fixed.

included

_'ere

veloc_.ty;

ailerons

held

relative

v_ith

the

deflec-

deflected

The: results

f_gures

is

a

29

show

by

the

results
28

e.bruptly

for
for

through

obtainable

30-pound

is

in

stick

effectiveness
condition

at

of

results

of

i_

Throughout

forces
reference

force
the

com]?ared

The

each

these

are

a_leron
in

table
tests

of

the

the
}0

and

aileron

pb/2V,

deflection
curve

stick

variation

parameter

summary

recommended

a

the

control,

_._qere the

value
for

and

defined

30

pb/'2V

forces°

f!_.gh=

straight

IV_

aileron

pb/2V

the

conditions

as

m8x_mum

rol].ing

rudder

combat

effect_.veness

s_ick

to

characteristics

as

are

_igures

values

return

characteristics

airspeed:

condition
and

to

oscillation,

aileron-control

stick

held,

cruising

faileel

Aileron-control
The

by

airplane

-

at

showing
speed

and

also

air-

maximum

the

30

the

of

various
the

exceed
2_

and

corrcsponuing

pounds_

values

the

of

sho,,,,n_ The

controls

in

each

IV0
may

b_

summarized

as

fo!l o_,,_s
:

velocity
varied

obtained
smoothly

the
by

with

speed

abruptly
the

range_

the

deflecting

a_!_)ron

deflection

maximum
the

rollin

ail_rons
and

_as

S

- 21 abproximate!_z
This

proportional

"s shown by the

e:_fect!veness
2.

linear

on figures

The rolling

a::leron

variation

deflecti_r_.

of aileron

26 and 20.

acceleration

deflection

_
and no I_o

to the aileron

following

was always

_n the development

in the

an abrunt

cnrre ct directlnn

of t_ie
ro!l'_nc.
'

_ ,,ne_t was

ev" dent.
_.
hel'x

For evaluating

angle

radians

pb/2V,

the

aileron

in which

per second,

b

is

the

the

true airsneed

the

criterion

(reference

5).

E×ccpt

in low-speed

rolls

c,_n<_ition,
that

nb/2V

exceptio:_
of

the

the

the

of' 0.07

z.cason

ailerons

:_aximum

values

aonroached
In

due

of
to

each
the

they

stretch

was

pb/2V

in

to

the

tt,e

max'mu_u
control

as

is

a,ld for

_ @c:'_ic.'ent

than

achieved:

the

_oJ.Is
0.07

.

value
at

the

_n

position

oosit[on,

average

s_rstem,

one

a!]_cz_:);_,

a::d _ _

lest

combat

onl)7 because

th< _,trim

neutral

an

V

requirement

i:_ this

right

values

in the

the

corresfo_din£1:

condition,

the

left

mt'et

of

F in

has bee_ used as

,zCas obtained

in

at

the

and

speeds,

aooroacLec_

cruising

0.055

,_,;ere

other

snan in feet,

to the

Oosition

hitcher

of

ve!ocl

obtainable,
0.07

trim

At

,of tie

of

the

is rolling

per second,

failed

be

tk_e value

rolls.

pb/2V

ailerons

0ff-center

same

rizht

in feet

p

effectiveness

hi<;h

available

of
soceds,

- 22 ailero._:

deflection

" ,Jbtainah.le

and,
__derabl.,.

w,: ._-.,.:.cons

,_
'_r'

accordingly,

conditions

testeci,

",';_t
:. cor_troi

deflection

remained

in

at

tl_e

lowest

effectiw_r_ess

per

Tills reductior_
lar_Te
that

values

air

dimin!s!'ed
In

pared

IV

the

the

iin_ited

results

As

condition

the

magnitude
measured

marked

the

reached

reduction
was

noted.

comparat'w_v

occurred

at

the

The

e

effcctiv(_tess

an:7 land,n

time

effect

of

tl_e ai!_rons

6, conditions

shown

bevelc.=

in

was

ar_._

!andin,z

a_d

cases

ground),

the

}:'[ven_.
aileron

2[)I and

are

,_e

,,-..o..

com-

tn

mainly

_
ailerons

with

reference

I

and

charact<ristics.
g0,, the

var_a_.L:)n

at!erz,_] deflection

of

f,t.r each

s.....
o. _ e<'.rve
sm;il

"_
the
eon<_..ti..nn,

('_n sone
the

in

witl:
a

was

trailinc-e,l<.,

figures

force

speeds

on

t!_e aileron:_

range

_a_:'_
,_<_.

tested
low

of

i_provemcnt

aileron-control

in

of

definite

)4.

At

re!a,tiv<:

9ower

de-.lection
a

c....n.)tant

:!nc'_easln,_ airsnee.i..

deflection

c.f tests

increased
show

was

nb/2V

t'_D a_<rsneea_.

_rJe def.__cient
to

to

that

a

<of

_OP,

def!ecti_n

lar<e!v

.'._
vo.!oc!.tv

cruis -_-._,_,{"
combat,

at

tl_ere,

anzle

w_th

variat_

essentially

control

(i)

.,.__dl_

table

f:_r the

_u_it

sideslip

me..xi::_m roll:n

the

_e_
s...<,..a,,:

at_,_)earod due
of

pb/2V

_r redu,_ed.

ai'

excent

the maximum

!(ss
and

_<':"_ections,
stick

particularly

fo.rcos

were

t]_:_n the: friction
t_._eal)ilit7

c,f the

of

small

f':)rce
c:_ntrc!

- 2_

to

center

itself

[_o_vever,

since

satisfactory
of

appears
the

in

friction

th_s

effects

on

of

of

deflectien

,:Jith increasing

snoncl

to

tren_9

are

control

variation
of

full

to

is

ground

the

deflection

in

to

be

values

realized

in

a!leron-control
reduction

for

2_•

doubtful.

self-centerJ_ng.

a

given

forces.

deflection;

changes

not

progressive

stick

be

controls

_vere

surfaces

in

to

likel:.." that

in

-"_
and
f,_a.ures

_-,_

st__Ck

due

it

b?I the

the

curves

the

flexibility

deflection

the

reported

w_'.s actually

indicated

of

data

the

sy,--,ten are

shov_'n b_,.-the

the

respect,

tlte cor_trol

The

from

pilots

measured

f.].ii,
ht and

-

the

all

of

departures

t_le trim

stick

This

of
J

in

is

end

best

t_oints

','_hich correfrom

positions

the
of

the

s !lerons,
5-

Aileron

deflections
be

seen

w,ith
below

the

in

that

stick

higi'_-speed

full

control

reco.,_auended

approximately

condition,
condition.
li!,_.itation
obtainable

and

forces

belovJ

For

flight.

miles

2_.0 riiles

as shoran

in
in

In

force

hiL_!.er sDeeds,

results

e_,:cessive

deflection

stick
220

were

per

30

hour

obtained

cor_'2:_at

30-pound

_.0.

may

in

a

the

It

only

l;our

in

be

_0

large

pounds

Fer

a decrease
f_gure

figure

co_Id

of

for

in

the
the

cruising

stick-force

values

of

pb/2V

interest

"ncreased

devel)ped

requ'ted

as

effect

Ne_atlve-

*ihedr,
._

power-on

sidesl!_)s

to

an

,t7 ).
uns:,_etrical

was
a':

_:._ is

of

the

nos_t_,,
e.,_ect
to

"nsta,Lti ' ;"
distribu

a;:i":l{ of
-_ :n

,_s,

t):o

.<_st

-..

......
_Lo:._

s peO(iS

probabi[;
_._ the

prcpei!cp

in

;' _
)art

)

!

£

t

a

S

_

[;i

_'
,..E"i,- s
due

[

:

_

C)

_-'

:

i

i'
lr:

erlCO1l_,lliei'od

1_:__;.
'-'= a,.
_
low
"s

"

,_< _ -_

,,

tv

"

a [ .__ ( l t • _ ];

,

_L "_

a

L_t'_ _

Li'l,.i _- ' [ "_",
;- '- _-

I''I_0:1

()_£"_::ktOl'_
-- -

d.

b_N_

functions

dihedral

and

_

,-'_

i_i _i

S

plotted

e

"

an%-!

rl._lJ.dqP,

The

st(-![<__.._;
sic_£.-

(

nr.esented

in

]

are

w c_s t,
icF_z_r(i

t

an<j::l,s

sideslip

"--

to

=

results

d_Ic

(di]_edral

'

moon,lit

aileron

the

_

roiling

._tJ.,!(_l]t
circe t_-_ sideslio

]

"_tlc]_:/slve

position,

._2,

a,_proacb

_

rollins

_

Zg,
w

ef.fec-

.

die

The

would

....

slins

rolls

s,

g _::si<lel'e,x dtsil'_b]o,

S

:b:< record!no

aileron

roll

aileron

"

Tim•

t ......
iia,. al'e

values

t]Je

,

i.

of

if

e

iim'ts

that:

,

II-D.

200

note

cgnd:tion

_ i _ lOllS
"

COt,

:l

.... _t - of
i _'_"

specified

in

t±_se _ "

'

sidesl!o

]_1

to

tl0

_

the

v<ere

of

_!et

}<

tiveness

is

tkerofore

result

a i!e _'cn

_

It

v;a<.,

• [rl ....
_"' !i

devel',pec_

be

:l

_

shoui@

'0

a

17_>
; : a-:c_ landinC,

t[

"'--

20

combat,

g

tfvli_

_ .)_"_:
i_

as

lov.,-s}_eed

'

less

ctit' _.cul

"_,

that

cluisins,

the

t

_o
.,,_]!o_-s

.

in

deve]ooed

r{

as

c_._lection
_

sideslip

C_

were

of

3.

aile
_o._
_" .....

angles

i

full

.maximum

0

of

ailerons

_

The

to

l

due

:

Yaw

_

,, ll-G.

- 25

the

slipstream

over

:_d_er

than

s:._T

increases

out

on

the

ro]ling

tion
of

t!_at

over

to

r_u_

In

the

of

dihedral

2,

ti,e

the

may
as

tl:e

be

the

considerst'iv
"_n._]le -)f si{_,-_-

:_]ip_strcam

increa_zng

as

The

silown

the

,._

cated

_7
o

tion,

may

resuTt

s

in

._oves
tl;_

f..::rth_r

3eft

t]_e

where

noted;

but

again

small
on

the

_,:<_ent

cause

o:' _-a'_.v
due

aileron
the

angles

in

was,

all

nounc]s
deflections

st__ck

a_sociated

forces
_f

the

s-._a!l

,:_g.tk_n_cativc

was

negative

be

en.<ou:-j_ to

varia-

no.-

'considered

pilots_

but

_eas_i_ed

_

!!eceus_

forces

force

as

the

effect_

stick

ver_;

small

exceeding

oh ..... teristic

oo'.nts_

_:ere

at

"'_ sl! _
s_,.e

dihedral.

this

_,Jas little

i_..:ure >9

stea£,_

v.qiere

stick

_._l._!n_
Circat

_leron

t]_e

forces

frlctio_

the

bF

_solate_

in

@'_
__
i_.ee._al

effect,

objectionable

d_Jta

rarely

nci!atiw)

of

the

forces

ne_ative
.,

ind.ica{__d

dihedr::-!

airs_,ee._

"
_s.etermined

as

maf.n_tu<]_s

v,,ith

variation

fl:i__:jl}_t
conditions

ind.!cate(_

there

b_

in

the

condition,

effect

small

a

left

_,:tt:<-_%
tkereb:,

cases

tl_e

winf:]

7eft,

cr_3isln£

_idesli_

also

r.[gnt

rloment.

_ic]eslio

of

the

-

not

the

aileron

act_a_]
t_an

was

the

indi-

deflec-

_a}&_nit_des
va_ue

of

oC

_ro_md).
due

_{ revcrs_l
to

by

the

(less

di)-__ra!

_i].erons,

to
of

sldesli_
r_llin

altho_ch

'_vas _ev_.r
C
at

velocity

as

Io';¢"sr,eeds

- a6

(as

noted

in

reductions
•_T.._-_.T:'.

in

:.,_(td,Jr.'-

to

the
teste

the

to

adverse

r_-_'lS

_,_e

.....
I., tO

competition

sides.]__o

re,<ardLn,e:
....

2.

the

the

suf:?icientiv

for

those

_:)nsidered
....
7.,
t,ho

at

is

of

C

ade(;uate
_

for

sevora!

incipient

sT)in;

ever

tion

bl_e

ot;,.r;],

for

re coverv.

v '_ d._

in

7

ai_].cI'o:ls

hour

the

reeo)_.ds

secLes
in

no

(LN(iV/_I

ma_:

.... J.n

conclusion

t_'_S

OOhd!_;JOY].

hlr_tories

of

-_):
) ,

directio.'.la!

cr)_,t.z.a-L::.,

easily

_cb.e

rudder

;',as also

sround-_andlin£_.
_'_ st ali
(JTiz'in_ t.._e

hub

;'_:::es rolled
tlT_

a

contcol

: .'"_,_,X_ effectiveness

case

angle

c<),:.bat _',_,c,_,_c,

for

time

landing

,,'yc.-._e,

,_!:"roll;
to

OT

the

;_.o_,
_-,'ma>',im_;m

_o .....
.<uue;,

"_Lrpl_ane

be

Possible

per

sat'_ _:actory
_

,',;ere

t_sts

,=Je_ be

all

obtained

would

i _'i._<)s
, 2_,
.......and

ta
=

were

<,ttsined

tk_e

ta<.e-,of"

._r_RP_OLIV0PS.

<:,_n

;.,,C

in

oowerfnl

in

ro]ls.

v.1;eru

t)_.e ruddcr

indicate<]
and

_imn

aileran

:j_)miles

a__r'"
_]]_ane

ther(,, L'DI
......

!and'.ng

ne Ce :,,:,arv

moment,

t]::e !,<._j,.!_s of' a

oower

_ower

can

As

was

by

,:]I
_ _us.xirnu:n rate

_,
-_ ;;aw

tv"'.cal
....

yuwing

_,,L.L]es r:" sides].io

indicated

pa.rt'.al

before

ai]_ero

c,:_.entlv ., powez.ful

slil'fi

t .....
ma.',<.£m_;T4
yaw.

left

perceptible

t .<c s

ailecor_

]ar_ier

th<_

wit;}_

stopped

is

was

J._:_.l-deflectl<)L.-_

_-_'c=ptions

t<sts

COfltpOl

counteract

,

in

effective_Less.

c!",a__-ac, ter

_

resulted

rudc]e_ -_ (fi,,_<s_
. .,_I throT_S],,, 58)

_leoess_r.,..

of

-7-), is

aileron

pile!tier

overcome

with

the

TI-B

ccntrol

[_,@

conditions

-

paragraph

-

off

rudder,
orovi,ied

inLo

at:

i)_ cen,i_,Tncthe

/'ol_ces

IL.
cu:..'

e _

The

slopes

shown

in

t__.e airt_l&ne
rlL<t,t
'¢o

and

hold

c,..rze
....
In

the

figures

meets

rudder

_1

the

of

the

refcreuc_

pounds,

_, P.

force

t,er

II-7,

_:_ee

stsbl]
I

_s

anol(._
"
s of

less

_.tate_d

in

20 °

2

the

and

in

tht

r_:qu'_rement_,

variatlon

of

o,.

ruode.r

airs_)eed.


.L.o.
_ ,
si_]esli.,_ (4iz¢coxo,l_l

to

in

crit'.cal

_ _ '"

the

_a-"
imum
.....

_.__"_
_._-,ro__
,._olls with

!ov:-su,eed

satisfied

5)he ",av:_n,-_moment

l<_d:.r

always

is,

to

r:i.g]utin

the

Fro__ figure
s.'desll.ns

sideslip

the

und.e_ ........
_-._..:raph
. (.t_
c...

hence

the

nearl-r,

trim.

the

cotid.[.t
i.._,,o
"_-_
requirement

were
of

,-:" ,

re_(_]'ellG(:

the

the

v,.iti:

s_..deslio, develoned

than

t}::at

its)

is

rud,-ler fixed

2

_t.._u_'-'ed

di,_3cussed

me.etin;s

_.'.0. s)<_)v_s.
.

due

that

d "'_.L,:_
the re_'luire,d ru,_9der forces

stdeslip

Y':_wing moment

force

._c_te
'_ '

ind

always
from

conditions

thereby

Figure

...

and

I(.I¢_
,t,ce
"' "_ ,e,

of

_,. oal_

p_'_,cedin<,, f:)u,
_. para!sru_ohs
.... ,.

_!!,

requireme.ut

....p...on__n_
_l: .-._ def!ectqons
none

oositlon

tt.rougb

r_,,dder forces

left

5,

of

}9,
in

d;r_et/onal

moved

i.u the

left

ahowfn

due

S

t,m

rudder
.... D.,L.4ut

w'_s s_ch

d'.r(ct/on,

results

cond'tion,
is

d.eflect:'on
the

correct

summarized

sta_bi.!itr
of

siCes!i,)

o=,_eslips_'a, arid vice

ct'uisi..u::_,

tho

to

snee.u

be_u.-r.
__
ran<e

re::_ire:./

ti_at

w_rs<..

for

tl:e

it :_;l_"}.'.e seen

,)i .........
_.a,Bo,_a.._.!e.

that

that

,_a_"_'tude
<<_r

de,free

x
>,

it may

Q

curve3

is

3:3) that

in

the

correct

dlrect_.)r,

co'.ti_tions.

tend

to

the

s_eer,.i

c,7-,:_)Tet<
._

r

"_f

of

_

with
where

th:[_

"fe'_s
....

of

in

th:ts
_-_ -,

,

tl-'e
res::,ect;

7

in

_tmmd-i

!'o:"c,)s

airpl_ne
the

the

ate

w_is

_._-

i,,_c;
!or

ru: !er-

_ctv.rn

to

not

encountered

s.
,i-

"

_.c_l,:,,[z<ib]e
c.:tse;_
_

-

.

_.......

rcce",t_r.,

beet_

_:-'-

me_',._. .........

h.

_-"

_t,d..e_-__ rc

]tare

indicate
the

'.'th

Lr'd [oat-

_ate,

c_

the

r....

_......
tl_e

t_ith

r_cder

a4r,.7
_
:

to

_.

var'ittion.s

bccn

encounter_d

objecti<)nabl7
falrl:?

be

vt]_ues

o.?

]iii_h
::_at!s

rud.fier

'"" ct
....
' -0r77 ,

force

l'C':ll_l[rez

[]

b.

the

"ith,,
....

bei,._.

_'"_'_,.<_(_.r
_ "

zero

t,t

-,",,7

.. ,.

_..+_,-;...._._
.......
.,

th_

ind'zc<_' _ed<, a[rspe(.d

_',r'ce tr___.],,C.,
_-"_ -"
_0

.).;,

a rudC..(:

'_ ,t
t_<_!;ir._{

pounds,
)lOll]"

-_

Dower,

_r,...hour

an

if

an-ile

_

a
an

tri_:_ position

an

variation

":P-:_J_
:

tnt

]?sqv.-_-,r_,,

sevcrat

force

that

o_" frlcL'Lon

t-

_c,_<;ard4.ng

a_<_-_l_
.,._ ....

force

sldo.t!i>

ruddcr

r±O

2

rc<'erence

rudder

27)

the

:...':<Dh.c_;i

c!taractet'is_'c

<

wit!,

orc:vent

_ "_.4 e_:ip
......
_7

t;]':0,

the

a:sure:-

its

effects

(_i"
_ ,_.

_{ev_rs<__,
-e

to

v_:)u.!d

trit_t

'

_m,is

return

released,

&1"7 7

t}_e sides!in

tlmoush

control

ill

"n

51

all

v:il!

seen

(ti/s.

increases
for

be

.,

be.

d" :L .c.,=
._.

tJ

1 ,-),-,,
.....
_

f:..>"ce_ .....
_
_:,_.: _ .._._.'__ate!v_,
tT.r,ttl_
+'7_.m_

_,'_,,-'.a_.,..,
.. /'mete
:_f

' "0
_i.o

at
of

about

t,3o
" "

tc:i,._u_ze6

_x.-,:.,w,_"ies
.......

"
::ff...<ts

t,_.

>:.<-.r u_r

mil_,s,,
r_-.,o

ter
oou:lds

"

zero
'_:tth

at

r_ted

T,;
,_,,+_..,r,t-_f")rce

,I_00 m.tlr,s
t}:_.',s
77-q.

Cross-.-'_v!_,d

-<]wavs

barS<
t .....

i_,

_]_

+

the

......

q ,. 7'.>)
) '

teste::]

a_.ro!_,ne
iI-]]:.

steady

sid

£'+
i -l_,. _i.<,r_ s

._f..

_

+_;_,t

to

exceFt

L,he

uncle
c<,nt

of

+

+"i<_s,

,...e '
t-'_

_'_r
,_'_'_',.:...
......

,<].j.din++i:

to
with

j

the

m/.n!_i_].',_

Lr)..
_ -,,,

or

l£_t

req'

' ....eC. _ VJ<_Pe
...lu.!

a"rr.-,].r_nes

of

its
of
si+,Li]

]7:%

TXL.trKIS,

"

s i d e slip

by

the

_,,,_te,'_d
7
,,
sradicnt
an

u,uC].e

of

s:_deslto
"
,
of'

t_le
_......

r,ursuit

(-e

_'_•

sideslip

ansie

when

in

all....
than

the

co:,._ar[,}
.

].e

sideslips

o_'
fe

trim
was

at

_.

v,'itb

those

the

f!_cht

in

moved

act_a]

con-

wit].,

con_-]_+t+!ons
''

the

all

L_

]o

by

in

com_/iLL;_ce

rudder
m}
_e

shown

l_

lonsitudinul_,

mos_tion,
+

t:rpe,

=,3)

o'-,_.ra(-ter!st'cs

les,,

;nainta. in

rilaf,rll"by.de

am

.Ls

au.

s_>eed

triy_

s_eslir)

.....

+

;)_" t c_:._n.g
'_"'

o:-)nd.ition.,

,.,:rsreq_,_.ir_,rl to
of

,,,ri th

ce

;:i:o+vn

oi;'

....
r<-;r:_.Lre-_ents
-:,...,
.
,

froi.._

sideslip

due

ans!e

. sts

"
_ .-.z._[:}Lt,

in
.f'orc_

than

mo:ne.'Lt

elevator

- _'P

i'or,

as

_.
_.'ide

m::,-_(:nt due

_"Ltc}_n
::_f

at

vious!y+

Pitcl_.in. 6

vapie.tio.u

The

t]._e t}mottle

[: f:)r(,.<_ )_' aL-]_S;

direction

s:'p].].c_

")rc

TL_
tl_(_

(]uttin_

_u_,£: aj.rplane

....

_o,,Tnd.n_ :_s -equired..

.... _
cros..-_--_,++].n<_

oC

iLr)ld

>,..L..h,+..:.

i00_

c]:aracterist.l¢.s

c.,orr._ct

t,.,

thpo,!

.

Force

v_r_':'+at:i.on

r{,,{-_.',re(]

_L' ._ T_ _a

}oqr.

co..'dit].<;:_,re,Ntlres

T],o
wus

_e,r

of

e"
l!0

_,
_e_-_
+_risht

9

defl_;ctio,:,s
note

_
,..

on

Ii--![.

<':)',_er
of
!.,

!SO

_:,:: r_.-l.._._-,,
t_'_m

_,-_,3_,0-,

'5!1(';

7f 0

i? e_' c e.q t

t]_£.

cr,_,is

r:]ents

r_J.clc_erand

' "'"

of

al].

o "-_ ref,<renc,':

The

ailcro.'.

col.ditL.)_i;s

',:._._ .n

tr

! !!.

:rine,:-i

were

f'lic]it

_n

reta"-'

.of t]:¢ ruddc:r
eSS

,Z}_,ai)'_:ert

__

t'_v,:srslj-'_te,i
1
faLric

(

2.
each

_

crui

wt.h
?..in_

clean

Two

and

in

i},

ta_',

WaS

adcgu_:.te

to

7 r

..

_........

for

ti;e

t_im

.].'or

_._ .....

inclusive};

tho

c<',iir]'_t:'on
wLile

_.... , _-'_" is

the

:_..,_ ,f

...._'
",n,.,-,

uoted.

t,[,e-'

b_

-_ .._,._._.,,_,'
,'"

de_;io.os

i;::itel",

!:"_se_"',_e

Lili<'i

20-millimete3:_-ju_

_"
• _,.o t,,"-es

climb,

wave

-0

d_-.r-,,,,_
uz
_:'*_',

911d

:_rran:Tc_ent_:

"_,_.
_1

___a,2;
..e Curt

_:e._, a-:_'_-la_'_e__,•were

_ a_d ! :'.,<,

"o]!r.;_',[]_

w_[_lg)(fi_.[s.

wing, _ _z_.d fuse

fabric.

t}:e

.,
].s_-ios

char_:c;teriot'.,.

plidln;,

:.,_u."d

.for eac]_

_ail]&]

t]::elr

sta_li_],
t}_o

,"-'-..,.:,be

uo.o ',:as neutral

[7117

.......e_red

_ii'i:Is ].0 tkrounh

-t _
......
t-.,
z i ::_1
__-C_aracter
i'i_<'

. ,

of

rcqnlrc-

_,z_'.?_
r_.c_d."_
_ 3;'o_'c:._s
re:lu._red

,oz

_, c,.rves

i;owor

t_c

cond._ti,_.:z..q.

all

stab_it

quti_sf])._.nC_

:',i'
} J_.7 J:, t:r:,s

ST_eC

;.n_d_:P

",:,-,u]c!

t}c'_(_.bv-..

2.

<)ilot

P

ta}_ wa,_ .s_._f'c:._c-_tl_<_.owerfL<l

_ _''_,

___,1_ooond-_.tio_

tl!c sett'_._

devices

_'

_<,c_,
the

,._iTero_,_tri_,_'.n_

norts
);())

co\.e_-ed

covered

' "" were
o_'" t"a.LrLr,<_

do,_e,_

.

- mr;ck-uns

r'orts_

with

tested

insb_!led
with
on

iz_

d,::)ibcd
the

-

20-r,._ll.m,t_r

_uns

difference

stallln

miner]
will

in

Lctween

te_ts

records

as

the

held

laterall[

!$1(a)

airspeed

b)z

to

sun

tal:in_i

fo].iov_ins

deter-

discussion

.open.

continuous

instrument

"_-'_:te

Observations

were

tl_e
maqe

..,Jzn:.(s

wcpe

of

tufts

At

the

fa:,tened

the

nther

cases

_,.._
,_tt.,e_._
"

nendent!y
ct<_.:l{_

in
-' q<3:

lateral

the

elevator

Fu(/@er

_

attnmpt
was

}:ist_rie.,_

aileron

to

m,:_ntaln

botiz

'
fo_

._

St<,l!s
•....,_rd,

and
Ln

incl_ded
Values

in
of

obtained

°._n the

table,

gN::ese

various

_l..e<_;

control

_.;.,o
.....

s

wa_s

1 ,_ '_1

_o_ed

at

vs_-.d.
....

back
in,te-

attitu'.le,

u,:_i_.b

'pronounced

several

tygi(;sl

and

are

st_.]Is

are

discussed

_,.... "...... ,ted

".n the

fo!lov.,[ng

i

detects,@

not

s or_o cases,

f]rst

encou:,_tered

,-{...._.,_I.o t}mou[:l-, 55,
J

wings

"')_* .....
_ v,'_s pt'.ll.::dfa_ _e

as

was

both

v,'ere, in

or

taken

..nsta).t_.Ltu

para/ir'_,)_s.

be

t_,:e cnntro!s

t_e

speed

T-me
]_

stall,

ran'f "{co of

we;_e

aft
the
the

ros£.tions,

C,.1
_'"_o ,_tl_

s _"'
ou=i
va_Lues

_'_'
,_

lift

ccntcr

the
b',_t,

since

.......
c,-L_rsc:.e_

stallins

,,:-;a.nimum

cond'.tions

m_ _.:_ w

n:)

-.s t...-_cs ,

oe

_
,,..."_'fol_;_ioe

this

i:_
co<ll

_ct')_'
J'_.....

"_'

.LOll .

coefflci_-':zts,

i,asc,.:t

:)p_ data

te :_ts , at(: ere.serte_-_
_

iIn

the

were

to,

_._,

wtLere:'.n

Zrr._tt):,r

die b_:].,;'.ned
'_n_

ai:.prosch

IfOllOWiZlf:

frou
to

the

I

stall

""

I:

}

_

e

was

.

wn_:l!e

L.:e _pper

"

in

of

,

to

I

sicn

no.

either.)

eorts

decreased

(Since

co_.:!Idbe

the

appl.Tin_

was

T level.

_l(b))

charactertstics

Zr.sel_L_e
-'_
-

made

and

fairinr's,

as

and

were

S

two

b<.' considered

TKe

m

(fb:fs.

the

:,,_,fn<

_ZL

j

S

- _,2 -

verst

grad_a!

m!nimu__.i
in

and

soeeds

fi.3ures

stall

is

:_axim<ml

are

not

in

general

s_"_wn.. ".n the

1,2 through

too
l_ft_

to

of

For

shov:n

rermit

coefficients

w'.th

t_
'_,_,,..,
histories

55.

abrupt

ct.nsistent

ti_e

use

for

stalls

of

st'ills

ub.c d_u_

steady

the
orc. sent_d.,._

in

in

these

t:ime

cu!culatins

flight.
]lax i _num

_'Ii _ht

cend!.t

ion

Wins

h_lf

of

8u:ns

_u-,,_i ,_±!r:letcr
clean

, .....

20-mill'.mete,

_'uu _,

I

r

0

l_J"_._.j
c,

• ]

?.8
P

r' 1

@

0 U

"cient

was

cond'tion.

tr:_.i_in;
each

-

_. edge

aemisr,

re

_i].

r_f

an,

s c_e,_l

st[_i:o

the

As

the

'¢:i_.<,

<:.:tendino

s_o_-:ecl

tl_e

<_:.
_,d_'_n,<,_
c)n<_!tion

w-_'s

ow_r'
f'urtLer'

the

middle

decrca.._ed,

a i__ o]
.or

than

over
in

as

a

the

left

......'

S

roi!

back

v.:h!le

left

roll

would
into

to

we_Y,
__-_._,,

_ _
holc__no

tl_e

occur
an

_
s.',te_,'.[:t',,t

condition,

whi¢,t_

mag_nitude
this

_.)e _,.,

,,_.

"

i]i'eateI

_

_

cv

t;:e

_i;,ht

win S .

clean-win

ri;<ht

sufficient

developed

bre<,--r__

the

mild

ignoring

t_te

]

extent

......

1

the

c)eff
1.5

2C)-mil!'.r_et_rcie_n

]1

G_iOin_
.....

the

lift

_on

clean

Ol id in 3
Gliding
Cruising
C_is
in C
LanCinc
Landin_.z
_._e
- o ff
ll'T
._av(_ - o ff

![lon[

cond,.t

.,;.,'as

serve
the

as

s_,:s!l

:__>

corr_;ct,

a

st-,)l

stick-,va:7

otLer
fo].]owed

oscillatory

-.<s

t,P<;

contr'o!s
]::_z u
spir-_l.

first

c,ii

....

v.:arl_in8.

moved
f__x_d
ra_<id

,;'_s

a

risht

haP,nAy

of

!f,

.__ittie
.
(fmc.

evidenced

fartker

i._
,_c),
r:_i!

a

mi Id

_[l_
_:L
! C;l!

_ntrol
.........!_,e
uT!ero_s

could

be

ms.intairLed

"_lo_le

( _if-.

:_ck: u[,_i:,ro_.:imate!y2
.'.t

' a
t:L'.t

timc.

res,dt<_!

a._

on]. 2

Tjsc
L'::_i]cd

of

to

in

the

am

t["<_

._.

the

<he

_'_-_" ....._
o>.,e,._

60 °

_,._n.
"' _ e.<9 iatel:,r

rovel'SLLZ]_

,',']_,_-',-,

as

f'or L],_e cleau

accompanied

' to71

by

s_cc_ _.'<.(]in:._

.,._eft

s_:on,J_.n_:,

ri/!;ht

clev'__tor

c.:)ntrol

Atte<];,ts
t}:e aileron:;
t:o

t]!ose

diffic<_It;T

.<':_r

roll

to

to

t]_e stall.

_" ck
c,_c

a roll

(_-"
t]-':e

a small

_14)

rict".,t

,

value.

the

sta

t:,_JI_<., to

the

r±_u"
-'_ _ oP

the

the

left,

t}_e

..... r, osz77

airplane

I{ecovery

elevator

and.

ai7er,ollS

_:_o<:k-,z_s..
..
izzsta!led,

<_ccurred

the

mo_ed

at

&<out

ugaiz:,,to
sti

bhe

to

_,_,_.win_<._ even

fartker

bac].:

control

the

motions

and

rudder

indeT,

eudentl!

the

- ",,_._
,._=,
.... _ w".:n_.

in'.

sJ.deslio

same

soec.d

ri..7]:tand

than
tho_.-i_,..,

(fig.
t]:_o

_ cave

_;.os._ez_tlv
-'.
_
,

the

the

was

t]-(_ ri(d-t.

s]oner

cle

to

_:J.coorCLnating

at

of

_,'_,._ considerablzr

was

,_ulled

to

aft

reliev_nq

t_ C oz, tn_

_:-_.

f:_een

to

ro].li:lt_

of

spin

v.,'inc,_as

roll

_ had.

_:_ilot's obse:_vation)

"_v;:ic}_

:_ m:_Id

of

control

roll

augle

bj ""
und

_ea_s

acceleration,

inches

20-mi_l.limeter--gun

.].n]t_a]
t'at

of

!.nto a

r_id.der

L:itl, the

mai.ntain

2

a_]

effected

_,._.

to

from

over

(accordin.. 7 1:o the

s_:dde_] 7 sna_)i)ed over
WL:° ,_

rolling

rate

at

,_l_c.ed
_
_

in

airL;l.ane

_,.,__._.].ane,

about

alone

stLc]

by

tl_e i_)os_tion
int

increase

}told

st.ic]:

from

tne_

reversal

r_'r__.der

',:,reve:_t

L_util

izzches

_!].eron

alt}.,o_!d< ].t did
.i.th

,I_5)

succe_sf_i]_y

ccrre-

the

I.!__).
stall
results

beca_se

.'<nd bank

the

The

b;.* use

of

s_.m,_'iar
.of

the

e::oer./enced

in

the

nartLc'',_._ar

r',m,

_1"Fd,_s. ..... '.,} Oil

WOP(_

osc,!llatfons

t}

.::f.

_} _'i IL.
_(iO_ _

VlfiS

fairls,

_''_z_',_e

q _:@Ci
_ _ONeo

am>_]_:tt_tle
S[b ,O,.,'_% iYl

i{/]

f

.:.

-

i

v;itY:

fi]-e

ti,_n

L.%.,

stLc_:

. _
:,_,'..<t

bc

ot.i

er

,:t'llte',
......

-','._
.....

_v,:-d

......
n mo]:"e

cPit"

,.iust

?_11

u

W't_

]'v
,,_

t_tC, i'_l_l

_D_'Di_'tq:

'-F

dov'n
at

:'n
tl<e

reduco

t,

£ *,-

the

_,<,
C

t}_'c

ti_e

:_:_me cas

not

i_71t

st_]l,

easier

<_"
,.......
]i
i!__

to
the

control

wlLet,
_s

alwaT_s

k-xp( rlence<

_o,

c _nd!,_t':.t,n

,_.(
_-'

from
_.le,,mt:-_r_
-

loft

_-_-_-_.
,, _._

,stall

c,,:,t?o]

_+u;.,_, ."',_rst

c:-)nd[t:T..::_n

"FI.'I.!_R@IICOr)I
.....

TM

_.i].ero:_

snatc}".ing

_' .... _"-_
±_,
_,_.....

.... ,-_" r!o,o_.__l_

eased

'rnC,"

C_UneC-

r_'.:,

_:_e
.......... st'o1

attained

_,.,; .ch

control.
_I:'_
..... 1_
"_c

co;[_diti,,'n

wini_;.

tl-;e

_.s

the

]:;,]._ea]-<lov,,,.1

sore:td

"
WI.TIT,S

_]:C;:l

hl]m

L__c;__].£'"1W'.,S

t_l,_

eP-"r-cteO
__....

foz'v.,a_d.
evidence

wit:.=

i._e

t'o_id

of

flow

_,':'_.{,

clean
soeed

vats

soanwise,

brea',:-

was

noted

ft._rt]cr.
al _..,!:,___-_
'
t_:o

tieRr

t'OI'VTtiPC[

t}.o

w'-±_].D_

<",

r]]]_£

the

_Ca.-L
.

r'ecT)Tcrj

tl_c

o-'

tli:Ls

tr_

back

time

:)D< Ti.

air--flov:

e::i:c;
"

ti;¢

a, _.,-q _:ence
_-

corldit:'.,.on,

of

i'_l

stalied

t_li)
...

cruisLnq:

z'>ot

trailLn

s]-_r;vj':_
....

_-_-.Trrt_v.'n-j

Crui:sir,.;:.

cos:lo

:_oted

F_]_I

t},_:tS

_,'_""_'
.........

si].;f

P,,DI>[;S

fo?

be

c].cTator

+h_llv

!ate.r,

......... c.xs_q
'.-ill

7[zi

:_}'.oold

Lr:d.icate

back-

atrpla;le

:>;_'
both

.,......
.,'OWl ,, C.OTItI'O]• S't_
" "_"<_ "
<-_"-_'.r.
_ nt. .

Oal

,-]".J..7ic:ant
....

;,,',rt;_e
.... :_

;t
04"

a]m,oGar'.cs

staT,].e

the

back.

cond_LtLa':

use

i.os _,__,]c: b . the

152., c)ntr<l

.f_}t

_, L _
it-r-:

t]_e :'1.Ost,

wit]-"

was

T<

"-o,,,., ::_nO_ 1_"t_,_ '@P

azler'")

be

,

pi#'llt

("''"

fo _.......

a'.tl
of
}';s.J

a

,_':7 d
_.....

t];c" sti
w_'t.Lc7"

c]<
t:,,a<

-r'o_/]
8o],
,_

"ti..IC:]C
.'.oC:]._"
_-

t O

-_
!,_e

&

•"'
r_.&;s.,t,

causc:d

c]Lcc:},_ed

b7

v, het_,

u

a

fasL.er
isle

_i _'.PJt

stick

s!_;/,
r:)]_l
was

" t
to

m

,<:; scc'l_
"_t'c!,'7.
a!<le,:9

figure

c,,n_tro3_, bcy¢,nd

for

co:_e

t_ai_ntainod

momew},at

i_y

lanP

was

tte

r_)?l

_nad_'rbent

ach!.evod
(f_.r_.

v'_tk
le _.t-iin
....

t]_e

C

air-flov;

ti,.e

tl.e_._n.rn.l..._
."
-a

use

did

t] _(.:, e]

_'[',S"

_

IJ

'

_;i

r_dder,

._]._plieq

1;"

'

tail

_

:_:[1

( _i_ _'_,. 5i,.'

pOrt:_

I,

T_'vent
"',_,_

,__zS
the,

ooer_,

'..,arnin : -_

existed

b._'e e_sulu

S

_. from

a].vza,:_s "::e e!'fe(:ted

t}_e

%,y n,_rmal

]3ai_c_i:,r_,
condition.
"'.w:in/<..

t T....c

mot;.qns
stall

a].r-fiov_

t:_'t

_t) .;,,,
sr, ln

the

Cot

sn<_tchin_,

v.:e,r.£
,nt

ti;e

forr_i qf

, se

<>" t!l{_ c<;nb

t]"c

!_nr].inc

''_'''
....
c:a,.k.O_','I1

it

o.}_aI'RCtell:.[-stic.s
:.'it!_

c_nQition
tail

L,,_,_.L,
_, n{"

.i__,.cip"=t4t s::.ins

br

r@ll-oi'¢

52).

from

In

a

,'.-_Ith:_z,::h_,

v£r:,, m:'.Ir.!.

-

o?

t._,_._to.f

were

or

initial

,_ :_...........

%peak

( .i,, 7.

stalling

those

:i ,",_

r.,z ..... e<_

a

to

t.,a_'S tall
to

the

-dr_cr)_tr.)]._ed

r _,._,

or,:a:

the

sa.r,,e as

the

iEfq!'_'
.;11
-"

!IR,',

, 13_rls.

clean

j

r_ve, rsod

r ro,n'ess

u_l.er:_n
"

the

,avE, v;a,

c.or_tl',:'.].

of

:'_:_,LoP_.J]

to

'3!0:6"")NS

20..._millime_e,

Recover

atone,

',._:_.t
sltli!aP

zunted
-

vdt_ick"

d'.recti_n

;.::

;:_!Lt

vas

.i.I!iti.;_?

_.I1

ar;_i'o>:.:.)_ate]._,

_nd

o_L

:"c_c-<u::_c

l:,:{_a!led

ti_e

but

_' r!¢'i
"_._,
., _.L..n
'- "

in

¢ vato:'

b_._c]-

tt_e

t

a ,.L.el

c.:.,.ns
r' ' a s`

mock-._.o

ai siP.t,

t£_:'

L._IO_].:sCttVe

i

_, the

':>scAn]at'oz,.

rsverr:e

were

0.f

Tr..e
,

rr, rt!_.er

.-'l].Otl@

8

_.1 s,:) ,

etts:,_;__..
.. 4

ir._,c_:-_.s
....

of

rRddcr.

rudQer,

w'as

sta].l

.....
Ot,-]rl,3

.'.:l_'%e]:'

O_l]._r

tb.£

_._se

of

20-<_ill'meter-sun

wing.

m:].].cl!at£ral

_"V ti_,q

of

breakc.,o,,,v.n o_,er, the

"[;IZ_.
_

motior_s

beLor

+i _

t.l,e s ....
ll"vx:'s

50).

r_ot

the

.._

I0,

+ i
7s.,_ ._n t],.e ano.!ica_..on

no

a

in

JJ

c,_ _]n..

o]s.

rs._,:u:k].tlo_._
with

_,._,,_
..... O_*C_
" a-.rq_T,tlr

tP,e

--G._ _., :-:car.l:.7

_]I_

_.-_,
,_,, ,= r'+ c]_t..

u.as

n._ted

%'th

t}_e

"_l.IIi]

_, !'

before

_,

centrol

_<;'

it

a ÷'_e_+

)

T&V

OV<_]

_

_".0

a_;

spm_:d

b.:]

ion
_}¢

trol

-'or

fu.! ]

b_,c]:

enoe<,

SO

a

the

a;s

_s,


]_ii'T

"'_
t.i_:.e

_-

Of

",iowl}r

....

!

f_r

a

ct

de

F].ov,..

a.,

abnut

,

In t;

it),

=-

S}c

s-/!e:]

c]::a_-'.,,ill#_

""
.....
._l,.,_i,

IL:uited

vioi(-t_t_-<r

++.

X

oyi

a__+rp].ane

-

t.[:,,

....

L__ _l_(?y',_pS

c.._nsid<],abl:>

tl_r._

w\'+_,b

+'

:-,rl

o 11 :oi

a

co_i;tL:)_L.

sr)irel

a

v-Lr;)-i+.,_--,

)cn(]'n,_

of
<)rI

b].te

e : <-,,,L_t..,r

51;-!.

"_

Jn

.o.,,

roll

:_!;

L_-._tc

the

" _ -"_
_:._,_t
......
led,

moc.!i--_t:s

t:]:._at

'_

to

,

ed

,f)I"

c.qrrcct

.....
_.+
_ _+,_-_,.n._!i,

s!.ov;IL,;

d.cvc.].)c,
rudc_eI'

-:n:!

ih)

r:'<.J,t,

:;,o::s]'bl.e on!_;

a=.._c,

"

_,
t;}.)e

,'_(i'"

_,.'z".L"or, o,]

::

_,:hZ

<,.: _;

;_..]-]._3

w_'.th

tC

"i.,-Lllt;h_rl

tl:(,

,st:.

00-"-

c !<. .'a_i:'_ ": _

.......
:T_,c_<leI

_]-,+_"_'
sto.].l_

"I<...... V_'.'i_.f.,

_

r.er_!.od

_

was

v._in,_ .

the

roll

C'

c?'(:c__:

_i(}_.LI

' .....

(f!.:-.
LLS

the

_,.

]__=.f
u_ _
t,_

a:_r_..,._<t..e-"
, _ .... , t,::,.uL_ca

r,.)_,.-i.ed

,,

a + ....

-

t'-l'l_."]

,.........

that

r..>!led

to

at

'.<_re<,.t

fixed

....

sosit,

_

_+Le
_

!;ri;_

f-_._ed,

r_,s_:ib?.e

'_,_.
, ..... ]ch

of

airo!ar'_e

co_.itrols

s,arted

=_.Y,._

..,

tip

20-_::i!limetrr-;<un ,..

bl'e:&k£o'¢+rl

contr)]o

the

_,)_+,:.
s_c_:' coiLtrol

W!+th

b];e

a!.

was

movement,

,.,r_,

the

in+ter,

'

"o_me,
< -

w _."
:_._+" and

.._r
;'.,-,_1"6

contz';_!.
.........

+ " '
Y_l,e

c.._

..... ._s

fi!-_"

v!,:;].(111:,

_ _t _..,:_s

ti}(-.',
_

u.,,..,, b],,_--, u,_ :, o.f

+

!.rL_]L_"_.Ct

r.:r) ve:<,'-nts
....

o; .... t=.'n :

..,

b<: +-_,,,,.:tz:'.,le"'-_

i,':_,

,_,.'

a_:d

rudder,

confrol

'_:ot!ou_

were

was
-

,I

hel,_

mainta-"n_ed
to

s._a!l

succe_sfull$

_mplltudes

and

<__th

the

l_-_tera!

°

t]e

st__.cx

1h_l!

?s ck.
i/ith
to

t_Le

b_._ no

Lhe

_.nh,
oard
warnin_

of

o_oenj

,-_f the
a

very

travel

rrrf_{rements
......

wer(:

_'..'ou]4then

either

aF_,ust

the

qeft.
.......

l_a:,:imum

requ'.red

for

deflect'-

r_:)clt-v_os

r,

and

a

rudder
their

_

.limits

(,I<_nb=ng

._.Ic.!7
_f;_

_,n

was

rc:ac":..c,f

::_;7r ........--_
........ 1

,zu.,..,

fc_cc-2

'eat_trc

of

tur'n

aJr,

_..,e

soeeds

stalls

ports

tr_m

airplane

to

at

fn

i-,hc_

".n a

ra_):,.u_.v

ootained

very
and

,-_"-,,_<,t,;.,.
_
.
. the

roll

w.'t;],

chauuct¢.-r'i;:t,_c

the

oz'

were

r.oll-off

con<lition

ra

o_.c.__l!_,_e

5B)

confined

charact_rized

re_ched

_-'

was

cor_trollable

....
of;_

trim

.v -_

was

Uefore

to

charact,eriz!;i('_{

is

wave

co_ttimle

]'.ghte:_it_j
se_

the

1_:,JCOr__o 7. ,

( r._¢,

and

eas.'.Iv

just

how

breakdown

and

,r,)7!owed
......

r :rlder

t;er-__,'_u_
........

The

on

c:__ro]_s

S:!._,_i]."4r

In

flow
win S

be{an

De_endilq:

,.PO-mft'_zme'

,_i!d

ose,]lation

def]ect.'.or,,s

the

right

a._d-'.._
....._",,__on.-

lateral

_i]eron

half
and

Wave-ofT
mild

_._un ports

_::ith

the

openo

as

the

stall

_,_:e stalls

"_r, this

condition.
T'd<e-..o,_'f
o_

con,_t_,_.._.o.u

c<_,ndition
were

,

"--

_e

s .....

very

c!:,aracteri,"ics
lar

to

those

in

_]b

in

the

thc_

wave-of

take
r

(,,)
nd _ t i o no
Stol!s
airplane

".o_turns,,
v:c;re

-The

......
._
_v,_st:iF,"_ted

stailin_s
in

"_r,,-)O
_t'_

(',haracteris<ics
tts_u_s

in

the

eru'_sing

.of the

--

cond[t-ons

force
in

W}en

....
:iL)v.,ever_

t;be

[)Otis

was

20-;::

with

al_

fl:]_,.,:':]:t,,
_are

b_t_

a

res_lt

1:,,% stated

_'"_"ican

):P-51

_,_'_'_
20o

:o.

_nd

lelt

_;

9

"

'

&

J

[) IV
_. t]i'e

!n

. .....
ta'l

figure.

_- ' ck
s_,=
21

huf'fe:.,N;.__ "

"..:as

noted.

9ccurred,

t:_-e

o

o'_(.:1

.t,_, a
,,,

rate

of

inzt!_al
,
roll

roll

varied.

the

c!ea_

,p.
ith

the

2.0-miq]_ime%er-i_un

i71

]¢fb

w'-in o

(Sun

m4.%C]j fas#er'

P_111_ and

an,_i

:,('

t,]<e

Rp(-,.
:_:_,.n

a'.zpi:,,

turns

,:.it?,.

te:;t,:_,
the

i_:;_,j

in

v,£.]e_:
t:)

t:]'"is

t'=i[_N
tb.e

sta_,!ed:

:').a.[c

%itio

t:j_z,--

.re!::;_.a_-__ o£

] !.!i:: 7 chtiractor:

th<

o?':" t']tcht

,,_.,<.

c,:,:-':3[c]eP_t']

_}]._.,tt]')T'm

[3_,_,
........ :;Lu}

-_ '-

rr,_,t:_rd:1.nL,;

,).__
_:, the

ten,'l<}d

v,it}:

t},#

irlto

z::otio,.._s

_-,
c,.,r""

air:_l.ane

fur,us

v;as

C,:n:ld]_t_:)[is

_,''._Lk "

i _' ,

".nv&riably

'r_s

nevepl;h.a]_::_,

f'av._rablT:;

,.r:
may

tisf'_

_
....
_:_at

,

?)o]'t;
r::)el:-

LN:id©Z _ EOCe_q_e]791:@[
unss,

_l:ese

f:6:l_t

_,ivcn

m-ILo ,._pect:i.on

i_i risnt

_un

:_i]_ ]_:::© t;o:'-::\:m,

piano

ti!

i:[_co'nn]st_;._{t a::_d the

arK)

the

).::_ 8on.ez,

,

t]'_e a.lrn].ar;e

.

c oJ_dition-

covol'ed)

,.v':-s

bet'./cer,

I.,:_
_. _...... c p4-er_
........

occuri;'ec]

_;_c,_-_] .,.,, _±:Le i_o_. -o: ....
Lt

_':tC!u_es l!i., ]6,.

co.tl.qz,e."gi)]r

u.lld roi]

_-r
v,::._L,

t}.e

of

".r_stPk!._ne:%t pc.o,)l'd.-g,
stall

down

tq_e. s._]"

':;{ti:
....

[

_

_)osit;:_o,'_ ;rPadier_ts
,

.9.
S S]_Oi';n %>7 the

in

hi.stories

detected

stsi[_]_

4....
0 '_'ttC_i

_n

waz, ninr._.,otne;. .....

st,a]].

arLd

....Le
t,

time

f,,p ,_r!(',esii_ c]]a??act:_'T?[ntic3

u_,zn.:, co:.tld be
:o

s_)_,n

b

,.
_'1% (;:ii'

ar,_

typical

I

....
_
.....t.'.

t: L: r'.:Sht

and

"

to

P]!,!j!t,

'

turns

of

_,_,ios_*

c:)rq-

der:n _ C]{:t:l_or

t,!:<

fo].io',,irl_3

't_aiiti_-_s

(:oric.tt.ts._.::),ls
_i"

tt:.e

:Tort::

I.
Deared

T_xe

sh:)rt-per!od

u'::,_tl_].n
one
2.

Th<'

i':_p:,_,o>.i.

c_,,_he

in

air'"_lane

hsd

e?).lowin.

C

the

of

l,-mgitudlnal
all

oscillation

c'.?nc]Ltions

nc)sit._.ve

tested

lo::_.'tu(l'.nal

center-of-grav;:.'c

di_a._-

v

stability
.for

posit!:_ns

tI:e

• .F_{ -[<'.T]S
S t"
i}'! ] Abt

(;'._
n_1 ] I .ton

:a_Z

,<__ "_'_
rr}].].OWr-]

c? (; t e P::L_'!e,:.<'

'<_]

.['Dr,

tabii"

:'

.<'_p<)_ n

t

1;_'._£ e,r_:isiiic

!'-.-HP:LV"..

t,V,,

?>]

inc_:es

<;:,

]

],ercc_:t

','_'.t.}= %IZke

o _" the
[,'1 o

r]
var:.atl.on,_

o(]_i[;ep

mean
lr-rt;

were,

t:'l:u t) e

_c;

,'{tudtna

_

desirab]_,: ,.
tost

e].evator

a::rq.ane

as

t.bC

to
t'.

F- ,

_

" _" "--..

,. Z CC

_-raii_::._,,

of

t b

_.._-._"

_Z7

o_ ?

[J

I

o

r_deqv.ate

$

rig

of

,6DRV[tV

as

fop
f,

]

_,

t'' _t:[e-ofr

17')r'w,gPCi

c.s

and

'-']-.5

c]_or,:[.

aero,_$_namic

,.___I] conditions
.

control

el_::::ator

,

a t ' c "-

_i.!$

6

.
_:,.e

:

tr,:hvel

t o ,-n o..e

J_"_
..... ";._ ]'-%

f].ii,/_t,;

rcqu'pe:!,

i i'

0£_

].ggl<lj.n_<S

for

].

':. A . C ,

f'Pt_C,

"

of

.!;aLion

:3 t[:.]

_**C,'"
....

tic

25.%

t llPT1

c_ldition

_:,as;.t.:<on,
o,: r c sen t

S t 6: S C]V..

.......

,_)tic!,

Ce:_tcr,--,

,3t'Ck
!<._,C.

_

3

' 1.

r:cscent

1:rim

'" ..........
¢.!.._:<_:?,S

s>all,

,']0,:;

be },_._._
......
" le ss

uO

:)OW(!d"

o::d

]._]__:_

tl_a:i (5 pounds

_,_
trim

desire-:

ta]:, was
iq

the

::,'_±':::.c::<:ntl-,

'- ..... e _'='_'_ to

var ::-:)::,::
f!i,l.t

nond:.ti¢>ns

- !,.o-

7

The

a:uplitude

u,!thin

.... ,.... _,.....
-'crc,

control-free

s

one

.:.f_r

6

lateral
cTc;le

for

rur_der

'__ ......
ull

cond!tions

tested.

o,' & i ]_,:;
l"<:,
:l contr.als

:.re

o___._.._.

to

O',°¢_1"
q
.....
,_.VC..,
;",,. :!cCaUS _o,_,
,"+'._
! :_,_
.__
,_<
te<]

co_ib_ol
'l;._to
wus

@id

riot

O. :, of

m_:et

}:ave

above

0. 9...-,_........t]'_e

that

the

the

been

co.,]trol

,.__

set

_T.xi:!tl::!

aL
_or

low.l-<

availaL1

e_

speed.

Thu

sT:<,e _,:,

'F-<l._

sp_'r "_"

control

.,'._'_,'-;-,,_:...<_,
_,;-, :io

_ J.il;;1 ":)!
_,-'

_':-.t.::ral

c_'<

ai!o;-.o::
:or

___,,v soeeds.

i. _ __ *,

:".n

t?;o

requirements

!evcl-fJ.[{_:bt

t,'.naat'sfact<_r7

require_._ents

ran_..,

t]:e.effeeti_,_less

ti-:e ':uazimum

E,_rtic_ii_.:.rl:<

de.:'irc.tio_

was

_it

at

s-_,_;
e d :._

[_,s Lei_eve.<

o__,-,._"'
_ ; -"'<_c_<Jrj_-

in

range.

div.i.n,:--speed

a

For

9.
aJ.],ero_l

The

diiied ,_......

The

due

d'n_ing

in

_ '_t
__,;,_

was

::.or

!at

sr_ecif'.,ed

_,.._as
_)o_it'v<
',,7..th
_:c.

oov, c;r

<z_ou:._i_

ran;F-:,

oil

l'.mit

of

20 ° .

e:<ee:_t

;".n lDw-

r"i:e

_1_'"_,at_ _ v'<:

.

to ' t,e

tki_

,.,A"
"'tl_2]:,_:l}-_ "

to

t:.,e
_

countc-ract

the,

t .

yaw

The

t_

the

defi,_:_etion

v;iti_]ri t}ic

effect

<_ "".,.cot:

II.

were

aiic:r:):i

£ihc.dral

.....
:!,::.de_:±",:,s

sT.)e_;,_

available

}.raw v'[{s ever[_.£nere

!0.

__.
i1,.

the

to

rud._t<_r

t}_

!._[tc;rons

t':l.:e-o.?F:_
lo9:;

_ives

maximu:_
conditions

and

t!-_a:i t?]e

variations
to

r:ower

of
h_i_l<

force.j,,
tested.

vJ_s

and

t_

a:).:{_:ate

to

c:air_tain,

dlr_ec:ti.:)r_il

la:rl,i'..<_<s

'YI::(:

rooo_],hgb_cle_!
_',,_,d,:]ei"
forc

sooed
however,

were

b.i)'ii;_{_l '

_-,with
.._ri.:;er

were ,

r',._..t,;c:r

foT'c<s

l].f,l:].%
Of
,irsoeed

t;,Lan

., tLa,i
l,gs'_

co"_troi
z'cquir<;d

] "_'"'L
",W -}O[IIL]S
a_d

.

....
i _ D_ v';er
,,n:Ti-e

desirable,
]e
._:.:,0
,no_,J.1.....
_ ;_-" zn
"

m,-ie
the

- lj

] "9
.___.

TLe

di_"ectional

:_atis_actory.
in

an]

stability

characteristics

for

force

N-) tendency

f'][/ht

-

rudder

v_re

reversal

existed

cond__tion.

!_le

_i_-ch].n_

moment

due

to

s i c!¢:s l ".:,>v;as

desirably

sma Ii.
I!c.
a d (!q d R _ _
b.,

'P_(_ pO_,_cr

RL,iuircments

ist!os

w'ere

In

conditions,

indication

met

o?

accelel'ated
lateral

off

res!on

"'" %b

rudder

for

satis?actorj

resnect._

!ate.ral

sta!!_ns.

and

aileron

trin

the

chanse

the

in

airn].une

of

%h_,<'_

].OYl

for

_

it

unsatisfactory

flisl:t.

,:)f

,.,O __
_

the

otL'_er

In

con%

spite

tabs

_'_,_as

_rnpopz_py

stall

fli_j}<t

was

in

nitclr'_nS

v-'.irnlng.

a

thought

these

a

as

the

:_otions

platform

.

form

compicte

characteristics,

f-"s%kt£rs

first

of

a

a!tbou(;h

such

LT_n

the

condi.tL_ns,

and,

T_uevent[n_
is

character-

occ,_ri'ed

as
of

:for

ste&:dj

wit.%

available
dip

extent

instability

coi:ined

w'as

st'al!i21g

instability
In

c_ondition,

control

and

mare

.L_ all

oscillation

en_uch

the

t

15.

all_

of

in

roll
would
this
it

is

-k2

-

RFFFRF_CFS

_hite;
M. P., and Hoover,
Herbert
H.:
Flight
Tests
of
_od_flcat_on
to Improve
the Aileron
Control
CharacterIstics
of a _Torth _imerican
XP-51
k_rplanc
(A.C.

No, 41-}5)
o

D

I_/CA i_R, June 20, 1942.

Gilruth,
_i.,R_:
Requirements
for Satisfactory
Flying
Cjual_ties
of Airplanes.
_IACa aCR,
April
19i$I.
Gilruth,
R. K_,and
Turner,
Re:_u!red
for Satisfactory
Fl_qht
Tests
of Numerous

l%l.

V;. I_.:
Lateral
Ccntrol
Flying
qualities
Based
on
Airplanes,
NAC._ Rep. No.
'_15,

r}l

r •

r.

C9_ _Z ):_ l_{lCT!i(','?l
J_'OF.CSS, XP-51

_ !I-'dPLtU'Z

l

Control

Tb,

]_Qi"0ii

"

:_

.--

Z I e va t o r
:i.

"
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,( ' i-_LSli
C'"

t

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C

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to

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NATIONAL ADVISORY
FOR AERONAUTICS

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A

Rudder

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'43
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:.!_!_!
;ii ,_,:,
[iiiii;i.: :_

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ii_:: ::!i li_iii!ii :,!;iii]

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:ii!_l!i!!
!!il
_::
¢I_I
_!_!
_

:.i:_:!_t::
_ .... iii
Time
hour,
Gun

history
combat
ports

of

a

ra_Id

180

condition.
covered.

°

turn

Center
×P-51

_rplane.

to

the

of

grav!ty

right

started
at

28°

at
5

percent

2_

miles
M.A.C.

per

Ii!ii

,,,D
,,D

¢,

_O
_O
!

-Tlme

hlstory
+

I0

_rav_ty

o.

of

three-point

Contact

made

at

percent

2AI._

lancing
at

8_

m_les

M.A.C.

of
per

XP-51
hour

alrplane.
w_th

elevator

Elevator
22

°

trim
up.

tab

Center

_:_

i_!iii_i::

Rlght

i _,'l_ure

_q.,

.

Time

h:l.story

untll

o_

reaching

aileron

ta!1-high
ii0

miles

take-off
ier

hour.

oi

XP-51
Center

a_.r_la]e

_r._oe _rlth

of" gravity

at

_>._

flaos

deflecteO.

_ercent

M.A.C.

',D

i :i ¸ i ¸¸i_
_.
,l:i!

_

=

I_
¸ _

1

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0-._"

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!

ri ght
G_

'orrect
Figure

39.

-

indicated

airspeed

mph

Steady
sideslip
characteristics
of XP-51
airplane
for
small
rudder
_eflectione
at various
airspeed_
_n cruising
conaltlon
with
cermet
of
gravity
at 25. 3 p_rcent
M.A.C.

Figure
40.Photograph
of gun ports
on leading
edge
of right
wing
of XP-51
airplane
covered
with
doped
fabric
(clean
wing).

&t%

Figure
41(a).installed
XP-51

Two
20-millimeter
leading
edge
of right

gun mock-ups
wing
of

airplane.

Figure
41(b).mockups
wing

on

Two
installed

of XP-51

modified
20-millimeter
on leading
edge
of right

airplane.

gun

:::: _:

x _ _

_:

_

_ _1 _ :

x

F_ _ _

!X _i?
_ili

.-i....

ii: l-c_.i El

evator

iEi ii_

: _ ii!l_!!i!i _ i

r-:

x

4-

L

,.

I

o

G _

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if]:,

:

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0",

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_>.

-

T_me
by

history
a_l_rons;

o[

sta_l
centeL

of
oi

Xk->l
g_-uvit_

airplar_e
at
2p.j

in
dli_alng
_ercent

con<iltion
M.a.C.;

conteolled
clean
wing.

r::'Incl_a!!_

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