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Review of Position Estimation Methods for PMSM Drives Without a Position Sensor, Part III: Methods based on Saliency and Signal Injection

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Review of Position Estimation Methods for PMSM Drives Without a Position

Sensor, Part III: Methods based on Saliency and Signal Injection

Oliver Benjak, Dieter Gerling

Institute of Electrical Drives, University of Federal Defense, Munich, 85577, Neubiberg, Germany

E-mail: oliver.benjak@unibw.de, dieter.gerling@unibw.de

Abstract This paper presents a review in state of the art three categories and will be described in Section III:

techniques for position sensorless permanent magnet 1. Signal Injection based methods:

synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. In particular estimator Rotating carrier,

based on methods using injected rotating or alternating carrier

signals, methods based on monitoring the space vector of the Alternating carrier.

stator currents and methods based on inductance variations, like 2. Methods based on monitoring the locus of the stator

INFORM, are presented. Furthermore the authors give an space vector current,

overview for magnetization polarity detection, which is necessary 3. Methods based on inductance variation like INFORM.

for starting strategies respectively initial position detection.

III. MACHINE MODEL OF A PMSM

I. INTRODUCTION

For a permanent magnet synchronous motor the stator

In the past few years great efforts have been made in the voltages in the rotor reference frame can be described as

field of speed and/ or shaft position-sensorless controlled follows:

drives. These drives are usually referred to as sensorless

r r r

drives. This expression refers to the speed and shaft sensors, vq rs 0 i q p r q

but there are still other sensors, e.g. current sensors [1]. r = 0 +

rs i r r

p r

(1)

vd d d

The paper is organized as follows:

First, a classification for the strategies of position where p is a differential operator. The stator flux linkages are

estimation for PMSM is given. given by:

Second, the machine model of a PMSM is shortly r r

q Lq 0 iq 0

examined. r= + (2)

d 0 Ld i r m

Third, position detection methods based on saliency d

and signal injection and magnetization polarity Transforming (1) into the stationary reference results in the

detection for an interior- and surface permanent following stationary frame stator voltage equations:

magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM; SPMSM) are s s s

illustrated. vq rs 0 iq p 0 q

s = 0 +

rs is 0 p s

(3)

vd d d

II. STRATEGIES FOR SENSORLESS POSTION ESTIMATION OF

PMSM The transformed stator flux linkages can be described as:

In general there are three strategies for sensorless position

s s

estimation of PMSM [31], [32]: q L +Lcos(2r ) Lsin(2r ) i q sin( r )

1. Fundamental Excitations s = Lsin(2 ) LLcos(2 ) s + m (4)

r r cos(r )

d d

i

a. Nonadaptive Methods,

b. Adaptive Methods, Where L and L are the average inductance (average stator

2. Saliency and Signal Injection, transient inductance) and the amplitude of the spatial

3. Artificial Intelligence. modulation of the inductance (differential stator transient

a) Nonadaptive Methods: are described in part I [31], they inductance) [1],[8],[12].

can be divided into the following three categories : Lq + Ld L q Ld

L= L= (5)

1. Estimators using monitored stator voltages, or currents, 2 2

2. Flux based position estimators

3. Position estimators based on back-EMF.

b) Adaptive Methods: are described in part II [32], they can IV. SALIENCY AND SIGNAL INJECTION BASED METHODS

be divided in two categories: This chapter gives an overview of the established methods

1. Estimators based on Model Reference Adaptive which are using saliency and signal injection. The main focus

System (MRAS), is an overview of the established techniques, in particular the

2. Observer-based estimators: rotating voltage injection method for IPMSM and alternating

a. Luenberger Observer, voltage injection for SPMSM. Furthermore the INFORM-

b. Reduced Order Observer, method and techniques for magnetization polarity detection

c. Sliding Mode Observer, are presented.

d. Kalman filter.

c) Saliency and Signal Injection Methods are divided in

873

a) Signal Injection based Methods: s j t j(2 r -i t)

i = jI e i jI e . (11)

As Carrier frequency signal injection voltage- and current qds _ c i0 i1

methods have been used. The first one has the advantage, that Where

the desired excitation is easy to produce with a traditional V L V Lq + Ld V L V Lq Ld

Ii0 = si = si , Ii1= si = si . (12)

voltage source inverter. On the contrary carrier signal current i L2 +L2 i 2Lq Ld i L2 +L2 i 2Lq Ld

injection provides a large voltage signal, which contains the

desired spatial information, relative to the amount of current The spatial information embedded in the stator currents can be

injected due to the increase in magnitude of the impedance extracted via demodulation techniques. The second term of

with frequency [13]. equ. (10) and (11) in the q- and d-axis currents contains useful

Disadvantageous is the relatively low frequency carrier signal position information.

used by some of the proposed current injection techniques. The error signal, which drives the tracking observer, is

One is the increased torque ripple, which is produced by using ( )

generated by multiplying cos 2 r i t and sin ( 2 r i t ) with

a lower frequency carrier signal. Another problem is the low equ. (10) [1], [3]:

available bandwidth, which is evoked by the required current

regulator [13].

s

( s

)

= i qsi cos 2 r i t i dsi sin 2 r i t ( ) (13)

In general, the higher performance of the voltage injection

method is preferred [13]. Just said in section II the signal ( ) (

= Ii0 sin 2 i t r + Ii1 sin 2 r r

) (14)

injection based methods can be divided in rotating and where = + u and u is an estimated displacement angle,

alternating carrier methods.

The rotating vector injection method in the stationary which is caused by the armature impedance [11]. Equ. (14)

reference frame superimposes a continuously rotating, contains two terms. The high frequency portion, resulting

balanced 3-phase (machine frame) carrier-frequency voltage from the first term can be reduced by the use of a lowpass

[25], which is shown in (6): filter [1]-[5].

vu cos( i t ) ( )

f Ii1 sin 2 r r 2Ii1 r r ( ) (15)

v

v = V cos( i t 2 /3) . (6)

si

v cos( i t + 2 /3) Using equ. (11), the error signal is formed by multiplying this

w

This type of carrier signal will produce a carrier signal voltage

equation and e

(

j 2 r c t )

, which results in (15) and can be

vector vsqds _ i , that rotates at the carrier frequency. After used for an observer [1].

transforming (6) from the 3-phase frame in the 2-phase The alternating carrier injection schemes are able to track

stationary d-q reference frame the balanced high frequency reliably small anisotropies and decouple different saliency

voltage is given by [1]-[7]: effects, thus it can be used for sensorless drives with SPMSM

s

and Asynchronous Machines (ASM).

s vqsi cos( i t) Using an alternating carrier, equ. (7) has to be rewritten as:

v = = Vsi . (7)

qdsi s -sin( i t) s

v vqsi cos( )

dsi v

s

= = V cos( t) r = V cos( t)e j r (16)

qdsi si i -sin( ) si i

For high frequency signals the stator resistance and the effects vs r

dsi

of the permanent magnet flux linkages can be neglected. Thus

equ. (3) and (4) can be rearranged to: The phase angle of the carrier voltage vSqdsi is kept in

s s alignment with the estimated d-axis in the dq-rotor reference

vq q

s = p s , (8) frame, thus the modulation has no influence on the torque

vd d producing current component in the q-axis [22].

The anisotropy in a SPMSM is mainly based on the magnetic

s s saturation effect of the main flux, which rotates with the same

q L +Lcos(2r ) Lsin(2r ) iq

s = Lsin(2 ) LLcos(2 ) s . (9) frequency as the rotor. The d-axis coincides with the most

d r r i

d saturated region. To obtain a solution for the carrier current

Applying equ (7) to equ. (8) and substituting the result into R

vector i qdsi , equ. (16) has to be transformed in the rotor

equ. (9) the stator currents yield:

s

reference frame by multiplying with exp( r ) :

-1

iqsi Vsi L +Lcos(2r ) - Lsin(2r ) sin( i t) cos( )

= , v

R

= V cos( t) r r (17)

is i - Lsin(2r ) L-Lcos(2r ) cos( i t) qdsi si i -sin( )

dsi (10) r r

Ii0 sin( i t)+ Ii1 sin(2r -i t) Where the injection angle deviates from the true rotor

= . position angle by the voltage injection angle u, hence

Ii0 cos( i t)+ Ii1 cos(2r -i t)

Choosing the negative imaginary axis for the d-axis and for r = r + u . Applying equ. (2) and (17) on (1) and taking

the positive real-axis for the q-axis [26]. equ. (10) can be into account the same assumption for high frequency signals,

rewritten as: the stator currents result in the following:

874

r 1 The imaginary part of equ. (24) is directly proportional to the

iqsi Lq 0 cos( )

estimation error, so it is not necessary to demodulate the

=

i r 0

Ld

V cos( t)

si

r r dt (18)

i -sin( )

r r position information. The current in the q-axis depends on the

dsi algebraic sign of the high frequency signal of sin ( c t ) , so it

In comparison with the injected carrier frequency i the

will be multiplied by one when sin ( c t ) > 0 and by minus

estimated rotor frequency, which results the one from the

one when sin ( c t )0 . The rectified imaginary component of

estimated angle r = r t is very slow and can be seen as

the current establishes the possibility to track the estimation

constant. Therefore only the carrier frequency has to be error with an observer.

considered for the integration of vqdsi R [23] and so equ. (18) In [24] the authors propagate two schemes with a high-

frequency voltage signal which is injected only on the d-axis

yields: in the estimated rotor reference frame and one which is

r Uc 1 1 injected only on the q-axis of a SPMSM. They use a model,

i = sin( t) cos( r r )+ j sin( r r ) (19)

qdsi c c Lq L d where the high frequency impedances are represent as

functions of the rotor position estimation error. It is shown

Splitting up the trigonometric functions into exponential

that the cross-coupling high frequency impedance is

functions reduces equ. (19) to:

proportional to the sine-function of the rotor position error.

In [25] a method is described, which uses the saturated flux

sin( t) ( Ld +Lq ) e j(r r ) +( Ld Lq ) e j(r r ) (20) linkage model which is approximated by the Taylor series.

r Uc

i =

qdsi 2cLqLd c This method is described more detailed in chapter 5.

Transforming equ. (20) into stator coordinates (multiplication In [16], [20] the authors obtain the following steady state

by exp(jr) and with the simplification of (12) the current can expression for |Ih|2, based on the equations (1) and (2):

be written as: 2 2 2 2

Ih = i dh + i qh = R1 cos ( c r ) +

s

i = sin( t) Ii0e j( r ) Ii1e j(2r r ) (21) (25)

qdsi c 2 2

+ R 2 sin ( c r ) + R 3 sin ( c r )

Splitting up the sinus into exponential functions, the current is

a composition of two high frequency signals, which rotate in taking into account that c>>1, R1, R2 and R3 can be described

opposite directions: as:

( )

2 2

j V 2 c2 L q 2

isqdsi = ie++ie

V rs

(22) R 1 = si + si

2 c4 L d 4 c4 L q 4

where

V 2 r 2 V 2 2 L 2

+ j j( c t + r ) + I e j( c t + 2r r ) , s c d

i

e

= Ii0e i1 R 2 = si + si

2 4 L 4 c4 L d 4

c q

=

j j( c t + r ) I e j( c t + 2r r ) .

i

e 2 + Ii0e i1 2 2r L 2

V rs c L d Vsi s c q

R 3 = si

It can be seen in equ. (21) and (22) that all exponential terms 4

c L d 4 4 4

c Lq

contain a useful position information. The error signal can be

For nonsalient machines (Ld=Lq), R3 becomes zero. The

generated in the same way as for the rotating method (multi-

proposed rotor position calculation is shown in Fig. 1, where

( )

plying equ. (21) by cos 2 r i t and sin ( 2 r i t ) )[8], [11]. the measured position shows an 180 ambiguity of r.

To reduce the calculation effort, equ. (19) is transformed from

rotor coordinates to the estimated rotor reference frame A,

which is synchronous with the estimated position of the

anisotropy [22], [23], [26]:

A

idq =

2

( )

2

U c Lq cos + Ld sin ( ) sin( t ) (23)

c

cLd Lq + j L L cos

d q( ) ( ) ( )

sin

, the Taylor series and small error angle equ.

With =

Fig. 1: Rotor position calculation with |Ih|2 [16]

(23) can be written as: The solution of this problem will be described in section V.

Other methods can be found in [27],[28]-[30]. The authors in

2

2

2 [27],[29] and [30] use a square-wave voltage injection in the

R

idq = K c Lq 1 + Ld 2 + j( Ld Lq )1 sin ( c t ) d-axis in dq estimated rotor reference frame. [27] propose a

2 2

(24) reduction of the acoustic noise without deteriorating estimate

performance by a injected harmonic voltage which use a

K c Lq + j( Ld Lq ) sin ( ct ) rectangular voltage for the d-axis and zero for the q-axis.

In [28] the author proposes a generalized speed-varying

ellipse voltage injection method. The injected high-frequency

875

voltage has a spatially-rotating ellipse-shape whose both where the arg(us) is the angle of the injected test voltage us.

amplitudes of the major and the minor axis vary dependent of The function of equ. (30) describes a circle in the complex

the motor speed. plane with the radius y and the offset y0. The radius is zero,

if the machine is rotationally symmetric, see Fig. 2.

b) Methods based on monitoring the locus of the stator

space vector current [6], [11]:

When symmetrical three-phase sinusoidal stator voltages

are applied to an IPMSM (Ld<Lq) at standstill, in steady state

the locus of the space vector of the stator currents in the

stationary reference frame becomes an ellipse. If the stator

currents are monitored, the locus of the space vector is known.

Thus the positions of the major axis of the ellipse can be used

to obtain information of the rotor angle r.

By definition, the direct axis of the rotor is in the direction of Fig. 2 Complex curve yINF at horizontal test voltage space phasor when

the north pole of the rotor magnet. turning the rotor [9]

Neglecting the effects of magnetic saturation the ellipse is By using a three phase inverter and a fixed rotor position,

described by a second order equation: there are three voltage space phasor directions possible. It

2 2 should be noted, that voltage space phasors in antiparallel

Ai + 2Hi i + Bi + 1 = 0 (26)

direction do not provide new information because the

The angle of the major axis can be obtained from: equations are linearly dependent. Therefore we get three

1 1 2H independent complex equations in maximum and with respect

= tan (27)

2 AB to the parameters and the desired quantity an overdetermined

and the estimated rotor position is given by = + u . system. For example we assume three measurements in the

three possible voltage space phasor directions within a short

In the case of current ripples , the coefficients H, A, B can be time interval and using the real part of yINF only. The

determined in such a way, that the square error between the measuring directions are: u,1=0 (phase axis U), v,2=2/3

ellipse described by equ. (26) and the current space-vector (phase axis V), w,3=4/3 (phase axis W). The current change

locus should be minimal. of the machine in the measuring time t (k=1,2,3) is given

with rearranging of equ. (29) and (30) [19]:

( )

c) Methods based on inductance variation:

j u,k

The INFORM method (Indirect Flux detection by On-line i s= y t u s = y0 +ye j2[ arg(us )] t us e (31)

INF

Reactance Measurements) was introduced in 1992 [1]. It j

utilizes changing magnetic conductivities in d- and q-axis Multiplying (31) with e u , k can be seen as a transformation

depending on the rotor position. The basic idea is to measure in the voltage space phasor oriented reference frame and using

the current response which is evoked by voltage state space only the real part of this equation yields for the three

phasors in all motor phase directions, applied into the PWM- measurements the following current changes:

pattern [9], [19]. (

i su,1= t us y0 +ycos( 2 ) )

The mathematical description of the stator voltage and stator

flux linkage equations in space phasors can be described in i sv,2 =t us ( y0 +ycos( 2 4 /3) ) (32)

the following way:

ds (

i s w,3 = t us y0 +ycos( 2 2 / 3) )

u s = i s rs +

dt (28) A complex linear transformation of (32) yields the complex

s = ls i s + M expression:

j4 /3 j2 /3

By application of a high frequency test voltage, which results c INF := i su,1 + i sv,2 e + i sw,2 e (33)

from the inverter control, the transient inductance dominates The parameters y and y0 are eliminated by calculating the

the stator impedance and the voltage drop over the resistance argument and the desired angular position follows directly

of the windings can be neglected. Furthermore a measurement without any parameter dependency to:

at zero rotor speed induced no back emf. With this assumption arg[ c INF]= 2 + (34)

the complex INFORM inductance can be defined [9]:

The equations above assume a machine at zero rotor speed. If

us

lINFORM := (29) the machine is rotating, the back EMF has an influence on the

d i s / dt rate of change of current. By combination of two INFORM

With respect to practical realization, it is advantageous to measurements and with the assumption of small change of

work with the inverse INFORM inductance, which avoids currents, a small measurement time, constant rotor speed in

division operations and saves calculation time. Hence the the measurement time the turning of the rotor can be neglected.

complex INFORM-function can be written as [19]: After subtraction of measurement one and two equ. (29) can

be rearranged into [19]:

l INFORM1 = y INF = y 0 + y e [

j2 arg(u s ) ]

(30)

876

u sI u sII remaining 2 phase current differences can be used to calculate

l INFORM := (35)

( d i sI /dt )( d i sII /dt ) the approximate rotor position.

Another method for determining the sector of rotor position is

V. MAGNETIZATION POLARITY DETECTION OF A PMSM to compare the rising times [17], [20].

In [25] the authors use a saturated flux linkage model which is

Most of the proposed techniques for position estimation approximated by the Taylor series.

without a position sensor have the problem, that the 2 r

1 d d

measurement yields double the desired rotor angle (cf. equ. dr m + Ldidr + (0)idr 2 (36)

(15), (22), (23), (34)). The same angle ambiguity occur by 2 di r 2

d

usage of the trigonometric function tan-1. If the polarity is not

A rotating and alternating voltage vector injection technique is

detected a wrong direction of rotation can occur.

examined. It can be determined that after the heterodyning

For eliminating this 180 ambiguity, after detecting the

process (cf. chapter IV.a), the resulting high frequency current

direction of the flux state phasor (d-axis) a flux parallel stator

in d-axis has a part which contains the position information

current component will be applied in the d-axis which

and the magnetic polarity information respectively. To extract

produces no torque. It can be seen, that a positive and negative

the desired information a heterodyning process is necessary.

d-current of the same magnitude lead to different results. In

This process will be displayed in Fig. 5 for the rotating vector

case of field increasing the current has a larger change per

and in Fig. 6 for the alternating vector respectively.

time in flux direction; the case of field decreasing has a

smaller current change per time since the saturation is reduced

[6], [9], [10], [19].

In Fig. 3 the inductance variation due to saturation is Fig. 5 Heterodyning process for rotating vector [26]

displayed.

voltage vector can be written as:

Fig. 3 Inductance variation due to saturation [17] 2 r

Uc 2 d d

i pol = ( m ) cos 2( r r ) cos( r r )

After detection of the flux axis correctly, this value can be 8c2 didr 2

seen as starting point for a real time measurement. Therefore (37)

U 1 1

this procedure has to be used after switching on [9], [10], [19]. i pos c sin 2( r r )

The rate of change in the stator current is inversely 2c Ld Lq

proportional to the inductance and is exemplary displayed in

The output currents of the signal processing for alternating

Fig. 4.

voltage vector can be written as:

2 r

Uc 2 d d 2

i pol = ( m ) cos ( r r ) cos( r r )

8c2 didr 2

(38)

U 1 1

i pos = c sin 2( r r )

2c Ld Lq

Fig. 4 Rate of change in stator current as a funct. of electrical angle [10]

It should be noted, that the amplitude of the carrier voltage for

magnetic polarity detection depends on the saturation level

The authors in [10], [17] and [20] applied short voltage pulses due to the rotor magnet. Therefore it should be applied with

to the stator windings. The change of current in each phase large enough magnitude to detect the magnet polarity at

can be measured during each pulse and the rate of change can standstill. Once detected, it can be reduced for normal

be used to estimate the position. sensorless operation [26]. Further literature which use a

The technique can be described for one phase as follows: a Taylor approximation can be found in [15].

positive voltage pulse V+ is applied for a period T, then the The authors in [6] uses the centre of the space-vector current

phase current i+ is measured. The procedure is repeated with a locus, which will be shifted due to the magnetic saturation.

negative voltage pulse V-for the same period T and the phase

current i- is measured. By comparing the two amplitudes of VI. CONCLUSION

the current, a current difference i can be defined. If this PMSM drives without mechanical sensors for motor position

process is repeated for every phase it can be obtained that the or speed have the attraction of lower cost and higher

phase current with the largest magnitude change determines reliability. Algorithms which can be implemented in standard

the region the rotor north pole nearly aligns [10]. The microcontroller hardware is of increasing interest for

877

industrial application. [20] A. Consoli, G. Scarcella, A. Testa, Industry Application of Zero Speed

Sensorless Control Techniques for PM Synchronous Motors, IEEE

A review of methods based on saliency and signal injection Transaction on Industry Applications, Vol. 37, No. 2 pp.513-521, 2001.

has been presented in this paper. The main focus is on voltage [21] A. Benchaib, J.C. Alacoque, S. Poullain, J.L. Thomas, Initial Rotor

injection methods and INFORM. Furthermore the established Position Detection of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM),

polarity detections were presented. EPE, 2003

[22] M. Linke, R. Kennel, J. Holtz, Sensorless Speed and Position Control

of Synchronous Machines using Alternating Carrier Injection, IEEE

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