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ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS


IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN
BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

________________________________________________________________

BY

KAJO, DIDACUS TYOTYEV


PG/Ph.D/06/42236

________________________________________________________________

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS


FACULTY OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

MARCH, 2011
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TITLE PAGE

ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON TEACHER


EFFECTIVENESS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN
BENUE STATE NIGERIA.

A RESEARCH THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF


EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.

IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF


DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph. D) IN
EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND PLANNING

BY

KAJO, DIDACUS TYOTYEV


PG/Ph.D/06/42236

SUPERVISOR: DR. (MRS.) A. OBOEGBULEM

MARCH, 2011
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APPROVAL PAGE
This thesis been approved for the Department of Educational

Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

BY

_______________________ _______________________
DR. (MRS.) A. OBOEGBULEM INTERNAL
EXAMINER
SUPERVISOR

____________________ _____________________
EXTERNAL EXAMINER PROF. I, C, S, IFELUNNI
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

_____________________
PROF.S,A,EZEUDU
DEAN OF THE FACULTY.
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CERTIFICATION

KAJO, DIDACUS TYOTYEV a postgraduate student in

the Department of Educational foundations, with registration

number PG/Ph.D/06/42236, has satisfactorily completed the

requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in

Educational Administration and planning.

The work embodied in this Thesis report is original and has not been
submitted in part or in full for any other degree or diploma of this or any
other university.

___________________________ _________________________
KAJO DIDACUS TYOTYEV DR. (MRS.) A. OBOEGBULEM
(CANDIDATE) (SUPERVISOR)
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DEDICATION
This Thesis is dedicated to Almighty God and all my colleagues in the

noble profession of teaching.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The researcher is thankful to his Thesis Supervisor, Dr. (Mrs.)
Oboegbulem whose humane disposition, and wealth of experience have
contributed greatly towards the successful completion of this work. He owes
much gratitude also to Rev. L.K. Ejionueme, for his encouragement. The
researcher expresses his gratitude to Dr. U.N. Eze, and Dr. F.A. Okwo, for
their untiring encouragement and assistance in many ways. The Departmental
and Faculty panel members for their contributions.
The researcher also expresses, without reservation, his immense thanks
to the Bishop of Nsukka Catholic Diocese, Dr. F.E. Okobo, His priests and
the parishioners of St. Victors parish Onuiyi who hosted me during the
period of the study. The catholic Bishop of Makurdi Diocese Dr. A.A. Usuh,
and his auxiliary Dr. W.A. Avenya, cannot be forgotten for their kind
sponsorship and understanding. The researcher remembers with
gratitude the inspirational care of Rev. Frs. Adumbu, N. Viashima, O. and
their assistants and parishioners, in the course of the study.
The researcher fondly acknowledges the kind understanding of his
mother; Mrs. Kajo Grace, and all family members for his frequent absence
from home during the course of this study. The principals and teachers who
responded to the study instrument cannot be forgotten. There are many others
who helped in diverse ways but whose names have not featured in this
column. To them, too, this researcher is no less grateful. May God reward
you all.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page - - - - - - - - - i

Approval Page - - -- - - - - - ii

Certification - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - - - -- - - iv

Acknowledgements - -- - - -- - - v

Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi

List of Tables - - -- - - - - - ix

Abstract - - - - - - - - - x

CHAPTER ONE: - INTRODUCTION

Background to the study - - - - - - - 1

Statement of the problem - - - -- - - 7

Purpose of the study - - - - -- - - 8

Significance of the study - - - -- - - - 8

Scope of the study - - - - -- - - - 11

Research questions - - - -- - - - 11

Research hypotheses - - - -- - - - 12

CHAPTER TWO: - REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Conceptual framework - - - - - - - 14

Concept of administration - - - - - - 15

Concept of teacher effectiveness - -- - - - 23


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Organization for curriculum implementation - - - 29

Aspects of supervision of instruction - - - - - 36

School plant management - - - - - - 46

School community relations - - - - - - 51

Motivational factors - - - -- - - - 48

Theoretical framework - - - -- - - - 67

Human relations theory - - - - - - - 67

Theories of job satisfaction - - - - - - 71

Review of empirical studies - - - - - - 78

Summary of literature review - - - - - 85

CHAPTER THREE: - RESEARCH METHODS

Design of the study - - - - - - - 87

Area of the study - - - - - - - - 87

Population of the study - - - - - - - 88

Sample and sampling techniques - - - - - 88

Instrument for data collection - - - - - - 89

Validation of the instrument - - - - - - 90

Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - - 90

Method of data collection - - - - - - 91

Method of data analysis - - - - - - 91


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CHAPTER FOUR: - RESULTS

Research Question 1 - - - - - - 92

Research Question 2 - - - - - - 95

Research Question 3 - - - - - - 97

Research Question 4 - - - - - - 98

Research Question 5 -- -- - - - - 101

Hypothesis One - - -- - - - - 103

Hypothesis Two - - -- - - - 104

Hypothesis Three - - -- - - - - 105

Hypothesis Four - - - - - - - 106

Hypothesis Five - - -- - - - - 107

Summary of Findings - - -- - - 108

CHAPTER FIVE: - DISCUSSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Results - - - - - - 110

Conclusions - - - - - - - 121

Implications of Research Findings - - - - 124

Recommendations - - - - - - - 128

Limitations of the Study - - - - - - 131

Suggestions for Further Research - - - - 132

Summary of the Study - - - - - - 132

References - - - - - - - - 135

Appendices - - - - - - - 144
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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Distribution of Principals /Teachers in government secondary


schools in Benue state - - - - - 144

Table 2: Distribution of Principals and teachers selected -- 146

Table 3: Results of SSCE O level and Neco O level examinations


in government secondary schools in
Benue State. 2005-2009 - - - - - 147

Table 4: Mean Ratings and standard Deviations of Responses of


principals and Teachers on Organisation for curriculum
implementation - - - - - - 93

Table 5: Mean Ratings and standard Deviations of Responses of


Principals and Teachers on Instructional Supervision. 95

Table 6: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of


Principals and teachers on school plant management -97

Table 7: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Reponses of


principals and Teachers on school Community Relations. -99

Table 8: Mean Ratings and standard Deviations of Responses of


Principals and Teachers on Motivational Factors. 101

Table 9: Summary of z - test for Hypothesis one. - - 103

Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis two. - - 104

Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis three. - -- 105

Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis four. - -- 106

Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis five. - -- 107


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Abstract.

The study was designed to investigate administrative constraints to teacher


effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue state and
consequently suggest ways of curbing them. The study investigated the
following issues: organization for curriculum implementation, instructional
supervision, school plant management, school community relations and
motivational factors. Five research questions and five null hypotheses guided
the study. A questionnaire designed by the researcher, validated by experts
and tested was used as the research instrument. This was administered to 33
principals and 655 teachers of government secondary schools in Benne State.
The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research
questions, while the z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of
significance. The findings amongst others, indicate that the following
constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness: organization for curriculum
implementation, school plant management, school community relations and
in-adequate motivation. Supervision of instruction however did not constitute
a constraint. The major implications of the findings are that teachers can
hardly be effective in the face of innumerable administrative constraints.
Based on the findings recommendations were made.
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

. Conscious of the fact that success in the realization of educational goals

depends largely on the teacher, the National Policy on Education, FRN (2004),

recognizes that the quality of education is guaranteed by teacher effectiveness.

The teachers task is to teach, educate, provide educational guidance, promote

the quest for scientific knowledge and conduct regular assessment (FRN,

2004).In view of the important and diverse nature of the teachers job, the

necessary resources and conducive working environment must be provided to

facilitate the effective execution of his/her task. The provision of favourable

physical and psychological working environment is the task of school

administrators.

The quality of such administrative service transcends location so that

principals and teachers in all schools are supposed to be offered a fair and equal

opportunity to be effective. This is particularly important because the practice in

the state has been that education zonal offices are located in the local

government council headquarters and they appear to concentrate on schools

nearby. As a result, teachers in the distant areas stand the risk of being deprived

of needed motivation because the officers in the zonal offices do not extend

their services to such areas.


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The most important factor in teaching is the teacher, not technique

method or curriculum because he translates all these into meaningful learning

experiences for students, (Abiogu and Ugwuja 2007). Next to the quality of the

teacher is the quality of administrative services provided in schools to enhance

effective teaching. By implication, teacher effectiveness goes along with the

quality of administrative services provided, A teacher here refers to one who

guides and tutors another towards the acquisition of desired knowledge and

skills,

The concept of teacher effectiveness is elusive given that teaching is a

complex activity (Zeichner, 2006) However for the purpose of this study,

teacher effectiveness refers to the process of the teachers interaction with the

students in educating them and students performance in tests and examinations

(Hughes, 2001). In Benue State constraints to teacher effectiveness are multiple

Ada, (2000) identifies some to include: a)lack of professional training

b)physical characteristics of the teacher, c) personality traits, and d)

administrative constraints.

In the first instance, teaching is one of the most difficult jobs because

human behaviour is complex and difficult to modify or change especially if one

is not equipped to do so, (Abottchampman , Hughes & Wyld, 1992). This lack

of professional training becomes a major constraint to teacher effectiveness

.Physical characteristics such as voice quality and non-verbal communication

skills and such effective qualities as fairness, patience, humour and concern for
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students can enhance teacher effectiveness (Dimmock, 2005). Therefore a

teacher who lacks these qualities will likely fail to foster the social, emotional

and psychological development of the child. Other personal attributes that can

affect teacher effectiveness include: good health, punctuality, regularity and

fairness (Okoh, 1990). In addition, personality traits such as self-concept,

aggressiveness, locus of control and attitude to work in general, are believed to

affect effectiveness. These personal attributes are particularly desirable if the

teacher is to view teaching as a cause beyond oneself (Dimmock, 2005). This

implies that love for the job itself will lead to greater commitment and self

sacrifices, without which teaching becomes a stop over to other jobs or just

another boring means of earning a living. In such a situation teacher

effectiveness is sacrificed.

Some of the contributing factors to teacher effectiveness, of course, lie on

the school administration. The decision to dwell on administrative constraints

stems from various factors. In Benue State, 90% of teachers in government

secondary schools are trained,(Benue State Education Summit Digest,2005).

The premise is that they possess adequate professional competencies. Secondly,

this researcher shares the views of Bello, (2000) that it is possible for teachers

lacking desirable physical and effective traits to be given adequate training and

provided conducive working environment. Thirdly, because of fewer job

opportunities in Benue State, due to lack of industrialization, some people going


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into teaching are just looking for job and need to be highly motivated by school

administrators to be effective.

Finally, many of the decisions involving the organization and running of

schools in the state are made by school administrators. Such decisions as

organization for curriculum implementation, supervision of instruction,

provision of adequate facilities and equipment, provision of favourable school

community relations and staff motivation, rest with the school

administration,(Focho, 2006) Evidently, a proper articulation by school

administrators of these issues will enhance effective teaching or quality delivery

which will be reflected in high students performance in examinations. On the

contrary, if these issues are not handled satisfactorily by school administrators,

dissatisfaction sets in reducing motivation and effectiveness while promoting

teacher stress, (Oboegbulem, 2004).

A constraint here may be taken to mean a hindrance, therefore,

administrative constraints may include those hindrances emanating from the

way schools are managed. The term school administrator is not limited to any

one person or position, rather it refers to any one involved in the management

process of the school. These include principals, vice-principals, subject

masters, state ministry of education, teaching service board, and local

government education officers, director of secondary schools, curriculum

planners, the state government, the minister of education and the federal

government. Considering that teacher effectiveness is a function of teacher


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characteristics (professional, and personal) and the quality of administrative

service, it is evident that administrative constraints can make a teacher

ineffective despite the possession of desired characteristics.

Another indication of constraints to teacher ineffectiveness which may be

due to administrative factors is noticeable in the fact that many students in the

researchers school attend private evening classes to ensure content coverage

and better understanding. Their complaint is that their regular teachers neither

teach well nor do they cover the scheme of work . This also seems to be the

trend in other parts of the state. Another evidence of constraints to teacher

effectiveness is noticeable in the frequent radio announcements made by

principals on the state radio demanding some teachers to report for work or face

disciplinary actions,(Torkula, 2004). There are also obvious cases that some

government secondary school teachers are involved in other income generating

activities.

Constraints to teacher effectiveness are again reflected in students poor

performances in external examinations. The contention that Benue students in

Government Secondary Schools perform poorly in external examinations is

corroborated by results of the Senior Secondary School Certificate

Examinations as conducted by National Examinations Council of Nigeria

(NECO) and West African Examination Council (WAEC).(see appendix III).

There have been complaints of a steady decline in performances. Therefore


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indications of teacher ineffectiveness in some government secondary schools in

Benue State do abound.

In an effort to look at causes of teacher ineffectiveness fingers seem to be

directed to school administrators. From the researchers experience there is little

instructional supervision leading to lack of quality control and technical support

to teachers. Teachers in the researchers school tend to do as they please

because no one really checks if they follow or complete the syllabus.

Furthermore, teachers are often in conflict with the principal and this often

degenerates to exchange of angry words during staff meetings. To compound

the problem, these same teachers often express dissatisfaction with the

textbooks, the timetable, the length of syllabus, workload, class size and

inadequate allowances.

Based on the above, two fundamental questions arose; what exactly is the

nature of the teachers working conditions, and are the school administrators

providing the necessary conducive working environment?. Secondly, how

prevalent is this malaise in the state or is it peculiar to the researchers school?

Conversations with teachers from the area under study reveal that teachers in

other schools experience similar problems. It is the feeling of this researcher

that educational authorities in Benue State are not fully aware of the nature and

extent of the problems encountered by teachers. Probably, the issues raised by

teachers at joint meetings are not properly oriented For example, teachers

complain of poor working conditions and inadequate motivation but the nature
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and extent of these problems have not been fully delineated. Thus, it becomes

imperative to investigate the nature and extent of their ineffectiveness that

relates to the administrative machinery.

Statement of the Problem

Benue state is often listed among the educationally backward states in

Nigeria. The administrative structure of schools in all ramifications should be

enabling rather than constituting a constraint to teacher effectiveness as

presently seems to be the case here. However, it is appalling to note that

statistics from the State Ministry of Education and its affiliate agencies reveal

that SSCE students are performing below expectation. The researchers

interaction with principals, parents and teachers revealed that the conditions

under which many students learn in many government secondary schools in

Benue State is un-conducive and deplorable and capable of rendering the

teacher ineffective and posing a hindrance to positive educational outcomes.

The Benue situation seems to be such that factors relating to poor teacher

disposition towards quality delivery and consequent administrative constraints

to efficient productivity are both at play here. The later however as a

consequence of the former and needing investigation especially in government

secondary schools where the situation seems most deplorably glaring. The

problem of this study therefore put in question form is: what are the

administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary

schools in Benue State?


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Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the administrative

constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue

State. Specifically the study intends to;

1. Find out how the organization for curriculum implementation constitutes

constraints to teacher effectiveness.

2. Find out how instructional supervision may constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness.

3. Find out how the school plant management may constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness.

4. Determine how school- community relations may constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness.

5. Determine the extent to which in-adequate motivational factors act as

constraints to teacher effectiveness.

Significance of the Study

Teacher effectiveness had always been a function of both teacher

characteristics and management practices of school administrators. The present

study may be theoretically significant as a collaboration to the scientific

management or efficiency movements of the 19th centuries as well as the human

relations and job satisfaction theories of same period which posited that for the

worker to be efficient and effective he must be satisfied with his job and have a
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conducive working environment. This study involved to a great extent

principals and teachers and thus seek to expose more recent trends as to the

effects of job satisfaction and conducive working environment on the teacher

especially in Benue State. This may be of benefit to future researchers who will

pick up on other aspects of administration that hinder teacher effectiveness or

cause job dissatisfaction that are not covered by this study.

Generally, results of this study may be of interest to government,

educational policymakers, principals, teachers, parents and other researchers

who can gain access to the findings through publications and seminars that can

be generated from the findings.

Specifically the findings of this study may help the government to adopt better

strategies aimed at increasing the level of teacher job satisfaction and efficiency

in the state. It is hoped that by seeking to pin point specific areas of

administrative hindrances and making recommendations, resultant issues may

be systematically clarified. This may make it possible for the state government

to adopt positive approaches aimed at curbing administrative factors that

hitherto hindered teacher effectiveness and thus enhance the teaching learning

process in all government secondary schools in the state to the benefit of present

and future generations. The results of the study may also convince government

that teachers are generally dissatisfied because they are ill motivated. This may

spur the government to address such motivational issues as allowances and

promotion opportunities. The findings of this study may help educational policy
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makers in the state to come up with better strategies to improve teacher

effectiveness. For instance, curriculum planers and the director of secondary

education responsible for the approval of programs may review the

unfavourable aspects pertaining to the organization for curriculum

implementation. Identifying instructional supervision problems may also help

principals and instructional supervisors to improve their supervisory practices.

Publication of the results of the study may alert the Director of secondary

education in the state ministry of education about the poor state of facilities and

equipment particularly in rural schools with a view to remedying the situation.

This may benefit the rural students as they may be better placed to compete with

their counterparts in the urban schools.

The research findings may make school principals and parents aware of

the special needs and gains of school community relations. This may be made

possible through workshops and seminars that may be generated . These may

eventually alert parents and local authorities about their level of cooperation and

hopefully efforts may be made to canvas for more of their support to the benefit

of the school and society at large. The school may thus be enabled to represent

the society better.

The findings of the study may also give the teacher union leaders first

hand and concrete information as to the nature of teachers problems through

publication of findings. This may equip them better in negotiating welfare

issues with the ministry of education. In the event where identified problems are
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redressed, it is hoped that teacher unrest by way of strikes may be reduced and

students academic achievements may improve.

Scope of the Study

The study was carried out among principals and teachers of government

secondary schools in Benue State of Nigeria. The study covered all

government secondary schools in the twenty three local government councils.

This is because all government secondary schools in the state operate under one

Ministry of Education and the school structure, curriculum content and SSCE

Examination structure are quite homogenous. The study does not include

Technical, Vocational and Private secondary schools.

The content area focuses on organization of curriculum implementation,

method of instructional supervision and school plant management. Also to be

considered will be school -community relations as well as motivational factors.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;

1 To what extent does organization for curriculum implementation

constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness?

2 To what extent does instructional supervision constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness?

3 To what extent does the school plant management constitute constraints

to teacher effectiveness?
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4 To what extent do school/community relations constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness?

5 To what extent do in-adequate motivational factors act as constraints to

teacher effectiveness.

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at P < 0.05 level of

significance:

1 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals,

and teachers in government secondary schools of Benue State as to how

organization of curriculum implementation constitutes a constraint to

teacher effectiveness.

2 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals

and teachers in government secondary schools as to how instructional

supervision constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness.

3 There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals and

teachers of government secondary schools of Benue State as regards

school plant management constituting a constraint to teacher

effectiveness.

4 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals

and teachers of government secondary school of Benue State with regards

to school community relations acting as constituting a constraint to

teacher effectiveness.
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5 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals

and teachers in government secondary schools of Benue State with

regards to how in-adequate motivational factors act as constraints to

teacher effectiveness.
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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The review of literature in relation to this study is organized under the

following subheadings;

Conceptual Framework

Concept of administration

Concept of teacher effectiveness

Organization for curriculum implementation

Aspects of supervision of instruction

School plant management and maintenance

School community relations.

Motivational factors

Theoretical framework

Human relations theory

Theories of job satisfaction

Review of empirical studies

Summary.

Conceptual Framework

The purpose of this section is to establish the conceptual framework on

which the study is based. The increasing interest in the study of administration

has brought about the different concepts in administration. These concepts are

propounded so that school administrators would be able to use them for


15

guidance in the administration of their schools. We shall here look at the

concepts of administration and teacher effectiveness and attempt a study of the

variables that seek to substantiate this work.

The Concept of Administration

The concept of administration can be understood from the works of the

men and women who were pioneers in administrative theory and research. The

scientific study of administration began with the works of several people. One

of the first was Frederic K. W Taylor(1939-1971).. Taylor is today regarded as

the father of scientific management or efficiency movement. In his view an

organization must attain its objectives and that those responsible for its

administration must aim at achieving result, Carvel in Odo (2006) reported that

Taylor being the founder of scientific management perceived administration

from the mechanistic point of view.

Another pioneer scholar in this area was Henri Fayol (1940-1975)..

According to Edem (1998), Fayol describes administration as a function

involving, to a varying degree, everybody in the administrative behaviour,

namely, division of work authority, discipline, unit of command, unit of

direction, subordination of individual interest to the interests of the

organization, remuneration, co-ordination, scalar chain (line of authority).

Order, equity, stability of personnel, initiative, espirit de-corps. These principles

presupposes that administration must make provision for the co-ordination and
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supervision of organizational functions and that the responsibility for doing so

rests with the chief executive who is the legitimate authority and the focal point

of the organization. Fayol looked at administration as planning of programmes

and goals of an enterprise and the organization of human and material resources

for the implementation of the plans in accordance with the established policies,

codes and regulations.

In the light of the above definition, which primarily focuses on the

purpose or function of an administrator, Edem (1998) noted that the term

organization as used here refers to any social system established specifically for

a purpose or purposes; for example, commercial firms, hospitals, banks, schools

and universities are all organizations. Edem (1998) identified the activities of

the administrator as including:

i. Describing the task to be performed to accomplish certain objectives

and assigning these tasks to carefully selected and trained personnel.

ii. Making the personnel perform efficiently by using the tools provided

for them and

iii. Co-ordinating some formal structure (administrative unit, system

office or department) which permits a hierarchical (vertical) allocation

of responsibilities and communication flow.

Similarly, Robbins in Odo (2006) sees administration as the universal

process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through other

people, while according to Mikios cited by Odo (2006), whenever collective


17

action is required, whenever there is a need for order on a series of activities,

and whenever a group seeks to obtain a goal, administration is required.

Presented in a simple and practical way, Simeon, Smithburg and

Thomson in Odo (2006) posited that; when two men co-operate to roll a stone

that neither could have moved alone, the rudiments of administration have

appeared. Edem (1991) also provided his own definition of administration to

include the capacity to co-ordinate many and often conflicting social energies in

a single organization so adroitly that they shall operate as a unit. Consequently,

Administration is the co-ordination of both material and human resources to

achieve set objectives. It involves the setting up of strategies to achieve specific

objectives. Musazi in Odo (2006), defined administration as the process of

guiding, leading and controlling the efforts of a group of individuals towards

some common objectives and creating interaction of human and material

resources. Administration therefore can be seen as the total of the processes

through which apropriate human and material resources are made available and

made effective for accomplishing the purposes of an enterprise. The

administrator oversees the planning, organization, commanding, co-ordination

control and staffing of his establishment.

Based on the fore-going clarifications on the concepts of management

and administration, Ezeocha (2001:29) outlined the differences between them to

include;
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1. Business enterprise such as companies, corporations and firms usually as

a rule speak of management or managers. On the other hand, educational

institutions like colleges and universities as well as government agencies

use the term administrators to describe those who hold the mantle of

leadership.

2. Management tends to be service oriented while administration is decision

making oriented.

3. While management concentrates on efficiency, administration

concentrates on the effectiveness of the organization

4. Industries and business firms see administration as an aspect of

management concerned with routine matters. Coarsely, public service

regards management as less embracing than administration.

Based on the above views on administration its evident that management

and administration do not always mean the same thing and so cannot be

used interchangeably at all times. However, though used in slightly

different contexts, both management and administration have the same

purpose or goal. The term administration is more often preferred by

educational institutions such as colleges, and faculties of Education as

well as some other school organizations.

Educational administration according to Odo(2006) is an aspect of broad

spectrum of administration, seen as the mobilization of all the personnel and

equipment in schools for the realization of educational objectives, Okoro (1991)


19

identified the functions of administration as consisting of two major

components leadership and management. He emphasized that the function of a

leader is to initiate new procedures for accomplishing the organizations goals

and objectives. The educational leader is expected to supply initiative and

direction to the school community in order to further the educational objectives

of the school.

Stressing on the functions of the educational administrator, Walton

(1991) opined that educational Administration is concerned with the

management of school operations. In this connection, he outlined the following

activities as those which educational administration is involved in;

1. Employment of staff

2. Preparation of school budgets,

3. Directing the activities of all school personnel, and

4. Checking of school results.

Basically in agreement with Walton are Walter, Farine and Meck in

Odo(2006). For them, educational administration is a discipline which concerns

itself with the management of educational enterprise in communities, regions

and nations. According to them, educational administration involves knowledge

of the structures of educational organisation and the administrative processes

related to the management of those organizations. Equally expressing a similar

view, Nwaogu (1980) pointed out that educational administration means the

management of the available factor resources for the achievement of


20

educational objectives. To him, resources like personnel (manpower). Finance

and capital equipment would ensure the effective administration of educational

institutions and the achievement of the desired goals for the establishment of

those institutions.

As an advocate of the efficiency movement, Henri Fayol suggested some

administrative elements that could be employed to increase the productivity of

the workers. he conceptualized administration as being able to plan, to

organize, to command, to co-ordinate and Gullick ( Campbell and Gregg 1987)

developed fayols elements into more articulated principles mnemonically

expressed as POSDCORD, each letter representing one

aspect of administrative

behaviour,(planning,organizing,supervising,directing,controlling,observing,repo

rting and deciding).

Planning as defined by Fayol in Campbell and Gregg(1987) is a process

of studying the future and arranging the plans of action. The principal must

prepare in advance a plan containing what teaching and administrative duties

are involved in school posts and the qualifications of personnel required for

them. Okoro (1991) identified two basic planning functions of college

administrators to include: planning the curriculum and planning of courses. He

emphasized that planning the curriculum involves determining what courses or

educational programmes should be offered by the school or college. This

includes developing the syllabus, or course of study guide, and planning the
21

physical facility and equipment. In planning the curriculum the administrator

will need to determine what new course or programmes should be started,

whether any existing programmes should be revised, expanded or terminated.

Also planning of courses involves planning how approved courses could

be effectively and advantageously taught using the facilities and resources

available. It involves the management of time and the effective distribution of

tasks between various members of the teaching and non-teaching staff so that

the best possible use can be made of the skills and competencies of each staff

member.

In organizing, the principal as the chief executive requires an adequate

supply of staff and facilities. This means the quality and quantity of both human

and material resources. Also he had to organize the school in order to

effectively carryout state and federal government policies as they relate to his

institution.

The principal is more likely to handle external matters and the

relationship of the school with the state or federal government and ministry of

education, the state school management board, education services commission,

board of governors of the school, the zonal education office and local

government authority. Okoro (1991) opined that the principals of colleges

should be involved in the selection of their staff because they understand fully

the conditions under which the staff will work if employed. This means the

college principal must make arrangement for the regular supply of personnel,
22

for staff training, and for favourable conditions of service. As the principal

places order for teachers, he bears in mind the special skills and qualities that

are required of each members of staff if school is to operate effectively.

However, where teachers are clearly unsuitable, as a result of skill or general

character traits, the principal could recommend to the state. that such teachers

be transferred or reassigned.

The college administrator directs the affairs of the institution by

providing effective leadership, by making the right decisions. He has the final

decision regarding every activity that goes on in the institution. Directing

involves the continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in

specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the

enterprise.

The college administrator functions well as he co-odinates the activities

of various units within the institution. He has the all important duty of inter-

relating the various parts of the work. The need to co-ordinate the activities of

his staff stems from the concept of the division of labour. This calls for the

division of the schools task into constituent components which are assigned to

the teacher or staff members. Each staff member is then expected to perform

just what his assignment specifies. Asserting that everything is done in

accordance with established rules and regulations, Edem (1998) opined that, the

administrators of colleges device methods of regulating, curbing and checking

the excesses of members of staff in the pursuance of educational objectives.


23

Reporting involves keeping those to whom the principal is responsible to

inform as to what is going on which thus includes keeping himself and his

subordinates informed through records, research and inspection. Also the

principal is required to make and submit his budget to the government usually at

the beginning of every fiscal year. This involves fiscal planning, accounting and

control of resources.

The Concept of Teacher Effectiveness

The purpose o this study is not to find out the level of teacher

effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue State Nigeria but to

identify what constitutes constraints to their effective teaching, it is however

important to underline correlates of teacher effectiveness. What then constitutes

teacher effectiveness? What must a teacher do to be considered effective? And

what prevents him from doing these duties?

Teaching is a complex activity which makes the definition of teacher

effectiveness difficult. To Brown and Atkins (1993) effective teaching can be

determined in relation to the set goals. Since the goals of teaching may be

cognitive, affective or psychomotor, a single definition of effectiveness hardly

suffices. It may also be observed that good teaching is the direct function of the

judges value system and judges do not always agree Brown and Atkins (1993)

further states that, although good teaching is in the eyes of the beholder, it can

be reflected in students performance. Consequently an effective teacher is one

who enables students to perform well in tests and examinations. This definition
24

is upheld by Akuezuilo (1999), who suggested that good teaching must bring

about learning. An effective teacher therefore can be assessed by student

outcomes. If students show signs of having learnt meaningfully, then the teacher

can be said to be effective. According to Ezeocha (2001) an effective teacher

should bring about learning in its cognitive, affective, and technical components

through the use of a variety of activities. While Wilson (2000) talks of quality

delivery in teaching which includes a range of objectives; whole class

instruction, group activities and individual attention, An effective teacher is

seen here as one who attains these objectives. Because of this plethora in

definition teacher effectiveness is often associated with the degree to which a

teacher uses desirable skills in task performance and the level of students

achievements in examinations.

The personality traits that make a teacher effective are largely inborn. A

few may be acquired through training, but a person who is born to be interested

in working with people and who has personal characteristic such as patience,

love for children, interest in helping others, a sense of humour; a pleasant

personality, smartness, sympathy; alertness; good human relations, emotional

stability among others, will certainly be more effective as a teacher. Such

attributes as skills in imparting knowledge, scholarliness, good judgment and

professional ethics can be acquired through training. An effective teacher is thus

born and made (Denga 2002)


25

The teachers task, according to Fordham (2003), can be grouped into two

categories; instructional and managerial. The basics of instruction in secondary

schools involve classroom teaching. The main feature of classroom teaching is

lecturing, but the wholesale use of lecture is often decried by educators because

it is presumed that verbal presentation alone does not promote meaningful

learning since it is directed only to one sense. The sense of hearing must be

associated with others for better understanding. Teaching is not mere talking to

the four walls of a classroom with a piece of chalk.

Consequently, instructional tasks must include a variety of activities. The

views of Alexander and George (2001) are that a variety of methods are needed

to achieve various instructional goals; whole class instruction for basic skills,

individualized instructions for individual responses, self discipline and personal

creativity; small group activities for group dynamics, learning to get along with

others and enhancing citizenship and community spirit and individual attention

to take care of students idiosyncrasies and to help them grasp topics covered in

the curriculum contents. To attain the above goals, the use of a variety of

instructional techniques and teaching aids is essential. lectures ought to be

complemented with such activities as questioning. role play, demonstrations,

use of audio and visual aids, book reviews, experiments, projects and field trips.

To assess students understanding, continuous evaluation and testing

becomes vital. There exist various forms of, and reasons for testing. Testing can

be done orally, written or in laboratories to monitor student progress, to


26

motivate or promote students, for guidance and counseling or to assess teaching.

Other managerial duties are geared towards class management and students

emotional needs. The importance of class control to any teacher can hardly be

under estimated. In class, discipline enables the teacher to carryout his

instructional activities in an orderly and less disruptive atmosphere (Orseer

2006) Having viewed the duties of a teacher, it can be concluded that an

effective teacher is one who carries out these duties to the maximum and one

whose students exhibit high learning out comes in achievement tests. Research

as reviewed in literature also indicates that certain characteristics are usually

associated with teacher effectiveness, some of which are reviewed below.

The following characteristics of effective teachers are an outcome of

three sets of questionnaires, one for pupils, one for secondary schools and the

third for university students following an investigation on teacher effectiveness

conducted by Denga (2002). The list is meant to be used as a guide. Those who

find themselves inadequate on the criteria can try hard to acquire these traits of

effective teachers. However, it must be noted that, it is not likely that an

effective teacher has to possess all these characteristics. He may possess as

many of them as possible, but not all of them. These include: Interest in helping

people and performing other social services; mental alertness in detecting praise

worthy as well as anomalous behaviours among children; Emotional stability

and poise; sympathy, kindness and empathy; Ethical and professional

behaviours; considerations and generosity; Flexibility; Verbal fluency for


27

communication; personal attractiveness which easily helps pupils want to learn;

Good and balance judgment (fairness); physical energy and dives;

Scholarliness; Objectivity and consistency in all his dealings; Forcefulness;

Dependability; Patience and tolerance; Democratic and cooperative (but firm

when firmness is called for); Highly capable in his subjects (imaginative and

clever); cheerful and good humoured; Capable of motivating students

(stimulating personality); Avoids Sarcasms and denigrating language (minds his

language); confident and Self-actualizing; Acceptance of self and others; Good

understanding of the pupils.

Also, Okoli (1990;31) carried out a research to develop an instrument for

evaluating the effectiveness of secondary school teaching by students and

principals. He came up with six criteria of teacher effectiveness summarized

thus.

1. Personal attributes; he should be regularly, punctual and healthy.

2. Teaching Principle and skill; he should write clearly, be audible, logical

and involve students. He should use instructional materials and prepare

well.

3. Knowledge of subject; explains well, teaches all topics, use more than

one book and is confident.

4. Knowledge of the learner; seeks to understand students, uses increasing

activities, gives clear instructions and is available to students.


28

5. Inter-personal relations; Objective in marking, rewards and punishment

concerned with student poor performance, sympathetic, approachable.

6. Evaluation method; tests regularly, tests only matter taught; fair in

grading, returns and discusses test. These items are example from the

instrument and they summarize the overt and observable attributes of an

effective teacher.

Generally, teachers effectiveness can be viewed from two distinct

perspectives; the qualities possessed and exhibited by a teacher while teaching

and the amount of learning exhibited by students in achievement tests. This is

only natural to Farrant (2000) who states that teaching and learning are opposite

sides of same coin, for a lesson is never taught until it has been learnt.

Everything being equal, an effective teacher must know what to teach, how to

teach it and then assess students level of understanding and if necessary reteach

it to make sure more than three quarters of the students have understood it and

are capable of passing any examination on it.

The relationship between administrative machinery and teacher

effectiveness is evident, Phillip, Juan and John (2001) view academic emphasis

as the focus of school management. Administrators must employ teachers with

good personal and professional characteristics. They should also make the

working condition conducive (physically and Psychologically) and should

supervise to ensure that identified tasks are effectively carried out. In

Ezeugbors (1995) students, secondary school principals and teachers both


29

agree on the fact that administrative problems such as poor facilities, lack of

supervisors, high enrolment, inadequate staff and poor working conditions

generally hinder teacher effectiveness. Conditions of work constituting

obstacles to effective teaching as identified by Bukar and Buba (2006) include;

large class sizes; lack of teaching aids, inadequate textbooks, technical

equipment and funding. Thus, even a teacher possessing desirable personal and

professional characteristics can be in- effective by the poor quality of

administrative service directed towards teaching activities. This study is

however designed to identify those poorly provided administrative services that

have the potentials of hindering teacher effectiveness in government secondary

schools in Benue state as may be observed in the variables discussed below.

Organization for Curriculum Implementation

Learning is organized and structured on the basis of the curriculum.

Although the teacher is considered the key to student achievement, the

importance of the relationship between curriculum and teaching must be

emphasized. The curriculum, according to Denga (1993), is that which is

intentionally taught. Curriculum is goal oriented and three questions precede the

development of curriculum; what is to be learnt? What should be the order of

the content? How is learning to be evaluated? Therefore the range, length and

depth of curriculum content as well as the guides, books and materials are

matters that affect teaching. In the literature, it is also indicated that classroom

composition has a bearing on teaching. Generally, the manner in which


30

curriculum is organized for its implementation will affect teacher bahaviour

and competence. A closer look at these issues will elucidate the point

particularly since decisions in this respect are taken by the school

administration.

Curriculum and Content Materials

The problem of what to teach has implications for teacher effectiveness.

To Aboho (2000), the starting point should be the provision of clear curriculum

goals that the teacher can accomplish within a specified period of time. For each

subject, there should be a guide as to what the teacher is expected to teach or the

students to learn. For a subject like Literature in English for example, simply

recommending text books to be taught is not sufficient. Depending on the level

of the students, basic issues to be treated ought to be outlined in a guide or work

book. Absence of this may encourage teachers to emphasize on one aspect (for

example the plots) to the detriment of other (such as literary techniques),

leading to ineffective teaching. Another consideration is the relevance of

curriculum content (Ada 2000) and (Gbamanja 2002). According to these

authors, subject matter that is relevant to the students becomes interesting and

lively. To be relevant, the students should be able to identify with the topic and

relate it to their environment, life experience and future needs and aspirations.

Ada (2000) says that students are less likely to disrupt lessons seen as

interesting, relevant and worthwhile, but more likely to disrupt those seen as

lifeless, boring and difficult to understand. also Aboho (2000) believes that
31

interesting and relevant curriculum facilitates teaching and reduces boredom

and frustration for the student as well as the teacher. He further notes that

curriculum that is outdated, irrelevant, boring and unrelated to students culture

and future needs generates misbehaviour that disrupts teaching.

The choice of curriculum materials should match subject content and

objectives. The basic material is the textbook and the topics there in must reflect

those in the curriculum guide. A textbook that is accompanied by a teachers

book and students workbook contributes more to teacher effectiveness. Since

equipment is not always available (especially in Benue State) to run test and

assignments, the students Workbook facilitates continuous assessment and

homework. Sometimes due to personal interests and political reasons textbooks

that are often recommended do not meet the necessary criteria (Ada 2000), The

provision of basic instructional materials such as chalk, paper, pens, pictures,

maps, charts, posters and illustrations is important for effective teaching. In

Benue state it is not uncommon to find teachers who teach lessons without

writing on the board with the excuse that chalk has not been provided.

Similarly, some teachers refuse to give lengthy tests that would cover the

syllabus for lack of paper or equipments to administer them. Such constraints

invariably reduce the teachers effectiveness.

In planning the curriculum, the sequence, the depth, or ordering of

learning experiences should be carefully considered. Ada (2000) states that

Blooms taxonomy of learning is an important guide since it ranks types of


32

learning into lower, intermediate and higher levels. According to this taxonomy,

learning is effective if the subject matter is presented from the easy tasks to the

more difficult ones. According to Bloom, lower level tasks are memory (recall

and recognition) and translation (change of information to different symbolic

forms or language). Intermediate level tasks are; interpretations) and analysis

(careful examination of the interpretation and application of facts). Higher level

tasks involve: synthesis (Original and creative thinking) and evaluation (Critical

judgment). Aboho (2000) taking a cue from Blooms taxonomy, explains that

topics in the syllabus and the prescribed textbooks have to be ordered from

lower to higher level tasks. A Mathematics teacher, for example, will find it

difficult to make students understand the multiplication of figures if the students

have not been taught simple addition. Content structure thus is a factor affecting

teacher effectiveness. School administrators in charge of curriculum

development and textbook selection should take decisions with this in mind to

enhance teaching and learning.

Teaching Load and Time Tabling

It is the duty of the school administration to implement curriculum

through teaching programs which involve assigning teaching load and drawing

up a time table. Offorma (2004) is of the opinion that teachers should not be

assigned to teach subjects they are not specialized in. This can lead to

frustration and ineffectiveness. Teaching load generally refers to the number of

hours taught per week by a teacher. In Benue state for example, the maximum
33

number is normally twenty four hours per week. Denga (2002) states that, the

workload should consider the number of hours, the number of students per class

and the number of classes to be taught by a teacher. There should be a conscious

effort to distribute work fairly with reference to the teachers qualification

competence, nature of subject, time required for marking and student

characteristics. A teacher overwhelmed by a heavy work load will be forced to

reduce teaching to lecturing.

Time tabling, as described by Akubue (1991) is the allocation and

regulation of time, place and people. It is concerned with the allocation of time

in order that places may be put at the disposal of people. In essence, the

classroom is put at the disposal of teachers for the implementation of the

curriculum. Effective time tabling enables teachers to come to class motivated

thus reducing boredom and frustration on teacher and students alike. The length

of each period per week should depend on the nature of the subject and the age

and maturity of the students. Offorma (2004) explains that certain subjects

should not be scheduled at particular periods. She opines that students handle

mathematics and foreign Languages best before noon; and they concentrate less

after a physically active lesson like sport and manual labour. Transition from

one subject to the other should take this into consideration. No matter how

qualified or competent a teacher might be, if the conditions are not favourable to

learning, he will have a hard time trying to make students understand. It is the

duty of the administration to assign teaching load and make the timetable to the
34

satisfaction of the teachers so as to reduce inefficiency. In Benue State, for

example, it is the usual practice for teachers to be at school only when they are

scheduled to teach. There are cases where a teacher has only one period in the

morning and another in the afternoon, with a break of four hours in between.

Such time tabling encourages teacher absenteeism since he will be tempted to

skip one of the periods.

Class Size and Composition

The question of class size is obviously a fundamental one to the quality of

teaching, probably because of the diverse nature of the job. A manageable class

size permits the teacher to have class control and to run an effective classroom,

allowing each individual child the opportunity to develop, Ada (2000) drew the

conclusion that smaller classes had higher achievement levels. He opined that,

in smaller classes there is more room for individual attention, effective use of

material and frequent homework and tests. An experimental study of the effects

of class size by Shapson, Wright, Bason and Fitzgerald in Focho (2001)

confirms that individual attention to students decreased with increase class size.

Thus the quality of instruction is bound to drop as the class size increases.

Mccluskey in Focho (2001) states that class size by itself does not make a

difference in academic achievement, but the type of academic activity such as

group work and individual attention. This appears contradictory since these

activities will definitely be more effective in smaller classes. It is evident that a

crammed classroom hinders practical and group activities, strains the teachers
35

nerves, causes irritability and therefore makes the teaching job stressful and

ineffective.

In Benue State, the maximum class size mandated by the Ministry of

Education is forty students but class size some times runs up to eighty and

above. Such large classes make the teacher feel insecure. Class control becomes

a major problem and teachers spend more time on problems of order and control

than on academic activities. This is particularly true of beginning teachers who

lack experience in class management and control skills. Class size is thus seen

as the main indicator of job satisfaction and job quality and effectiveness (Ada

2000).

Class composition refers to the intellectual and physical characteristic of

students. In grouping students for instruction, the issue of gifted students and

slow learners should be taken into consideration. Should student with similar or

different abilities be grouped together? Ideally, a near homogenous classroom

makes teaching easier (Williams 1988) but since the tendency in recent years is

towards mainstreaming, Anderson (1991) says that provision must be made for

special students. Programs and material must be put in place to take care of fast

and slow learners to avoid frustration. Similarly, physically challenged students

such as the blind and hard hearing should be given special attention if they are

to be mainstreamed. The social and academic arrangement of students is

important in teaching. According to Majasan (1995) teachers should be given

some training on the use of methods and materials for special students if the
36

school policy is to group them together. In addition, the provision of special

material and teaching aids is a necessity.

The situation in Benue state is such that it is the Ministry of Education

which formulates polices regarding curriculum content, textbook, class size,

class composition, teaching load, assessment procedures and provision of

materials. Since the government has taken it upon herself to define school

policy, Simon (1992) recommends that, it is her responsibility to ensure its

effective implementation by putting the necessary machinery in place to help

teachers work efficiently. Hindrances to teacher effectiveness abound in the

classroom and ought to be solved or reduced to the barest minimum if the

teacher is to be effective (Nwaorgu.1991).

Aspects of Supervision of instruction

Logically following a well planned and organized curriculum the next

move by school administration is to implement it. This ushers in the role of

instructional supervision which according, to Ezeocha (1990), is the

improvement of instruction delivery through professional help. Supervision

helps teachers to diagnose educational problems, to seek solutions and to

promote a favourable setting for teaching and learning. Effective supervision

will give the teacher confidence and a sense of direction (especially new

teachers). It helps to bridge the gap between theory and practice and this makes

it the decisive factor concerning the teachers future attitude to work. Ada

(2000) states that an uncomfortable teacher may feel inadequate, leading to


37

ineffectiveness. Consequently it is the place of the supervisor to provide the

much needed moral and technical support. Therefore there is a great need for a

formal system of supervision. Some of these formal systems of supervision are

presented here below:

Formative Supervision

Research in the history of supervision in schools indicates that

supervision started as the general inspection of the school grounds and records

(Burnham, 1976). Classroom visitations were meant to assess the teachers skill

on class control. This was the situation in Benue state as recorded by Ada

(2000). In fact supervisors were referred to as inspectors and their main function

was to evaluate teachers (by giving marks) for the purpose of advancement.

Their visits were infrequent and caused teacher anxiety since their advancement

depended on the supervisors assessment. This led to teacher hostility towards

supervision, a view upheld by Timperley in Focho (2001) Timperley says

tension between summative and formative evaluation necessarily leads to a

preference to the later. In the sixties, as seen in the work of Goldhammer (1969-

75), the need for a developmental approach to supervision surfaced.

Educators emphasized the need for teachers to grow or develop in the

profession. Lee in Focho (2001) states that, the teacher who does not continue to

grow personally and professionally will wither both as a person and as a

teacher. To him, supervision aims at improving the teachers skills and helping

him/her re-alise his/her creative talent, not repressing it. The process of teaching
38

and learning is not static but dynamic, constant changes occur in instructional

methods and materials. For a teacher to be effective, he must keep abreast with

recent changes. Nwaogu (1980) says, supervision has to improve teaching

through periodic criticism of existing activities with regard to current trends and

issues.

In his clinical approach to supervision, Goldhammer in Focho (2001)

stipulates that instructional supervision ought to be as methodical and objective

as the best approach to improve teachers effectiveness. Clinical supervision,

according to Segiovanni and Strarrant in Afianmagbon (2007) is a face to face

encounter with teachers about teaching, usually in a class room with a double

barreled intent of professional development and improvement of instruction.

Cogan in Afianmagbon (2007) was regarded as the Chief exponent of clinical

supervision. He defined clinical supervision as the rationale and practice

designed to improve the teachers classroom performance. It takes its principal

data from the events of the classroom. The analysis of these data and the

relationships between the teacher and the supervisor form the basis of the

programme. Clinical supervision involves procedures and strategies designed

to improve the students learning by improving the teachers classroom

behaviour (Cogan. in Afianmagbon 2007)

Cogan had developed an eight step model of clinical supervision

technique. The eight steps are:


39

a) Establishing the teacher supervisor relationship:- here a rapport is

established between the supervisor and the teacher. The essence is

for the teacher to see the supervisor as a friend and professional

colleague who he can confide in.

b) Planning with the teacher The supervisor and the teacher

discusses freely the teachers classroom problems

c) Planning the strategy of observation- based on the nature of the

teachers classroom problem, the supervisor plans with the teacher

on the best approach to be adopted in observing the teaching

learning situation.

d) Observing the instruction The actual observation of the

instructional process is done at this level.

e) Analyzing the teaching This is the state at which the data of

information collected during observation is collated and analyzed.

The results are then interpreted in line with the teaching learning

process.

f) Planning the strategy of the conference/instruction This entails

the supervisor agreeing on a better strategy to be proposed and

adopted during the conference stage. The supervisor uses his

superior knowledge and experiences in teaching to plan the

ultimate strategy for instruction.


40

g) The conference phase - This is the stage at which all the

observations made during the instructional process are tabled and

discussed by the supervisors and the teacher(s). During the

conference stage various ideas are shard and the best solutions

towards solving the perceived problem (classroom) is adopted.

h) Reviewed or Renewed Planning -- This involves the production of

alternative and improved strategies of instruction. This is done

cooperatively with the teacher and the supervisors, taking into

account the teachers opinion and special problems. The reviewed

plan must be an improved instructional method capable of

improving learning, which is the sole aim of supervision of

instruction(Cogan in Afianmagbon 2007:95-96).

The advantage of clinical supervision according to Nwanguegbe (2004),

is that discussion is on face to face basis as against other forms of supervision. It

affords the supervisee and the supervisor the grudges mistakes or faults that

occurred during the performance of the required task.

A number of studies have been carried out in the area of clinical

supervision as a technique of supervising the instructional process, for example,

Adiele (1987) investigated the effects of the application of Cogans clinical

supervision technique on teacher effectiveness and students performance in

integrated science in secondary schools in Nsukka Educational Zone. He found

that Cogans technique of supervision induced a higher positive correlation


41

between teachers effectiveness and students performance than other

techniques. He also established that a high positive correlation exists between

teachers effectiveness and students performance in each treatment group,

though a systematic increase in correlation between these variables was

produced by Cogans clinical supervision technique only.

Having studied the effects of the traditional and modified form of

Cogans clinical supervision approaches on pupil and teacher performance in

Anambra State, Ani (1990) found that primary and secondary school teachers

perform better when supervised with modified Cogans clinical supervisory

approach and that the students/pupils perform better when taught by teachers

supervised with the modified approach. Anis (1990) finding emphasized that

the modified form of Cogans Clinical supervision approach enables primary

and secondary school teachers to perform better. To him (based on his finding)

the modified from of Cogan;s clinical supervision is better than the pure form

of Cogans clinical supervision which Adiele (1987) reported to be better then

the other techniques of supervision studied.

Researching on the effects of Cogans clinical supervision model on

social studies instruction in primary schools in Ankpa Education Zone of Kogi

State. Omalle in Affinmagbon (2007) found that, among primary school

teachers who were supervised by supervisors using Cogans clinical supervision

model, a significantly large number of them indicated acceptance of the method

of supervision compared to their counterparts who also were supervised using


42

the same method. Omalles (2000) study also lent credence to the acceptability

(effectiveness) of the technique of clinical supervision as enhancing effective

teaching and learning, hence the teacher is better equipped to perform his/her

duties. Thus teacher effectiveness is implied (Afianmagbon 2007)

In general, Ogunsaju (1983) encourages teachers not to fear supervision

for it affords them the opportunity to grow and to discover their abilities.

Teachers with special qualities and abilities could be encouraged to help others

in what is referred to as peer supervision.

Peer Supervision

The notion of peer supervision emerged as a response to the shortage of

specialist supervisors, because of the nature of clinical supervision (which is

considered most effective), there is great need for supervisors who are

specialists in one subject matter, such specialists are often in short supply and

the principal and his vice are often expected to play the role of supervisor. Oliva

(1984) holds that these are generalists supervisors and are hardly effective

since they lack expertise in supervisory techniques, lack time and at best have

expert knowledge only in their subject of specialization. The alternative then is

to introduce colleagueship in supervision; Alfonso and Godsberry (1982) define

this as the use of teachers with special talents and abilities to supervise others.

However, these teachers must be trained in the rudiments and techniques of

supervision to have better results. In this regard, the current status of heads of

department could be raised to that of semi specialist supervisors. They should be


43

chosen with respect to their special abilities and made to undergo special

courses in instructional supervision through staff development programs. Their

teaching load could be reduced to demonstrative lessons so as to allow them

enough time to observe and help all teachers in their departments regularly.

Another advantage of peer supervision according to Bang-Jensen (1986) is that

it reduces the fear and anxiety often generated by generalists and supervisors

who often have to give an evaluation mark to the teacher.

For supervision to be effective the duties of a supervisor should be clearly

defined. From the observation of his behaviour in relation to his duties, it can be

concluded whether a supervisor is effective or not. His supervisory style is also

an indicator of his effectiveness. Generally, the supervisors task as indicated by

Glover and law (1996), is to add to the teachers professional knowledge; to

improve the teacher skills and to clarify professional values, all in an attempt to

educate students more effectively , specific duties, as outlined by Elders (1987)

include: the induction and socialization of new teachers, assigning teaching

duties; time tabling of subject matter, and providing opportunities for

professional growth through workshops, conferences and seminars. According

to Acheson and Gall (1980) all these begin with classroom observation to see if

teaching is effective or not. Observation of in-class teaching will help the

clinical supervisor to effectively plan staff development programes with

teachers.
44

In this vein, Nwaogu (1980) posits that it is the supervisors duty to teach,

so as to demonstrate old methods and to introduce new ones. The promotion of

non-material motivation and emotional support to teachers which Nwaogu

advocates, falls within the realm of supervory tasks. To his list of duties,

Glickman (1985) adds the following; providing feedback and follow up,

involvement in curriculum development and review, engaging in group

development activities to encourage peer supervision and to carry out action

research. Thus the supervisor is to assume the role of a master teacher, group

leader, organizer, communication, public relations officer, evaluator, researcher

and change agent (Oliva, 1984),

The supervisors style is also viewed as important in the supervisory

process given that he is expected to develop and promote a favorable setting for

teaching through a democratic and cooperative process (Burnham in Focho

2001) such an atmosphere is expected to reduce anxiety on the job and hostility

towards supervisors in which case teachers will readily adopt and maintain good

teaching practices. Three basic supervisory styles have been identified by

Glickman (1985) namely, directive, collaborative and non directive styles. Each

style, he cautions, should be used depending on the characteristics of the

teachers. When teachers have little expertise, little commitment and no

accountability, the directive style is appropriate. The supervisor is to give

instructions and directions. The collaborative style should be used when

teachers have some expertise, moderate commitment and some accountability.


45

When teachers have strong sense of accountability. Then the non-directive style

best suits the situation. According to Glickman, most teachers prefer the

collaborative and non-directive style. Similarly, as a group leader, the

supervisors style depends on the maturity level of the group. (in terms of

expertise, commitment and responsibility) this will determine his use of telling,

participatory or delegating group leadership style. Supervisor behavior will thus

influence teacher behaviour.

One of the most crucial and outstanding aspects of supervision is

evaluation which involves a systematic and critical appraisal of the techniques

to determine how far desired objectives have been attained. This is done

cognizant of the fact that the effective supervision is committed to significant

and lasting teacher growth and productivity. Pursuant to this, the supervisor

consistently asks: To what extent have my objectives been achieved? This is the

cardinal question that underscores the process of evaluation.

For this situation to be objectively addressed, Osita (1997) points out that

programme evaluation should emphasize the following: Evaluation should be

diagnostic,, causes of poor performance should be identified through evaluation,

and evaluation should be aimed at improving results.

To cope with the stated challenges the efficient supervisor instead of

adopting a haphazard approach uses a number of evaluative processes to

determine the effectiveness or otherwise of the learning programme. These

according to Osita (1997) should include: Direct observation during classroom


46

visits, conferences, evaluation through learner behavour, students appraisal and

teacher self evaluation.

The cardinal objective of supervision of programme is to enhance all-

round positive change in behaviour of the educand. This achieved indirectly

through the process and control of mobilizing, criticizing, directing, galvanizing

and controlling of teachers so as to enhance their quality of work. Aware that

the educand is endowed positively, the aim of supervision programme is to

ensure that his potentials are realized within the all embracing ambit of the

curriculum. It can thus be concluded that instructional supervision is

fundamental to teacher effectiveness.

School Plant Management

The school plant is usually defined to include the site, the buildings,

equipment and all the facilities of a school. (Udoh & Akpa & Gang 1990). In

other words it is the controlled environment which facilitates the teaching

learning process while at the same time protecting the physical well being of the

occupants, as Ani (1997) sees the school plant as a term which refers to the

location of the school, the school buildings the equipment in the schools and

other material resources provided in the school for the purpose of enhancing

teaching and learning processes. It includes the fixed and mobile structures and

materials in the school such as laboratories and laboratory equipment, the

school furniture, the chalk boards, tools and machines the chalk, audio and

visual aids etc.


47

The school plant planning starts and ends with the children and so the

buildings are to be designed to satisfy the childrens physical and emotional

needs(Caudil in Udoh &Gang 1990). Okeke (2004) in the same vein maintains

that, in order to meet the physical needs of the children, a safe structure,

adequate sanitary facilities, a balance visual environment, an appropriate

thermal environment and sufficient shelter space for work and play should be

provided. It is hoped that children will learn more and work harder when

facilities are adequate, but in the absence of the essential facilities, the children

and the staff will always be anxious, not feeling at ease to carry on with the

teaching learning process. The anxiety thus affects their productivity.

Man is a rational and creative being who loves beauty and is often

attracted by it, Kajo (2005) thus maintained that the urge to be creative and

beautiful is common and natural to man. In effect, creativity requires some

element of imagination which on the other hand is limited by ones level of

understanding, knowledge or ability to think critically. Therefore, to be creative

in the planning of the school plants, one has to acquaint himself with the basic

needs of the immediate society, the economy and availability of scarce

materials. Above all, the individual has to be open minded and work in an

atmosphere of absolute freedom. Creative schools do not just happen, thus Ani

(1997) observed that there is need to involve individuals of different talents to

make for healthy, safe, comfortable and convenient school environment which

can promote high standards of academic work in the school. Ani therefore
48

advocated for the involvement of an educator, an economist, a quantity

surveyor, a designer like an artist, an architect and a health worker while

planning the school plant.

The functions to be performed by these groups of individuals to make for

the uniqueness of the school plant cannot be over emphasized. The educator

possesses the capacity to determine the building and material needs of the

school, the architect may help to translate these building needs as conceived by

the educator into practical terms through designs and specifications. The health

worker may help in choosing a healthy and safe environment which will form

the school site. The artist will help in the location of trees and choice of colour

for the buildings while the economist will ensure and advise on the judicious

use of the financial resources available.

Some authorities like Adiele (1987) have seen school administration as

management or judicious use of human and material resources to achieve the

objectives of the school. In order words, if there are no human and material

resources in a school, there will be no administration. Since the material

resources have to do with the school plant there is need for well planned and

organized school plant to make for effective school administration if there is

shortage of accommodation, furniture, equipment or other material resource,

this can affect the productivity of the teachers, the administrator teacher

relationship and even administrator student relationship. The authorities

concerned are therefore supposed to plan, organize the school and provide
49

necessary school plant to enhance cordial relationship between the school

administrator and, the teachers and the students for effective school

administration or management.

One of the greatest problems facing government Secondary schools in

Nigeria is that of poor maintenance of buildings and equipments. It is perhaps

correction to say that; in education the hood does not make the monk, but it is

equally important to observe that the most lasting impression of any educational

institution is that made by the physical appearance of the buildings. School plant

maintenance, therefore Ezeocha (1990) perceives, is the keeping of the school

buildings and equipment as near their original state as possible. It is natural to

see these buildings and equipments depreciate in outlook and some factors are

responsible, Ani (1997) points them out to include: Constant usage, effects of

the weather, age, and carelessness, negligence or abandonment.

Apart from maintaining the school plant through repairs and

replacements, there is every need for every school to maintain the services of

compound clearing, sweeping, trimming of flowers and washing of toilets,

cutting the grass around dormitories and fields. No meaningful teaching and

learning can take place under filthy environment, Fobis (1985) identified three

types of maintenance services to include; Regular maintenance given to special

equipment on periodic basis. These repairs may be done by skilled workers in or

outside the school. Emergency maintenance which may be done once in a while

as the need may arise and preventive maintenance aims at reducing the
50

possibility of repairs or breakdown of equipments. The of preventive

maintenance follows from the belief that prevention is better than cure.

Financial Resources

Financial resources are imperative for the implementation of educational

programmes and management of the school plant. Money is needed for the

purchase of such basic materials as chalk, paper and pens. The libraries and

laboratories have to be well equipped and updated regularly. Equipment has to

be procured and maintained constantly. Money is also vital for instructional

activities such as excursions, the running of class experiments, seminars,

workshops and other staff development programmes. To facilitate the teachers

job, other personnel have to be hired which include secretaries, counselors,

librarians and laboratory and workshop attendants. In general, the working

environment has to be improved for to improve the work place is to improve

teaching. As such, any increase in the school population must be matched with a

corresponding increase in expenditure on infrastructure, materials, facilities and

equipment, (The world Bank; 1988:35)

Thus adequate financial resources are needed to improve conditions of

work and teaching processes. However, adequate finances on a regular basis can

be guaranteed only when a substantial amount is made available for

teaching material either by shifting funds from other expenditure categories or

by mobilizing additional resources (The World Bank, 1988:35) only then, the
51

document states, can teachers in African schools became Pedagogically

productive

School Community Relations

Describing a school as a small community of staff (tutorial and non-

tutorial) and pupil with a life of its own, which at same time is an integral part

of a much wider community, with its pattern of thinking individuals and

organizations who influence thought and action. Akubue (1997) said that, the

school does not exist in a social vacuum. He held it as a social institution, an

agency by which disired social needs may be met and therefore a means to an

end and not an end itself. More than any other public institution, a school

derives its existence and life blood from the community which often supports it

with her material and human resources.

Cibulka (1978) described a community as a people obliged to one another

not because of the place of birth, race, sex and religion. Cibulka (1978) also

saw in a community a people bound to one another and governed by sheared

taste, specific needs or common interest. Ayih (1988) pointed certain traits by

which some communities are known and grouped to include; technical,

political, religious, social and educational. Communities can be said to be

modern or traditional, literate or illiterate, liberal or authoritative, orthodox and

fundamentalist or secular and pluralized, urban or rural. The urban communities

where some of our schools are cited are comparatively modern, pluralized,

liberal, literate, rich and perhaps more receptive to innovation and change. The
52

rural communities on the other hand are traditional, authoritative, and generally

not so literate, in most cases poor and tend to be little more resistant to change.

Akubue (1997) therefore, identifies two types of schools and principals

depending on the nature of the community.

Types A are schools and principals that are located in Urban

communities with the schools built either by the mission, or the government.

Some of these schools have made name and already have fame. There is hardly

any development problem. He sees principals in such schools as more

concerned with maintenance and consolidation tasks, since most of them have

reached their optimum level of infrastructural development. The problem with

type A schools, Akubue envisaged to include: the fact that the principal has to

deal with a faceless community heterogeneous in nature, a community with

no direct commitment to the school except those who have their children in such

schools. The principals main source of rescue he maintains comes from a few

literate, well informed and dedicated parents of students. His other sources of

assistance are the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) as well as an active and

viable old boys association.

On the other hand he sees type B schools and principals to be those

located in a rural setting. These are built by the local community. He sees these

schools he sees as usually saddled with development and maintenance problems

which in type A school settings are undertaken by old boys association and

active Parents Teachers Association(PTA). Type B school he observes are


53

indigenous and homogenous. With less effective power such as man-power,

capital equipment, finance which are provided by the community which

generally identifies with the school as their own and takes it as a symbol of their

pride. The boundaries of the school are not in doubt. This community identifies

with the school problems and would deal with anyone who encroaches on

school property. The principal knows whom to run to and where to invoke help.

This distinction makes one appreciate the fact that some principals have much

more loads to carry then others, and much more problems to handle than their

other counterparts over issues related to role expectation in school community

relations.

Throughout history, the relationship of the school to the community it

serves has been a matter of major significance. To what extent may a school

teach what it is committed to teach without regard to the wishes of the people?

How much support can a principal of a school expect if he is pursuing values

not accepted by the community? Has the community not been instrumental in

substantially determining the quantity and quality of educational inputs? These

questions suggest that the school and the community are mutually influencing.

Consequently principals should view community relations as a means of

defending and preserving the school. According to Arthur (1957 -1970) school

community relations demands the society and its instrument, the school, a

genuine cooperation in planning and working for schools, with the community

giving as well as receiving, a two-way flow of ideas for effective team work.
54

The character of the community varies from one area to another. An

institution may be in a small and relatively underdeveloped village, or it might

be situated on a large densely populated and highly developed urban area,

Which ever is the case, there is a common and basic important responsibility

of dealing with members of the community in matters which affect the growth

and development of institutions. It demands that the principal should establish,

develop and maintain satisfactory relations with the community in which his

institution is situated. To this end a three point strategy of learning about the

community, informing the community and involving the community, has been

proposed (Bortner, 1972-75)

The Principal and School Community Relations

The principal on assuming office in any school should, as one of his

primary tasks try to systematically study and familiarize himself with the local

community because of their educational value to the schools. Akubue (1997)

observes that what the principal does is very vital. The communitys

expectations of his roles as an adviser, consultant, peace maker, and community

leader are quite high. He proposes that, all sorts of people will come to see the

principal for various reasons and a lot of his time will be spent receiving them.

Some of the visitors will be officials who come to discuss official matters;

others may be people who have business dealings with the college. There are
55

people who will come to seek personal favour and parents may come to discuss

the problems of their children while local dignitaries may pay courtesy calls. As

a public relations man, Akubue (1997) opines that, what the principal says, how

he says it and what he does, have their significant impacts on the community.

They may help to build up or run down the reputation and make or mar the

school. He however cautions that, whatever the motives of visitors, the

principal should in the interest of building good school public relations, try to

demonstrate courtesy, cheerfulness, understanding and cooperation without

however sacrificing official stands for personal convenience.

Admitting that personal contacts made in the community by the principal

help to shape public opinion of the school which the principal epitomizes to a

large extent. Kajo (2005) saw the principal as having the responsibility of

purposefully widening his or her personal community contacts in civic, social

clubs and other community organizations. Opportunities abound for the

principal who is armed with facts and positive information about the community

for correcting distorted impressions, ending rumours and developing goodwill

and rapport with a wide and cross section of the citizenry during the course of

his day to day social contacts. This makes for effective teaching and learning

The Teacher and School Community Relations

The teachers are important factors in school community relations. They

sometimes have greater opportunities to influence the communities attitude

towards the school. A majority of the teachers are known to reside within the
56

community, which paves the way for increased association with residents. The

advantage accruing from this is obvious they gain insight into the community

value orientations, parental expectations for the school and students concerns

and problems (Akubue 1997). As residents of the community, teachers become

involved in a variety of leadership opportunities. Not only is this type of

involvement beneficial in fostering positive community attitude towards the

school, it also accommodates the need for social interaction.

The teachers instructional behovour is also of prime importance here, his

inter-personal relationship with colleagues, and the administration and with

students is also contributory to the school community relations in that it ushers

in a spirit of togetherness and commitment. Ames and miller (1994) maintained

that teacher commitment to each other is an important ingredient in improving

teacher practice and effectiveness which in turn improves the image of the

school. Teacher commitment to students and the school as an institution

encourages him to go the extra mile (Hoffman 1994). He is likely to spend extra

time to motivate and nurture students. Committed teachers are ready to help

each other with instruction and this paves way for peer supervision, a necessary

component of instructional improvement and school image making. The

teachers attitude towards the school administration is important in view of the

fact that the success of a leader depends in part on the level of cooperation of

his subordinates. No matter how hard a principal may try to provide a

favourable school community relations if the teachers do not appreciate and


57

respect institutional rules and regulations, any disciplinary action by the

principal will be ill-received by the teachers and mis-interpreted to the public.

The teacher must be made to understand school goals and programs and thus

desist from making damaging idle comments about the school, and or the

students. He must also avoid disseminating speculative, premature, or

incomplete information about changes or innovations that are merely under

consideration, before such changes are realized. However he must air

grievances and criticisms of colleagues, superiors, or school policy to the

persons involved and not before neighbours and friends.

The teacher should also generate positive feelings of love, respect and

trust in the students. Hastings (1992) holds that such good relations, as making

the students feel the importance of the teacher and learn from him are eventually

transmitted to their homes. If the teacher is self-disciplined and learning is made

easier, it translates to improved school community relations. Pointing out that

todays students become tomorrows adult citizens and tax payers, Akubue

(1997) warns that hostility towards the school among adults can sometimes be

traced to bad experiences with teachers. Similarly, supportive attitudes are often

rooted in pleasant memories of professionally dedicated and caring teachers

who treat students with respect and consideration. Self discipline on the part of

teachers with regards to school rules and community expectation will also

translate to good school community relations. It must be realized too that where

some communities will not tolerate mediocre teaching, others may stubbornly
58

resist it, but no community is pleased with teacher truancy in their teaching

functions.

The Student and School Community Relations

No emissary group has more extensive contact with the community than

the student body. For example, parents receive substantially more information

about schools from their children than from any other source (Akubue 1997).

Most parents build their impression of the school from their Children. The

affection of parents provides the students with a sympathetic audience at home

and their opinions are readily accepted.

Where students opinions about the school are unfovourable, a poor

image of the school is painted to the public whose interest and support for the

school is consequently affected.( Akubue 1997). Pointing out that the ideal for

any principal is not only educationally sound but also politically advantageous

to ensure that students experience success during every school day,

Akubue(1997) notes that when a students sense of satisfaction and

belongingness are enhanced, he will identify with and become a positive

ambassador of the school.

Conversely, it is difficult for a community whether in urban or rural

setting, to support schools where their children overwhelmingly and continually

carry negative reports about In addition, students behavior in the community

and at school sponsored events is often watched as a barometer of school


59

effectiveness. Therefore students must be made aware of their responsibilities

in shaping public opinion about their schools.

The Non-Teaching Staff And School Community Relations

Taking a serious stance, Akubue (1997) proposes that the role of the non-

teaching staffing in building school community relations is another important

sector to watch in school community relations. The typist, clerks, cooks bus

drivers, security-men, e.t.c are men and women who often have longer tenure in

the school than the principal. These are usually members of the community.

Often their opinion regarding the school are eagerly sought and sometimes

readily shared. Hence, through regular meetings these employees should be

encouraged to convey and share objective, accurate and timely information

about the school.

The Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A) and School Community

Relations

The Parents Teachers Association (PTA) of every school is a stakeholder

in the welfare of the school and its image making. To allow for close school-

community relations so as to reap the advantages of parental support and

community involvement. Students discipline has to emanate from the home.

However Adesina (1990) notes that most mothers are working and have little

time to instill such values as discipline, respect, honesty and hard work.

According to him, this explains why students behave like animals. The
60

implication is that parents must be involved in and support student discipline, a

view supported by Edmond (1999). Apart from discipline, Edmond thinks that

parental support towards the provision of books and other materials for the

students is important. Teaching becomes ineffective if students cannot do

exercises in class or at home for lack of textbooks since teachers are often

reluctant to write lengthy exercises on the board. In addition, absence of

working materials sometimes contributes to students poor attitude towards

studies.

For better school community relations, decisions about the school have to

involve parents through the local Parents-Teacher Association (PTA), Although

parents lack of interest in PTAs has been noted by Adesina (1990), it is believed

that if parents are personally involved in school affairs, teachers feel more

committed and accountable. Similarly parents become committed and help

teachers to enforce school rules and regulations which are jointly formulated.

This will avoid the kind of situation where a teachers hair was cut-off in class

by an enraged parent because she objected to the wearing of make up in class by

the parents child (Majason, 1995)

Other members of the community must also lend their support to the

school. As part of the social system, the schools integrity depends in part on the

communitys input. Local political leaders for example should avoid interfering

unnecessarily in school affairs. As stated by Bryk & Lee & Holland (1993)

teachers hate negative interference from the community which may lead to
61

unhealthy school community relations. However, Bryk et al says community

influence is helpful in the procurement of resources (financial, material and

human) and may force teachers to meet parents demands or complaints

regarding students education.

The communitys image of the teacher is also a matter of concern to

Majasan (1995) contends that if the society looks down on them, treats them

like dirt, and refuses to give them any place of honour and sometimes attacks

them unjustifiably, these will make teaching un-attractive and the teachers

undedicated and thus compromise efficiency. lamenting Government

maltreatment of teachers and consequent constant strikes, Akarue(1990)

points out that this is likely to affect the image of teaching and pull down

morale. Teachers image, Jones (1985) says has to be improved to meet up

other professionals in the society and warns that a society that undermines its

teachers undermines the foundation of its present and future progress. For, no

society can rise above the quality of its teaching force.

There is no doubt that efforts aimed at promoting school community

relations will meet with difficulties, consequently, the principal will be

confronted by problems of local politics, rise in school fees, rise in price of

commodities, in-adequate funding, hostile attitudes, indifference or lack of

cooperation on part of staff, parents and students, etc however the problem of

how to act responsively to the community carries with it a host of philosophical

and strategic dilemmas which Akubue (1997) points out to include: the
62

demands on the part of the school board which may conflict with

responsiveness to the community. Another is that the community may not

always be of clear mind or of one mind about what it wants, or what it wants

may contradict the professional vision of the principal. Akubue also notes that;

in school community relations, certain leadership qualities are on trial namely;

the technical skills, traits of personality, ability to work with people, cooperate

with people and make them feel important. One must note that, the principal

needs the skill of tact because it will succeed where other abilities fail him. He

further notes that, hence all communities are distinct in nature, peculiar types of

problems created by the very nature of the types of community one is called to

serve will need peculiar tact and approaches. This must never be taken for

granted in public relations and school administration.

Motivational Factors

Observing that in every human organization what induces people to work

may differ or change with time, Nwankwo(2007) however notes that staff

motivation has always been of prime importance to the smooth functioning of

any organization. Motivation is viewed by Focho (2001) as the drive, need or

incentive which determines the workers attitude to work. Thus motivation

theorists have over the years tried to explain why people behave the way they

do, and to determine the cause of their behaviour. Here we shall look at two

main perspectives of motivation. Content and process theories. Content theorists

like Alderfer (1972), Herzberg (1959), Maslow (1943) and McClelland (1962)
63

contend that the content of individual needs dives people to work to satisfy

these needs. In other words, what constitutes a need is the main motivating

factor. Such needs include food, existence, water, sex (physiological) and

safety, love esteem, status, achievement and power (psychological). On the

other hand process theorists like Cameron (1973), Lowler (1971), Locke

(1969), Skinner (1969), and Vroom (1964), strive to explain the process by

which workers can be motivated. They are concerned with how desirable

behavior can be started and maintained. The general consensus is that

administrators have to look for ways to satisfy workers needs for them to be

motivated to work effectively. Financial remuneration and opportunities for

growth and achievement are examples of such processes. Motivation in this

study is based on the latter perspective, that is, ways of maintaining or

improving the teachers level of job commitment and task performance.

Considering the fact that some employee needs require finances for

satisfaction, pay is considered a major means of compensating and motivating

workers. Gerhart and Milkovich (1992:481) stated that compensation is at the

core of the employment exchange between organizations and individuals. One

of the problems has been how much to pay a worker to make him satisfied.

This is particularly true of the teacher who sees his salary as inadequate in

comparison to that of another with comparable qualifications, which according

to Akubue (1991), is not only low but embarrassing .Akubue further

observed that because teachers feel grossly underpaid compared to other


64

professions, there is a brain drain in the teaching profession. Majasan (1995)

adds that because of such paltry wages, society tends to believe that those

who teach cannot do any thing else or are intellectually weak. This is

contributory to the low image of teachers in the society.

The recommendation of the International Conference on Education

(UNESCO, 1978) was that the economic situation of the secondary school

teacher is supposed to enable him devote himself entirely to his job to avoid

seeking other remunerative employment which could jeopardize the functioning

of his job. On the contrary the low salaries of Nigerian teachers do force them to

do other business to supplement their salary. Dissatisfaction inevitably leads to

lack of dedication, absenteeism, and poorly planned and taught lessons.

Apparently the same situation exists in Benue state where teachers in Gboko

town have been observed to be increasingly absent from work due to low

salaries which force them to look for supplementary income elsewhere (Orseer

2006)

Basic salary goes along with such benefits as; housing; transport, health,

risk allowances and child support. These allowances must be adequate and

together with basic salary, must be paid regularly to ensure not only survival,

but also a positive attitude towards work that will yield effectiveness. Any

irregularity in payment of salaries according to Olaitan (1987), is due to the fact

that proportion of school budgets allocated to teachers salary is low. It is in

this light that Simon (1992) proposes that the procedure for determining
65

employee compensation should be just and satisfactory to the workers. For

teaching to be recognized and respected as a profession, salary and other

benefits must compare favourably with that of other professions. Any

discrepancies may usher in dissatisfaction and lack of job commitment.

Material benefit is not the only factor that is known to motivate workers.

Indeed some worker may shun a good paying job because of lack of

advancement or promotion opportunities. Absence of clearly defined policies

for advancement and promotion had constituted part of teachers grievances.

Advancement should be regular and according to specified criteria.

The zeal for promotion or appointment to posts of responsibility, is

inherent in every worker (Akarue 1991), Focho (2001) points out that teachers

often aspire to be heads of departments, principals, directors in the Ministry of

Education or even ministers. Apparently, Nigerian teachers are un-aware of

what criterion is used to appoint people to these posts. Teachers with many

years of service, training and high evaluation records become frustrated when

inexperienced, untrained and often incompetent colleagues are appointed to

posts of responsibility. A teacher caught in this situation will get the message

that qualification and hard work does not pay. The consequences are obvious.

The school administration must thus provide equal promotion opportunities if

they want to maintain a motivated and effective teaching staff.

The nature and manner of implementation of school policies in general

can be predictors of teachers motivation. Policies concerning recruitments,


66

retention, transfers, dismissal, sanctions, leave of absence and retirement must

be fair and justly applied. Any interpretation of favouritism plants feelings of

mistrust and injustice. This is also true of teacher evaluation procedures. Any

assigned mark, which seems arbitrary to the teacher, only generates feelings of

frustration. The importance of other motivational factors as teachers

cooperative, insurance polices, staff parties and teacher- of- the- year medals

should not be overlooked. Teachers feel appreciated even by verbal praises or

other non formal forms of appreciation for a job well done. Kirby (1998) points

out that respect for the teachers human and constitutional rights had the

potential of motivating. The teachers right to adhere to and militate in any

opposition political party or teachers union, for example, should not be taken as

an affront to the administration. In this regard, Jones (1985) asserts that teachers

unions are the only legitimate forums where teachers can express their

grievances and with which the government can negotiate. This is because

teachers unions advocate worth while salaries and decent working conditions, a

view shared by Barber (1992) Majasan (1995) is more emphatic in stating that

teachers must form a strong union to tackle educational problems and those of

teachers working conditions. In friths (1998) opinion, effective school

management should ensure the effective implementation of all policies so as to

encourage teachers stability. A stable working force has a lot of advantages

including a high sense of belonging and commitment, if teachers feel dismissals

or transfers are uncalled for, lack of dedication ensues. On a formula for job
67

performance, Gibson, lvancevich and Donnelly (1985) propose thus;

performance is equal to ability times motivation. Therefore job performance can

be zero if motivation is zero despite ability. Though an overstatement, the

implication is that a poorly motivated staff is bound to be ineffective. The

potentials of motivation to teacher job performance should not be overlooked by

any school management.

Theoretical framework

The purpose of this section is to establish the theoretical framework on

which the study is based. Although, the study is based generally on the human

relations management theory, it leans heavily on the theory of job satisfaction

since this provides a better operational and working definition. However, a brief

over-view of human relations theory approach to management is deemed

necessary before we go to into the theories of job satisfaction.

Human Relations Theory

The proponents of human relations approach to administration and

management share the view that developing and maintaining harmonious

relations between employees and supervisors and among employees is quite

fundamental to all organizations. Follet in Focho (2001) was one of the early

advocates of this theory, and in her works, she emphasized the human side of

administration .The underlying principle behind this theory is that a satisfied

worker is an effective one. The theory therefore emphasizes that an increase of

employee motivation and morale will increase his productivity.


68

This theory emerged as an opposition to the classical organization or

scientific management movement advocated by Taylor in (Focho 2001), which

viewed man as a machine that needs to be directed to achieve high level of

productivity irrespective of his personal feelings and needs. Man has to obey

instructions without protest despite individual idiosyncrasies and lack of inter-

personal relations with supervisor and colleagues. Follet and others began to

argue that employees are human beings and not machines, whose individual

differences and inter-personal relations at work ought to be taken into

consideration. As a result, questions relating to the physiological and

psychological factors of the work environment began to emerge followed by

research on the salient issues. The human relations theory basically holds that

financial remunerations though a significant motivator is not the only driving

force behind workers effectiveness. (Focho 2001). Other non-economic factors

such as the physical and psychological work atmosphere can be powerful

motivators. (Usuman 2005).

According to Eneasator (1997), the main criticism against the human

relations theory has been that, it ignores the formal structures of organizations.

For example, it assumes that a participatory leadership style will be effective in

all situations thus ignoring the need for employees to obey superiors in formal

organizations. Despite these criticisms, that theory still holds important

implications for schools as organizations, primarily because schools are


69

basically involved with people and not machines as is the case with some

organizations.

Schools as organizations are constituted of different groups of people

who interact to achieve organizational goals. These include teachers,

administrators, students, auxiliary staff and parents. The key personnel here are

the teacher whose duty is to teach in such a way as to enable students learn. By

implication he has to be effective and this has to be enhanced by the cooperation

of the others involved. While the administrator has to provide the needed

financial and material resources and conducive school plant and community

relations, the students, support staff, parents, and colleagues have their own

contributions to make towards a harmonious working environment. This in

essence is what the human relations theorists advocate, (Focho, 2001). The

teachers and others and other staff had to be satisfied with the different facets of

their job and this lead to the theory of job satisfaction.

The concept of Job satisfaction as viewed by scholars is a complex and

multifaceted one with no universally accepted definition. Job satisfaction could

be viewed as the effective orientation of the individual towards work roles that

they are currently occupying and that a person could be said to be satisfied to

the extent that his Job fulfils his dominant needs and is consistent with his

expectations and values ( Usuman 2005). Studies in Herzbergs (1959-1965)

two factor theory revealed that, Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction have

different causal variables. Variables such as promotion, recognition and respect


70

among others increase satisfaction but does not cause dissatisfaction when

absent. Though variables such as salary, good working conditions may be

present and yet have no effect on satisfaction. Herzberg considers the first

variables, (recognition, promotion and respect) as motivators or satisfiers, while

the latter variables (salary, working conditions and good social interaction

among others that can cause dissatisfaction responsibility, prospect, work itself

and achievement), as hygiene or maintenance factors (Usuman 2005)

Secondary School teachers working in rural areas with no or very little

social amenities such as pipe-borne water, bole-holes, electricity, comfortable

accommodation, good health care services for their families, feeder roads etc.

These, coupled with lack of social recognition and prestige is most likely to

affect teachers job satisfaction which may in turn have a significant impact on

students academic achievement.

The happiness and success of teachers are generally affected by their

living conditions as maintained by Stinth and Hugett in Bukar and Baba (2006).

If they have desirable rooms and apartments, good meals and adequate transport

facilities, their adjustment is much more likely to be satisfactory and

subsequently enhance students academic achievement. Thus, job satisfaction

can be seen as the state of a person with respect to satisfied needs in relations to

his job. Agreeing with this view Olaitan (1987) observes that job satisfaction is

the degree to which material and psychological needs are satisfied with respect

to the job and evidently this can be best expressed by those concerned. An
71

employee has to be satisfied with both the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of his

job. While intrinsic factors are those emanating from the job itself, extrinsic are

those external to the job. Both have been demonstrated to affect job satisfaction.

To have a better working definition of job satisfaction it is necessary to look at

some theories of the concept.

Theories of Job Satisfaction

To get a satisfactory look at the theories of job satisfaction Focho (2001)

opines that we must go back to the works of Schaffer (1953) Herzberg (1959)

Locke (1969). Maslow (1970) and Locke (1972) and Aldefer (1972). A brief

look at each of them may help us substantiate our study.

Presenting the fulfillment theory of Schaffer(1953) as positing that job

satisfaction is the extent to which a mans needs that can be satisfied by the job

are actually satisfied, Focho (2001) points out for example that if one views

certain financial remuneration and his salary as fulfilling this need, then one

becomes satisfied. But someone with same salary may have a different or

stronger need for a leadership position or recognition and if this need is not

fulfilled then he/she becomes dissatisfied with this same job. Therefore the

stronger the need, the more will job satisfaction depend on its fulfillment. In

the school setting the needs of individual teachers vary from salary, promotion,

inter-personal relation and adequate instructional materials. Their level of job

satisfaction will depend on the extent to which the

most strongly desired needs are fulfilled.


72

According to Focho, in about 1959, Herzberg came up with his two-

factor theory of job satisfaction. According to him, job satisfaction depends on

two factors, Hygiene factors or dissatisfies and motivators or satisfiers.

Hygiene factors are extrinsic since they do not emanate form the job itself.

These factors include; salary job of inter-personal relations amongst peers,

superiors and subordinates, status and quality of technical supervision. These

factors are referred to as dissatisfies because their absence will lead to dis-

satisfaction. Herzsberg believes that these factors must necessarily be fulfilled

for there to be job satisfaction. Motivators, on the other hand comprise such

factors as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, work itself

and possibility of growth. These are called intrinsic factors because they stem

directly form the job. Research on this theories indicates that the two factors

(dissatisfies and satisfiers) are mutually exclusive. This means that the presence

of motivators, for example may increase job satisfaction, but its absence may

not necessarily lead to job dissatisfaction. The implication for the school

administrators is to tackle these two uses on parallel lines: improving on the

dissatisfies and at the same time increasing the satisfiers. This will better

improve teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness.

Lockes discrepancy theory surfaced between 1969-1972 with the idea

that difference in values, emotions and needs determine job satisfaction.

Discrepancy sets in as the difference between the workers expectation from the

job as outcome and what he actually gets widens. If the teacher views the
73

demand of his job as greater than the salary he receives, there is discrepancy and

hence dissatisfaction. This explains why people on same job have different

levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Focho 2001).

The Existence, Relatedness and Growth (E.R.G) theory of Alderfer

(1972-1975) assumes that job satisfaction exists if the job provides the worker

an opportunity to fulfill these particular needs. Existence refers to material and

physiological needs such as salary and good working conditions. Relatedness is

inter-personal relations with superiors or co-workers, which must be cordial.

Growth is the opportunity offered for personal development through creative

and productive contribution on the job. A teacher could have job satisfaction if

teaching fulfils his needs for existence relatedness and growth (Focho 2001).

Another theory of job satisfaction is the hierarchy of needs theory by

Maslow (1970-72). For Maslow, human needs are in a hierarchical order from

lower to higher order. He further posits that lower order needs must be fulfilled

first; the fulfillment of which leads to the emergence of higher order ones.

According to this theory, human needs are placed in this hierarchical orders;

physiological, safety and security, belonging, esteem and self- actualization.

Hunger, shelter and clothing are physical needs that can be fulfilled through

pay. Job security, danger, fear and anxiety are safety needs. The need for

belonging and love can be realized through social activities and inter-personal

relations. Esteem needs refer to respect from others, achievements, status,

dignity and recognition to be derived from the job. Self-actualization is


74

maximum self development and can only come with the satisfaction of all the

other needs. A self actualized person, presumably, is highly motivated and loyal

to value and beliefs. The most effective teachers, is one who is self actualized.

School administrators must then make it a priority to satisfy the teachers lower

order needs to help them attain self actualization (Focho,2001).

The Equity theory as presented by Focho (2001) holds that there can be

job satisfaction only when benefits from the job are comparable to that of

similar professions. This theory is often referred to as the social comparison

theory, because an individual values his job by comparing his benefits with that

of some one in another organization with similar educational qualification and

experience. Equity is thus perceived if what he gets out (outcome in terms of

salary and other benefits) is equal to what he puts in (input in terms of

qualification, skill and experience). With respect to the equity theory, the

teacher can hardly be satisfied with his job if a policeman, for example, with

less academic qualification and experience has better benefits from his job.

Similarly, if a medical doctor with comparable qualifications and experience has

higher benefits, then the teacher becomes grossly dissatisfied.

The various theories of job satisfaction seem to be unanimous on the

general principle that job satisfaction depends on two main variables: economic

compensation and working conditions in general (both physical and

psychological) it is also evident that managers in every organization are in a

position to boost employee satisfaction. They make planned attempts to improve


75

the performance of individuals. A satisfied and happy worker is generally a

productive one. From this perspective this study intends to investigate those

administrative (management) constraints to teacher effectiveness in government

secondary schools in Benue state Nigeria. Although the work does not set out

to find out the level of job satisfaction of teachers, it is indicative that

hindrances to the effective performance of certain tasks will necessarily

constitute job dissatisfaction in the task performance and hence in effectiveness.

Researchers do not agree as to whether satisfaction leads to performance or

performance leads to satisfaction, the Human Relation theorits advocate the

former. They rationalize that a worker needs to be satisfied with pay, other

benefits and working conditions for him to be motivated to work well. How

then can the administrator determine if his workers are satisfied or not? How

can job satisfaction be measured?

Measurement of Job Satisfaction

The measurement of job satisfaction is as elusive as its definition. Some

might measure the workers overall appraisal of his job in one question, for

example, how satisfied are you with your job?

However, instruments have been developed to measure different facts of job

satisfaction. These instruments are usually questionnaires whose items require

workers to indicate their level of satisfaction on the various components of their

jobs. The main dimensions tested by Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959-

65) are; pay promotion, the job itself, relation with immediate supervisor and
76

relation with co-workers.(Odo,2006). These dimensions are reflected in the

widely used Job Descriptive Index (JDI) developed by Smith, Kendall and

Hulin (1969-70) .The sub-scales of this instrument are: type of work, pay,

promotion and advancement opportunities, and relation with supervisors and

relations with co-workers. Cross (1973-75) worker opinion survey is similar

to the above instruments but he added one item to assess workers overall

satisfaction with the organizations.(Odo,2006)

In the field of Education, Holdaway in Focho (2001) developed a

questionnaire to measure the job satisfaction of teachers with respect to different

facets of their work. He came up with seven job satisfaction factors, recognition

and status, students, resources, teaching assignment, involvement with

administration, work load, salary and benefits. To suit the purpose of this study

and local realities, this researcher shall come up with five areas of

administrative control directly related to teaching. However some of the facets

of job satisfaction identified by experienced researchers and developed into

standardized instruments shall be incorporated. The five dimensions of this

study are:

1. Organization for curriculum implementation; Items related to teaching

load and instructional materials here are also found in Holdaways

instruments. Other items will relate to the sub-scale job itself in the

other instruments.
77

2. Aspects of instructional supervision; though this category is absent in

Holdaway, it is similar to the sub-scale of relations with supervisors and

quality of technical supervision in the other instruments.

3. School plant management and maintenance; This is directly related to

Holdaways resources factors and some items shall fall under job

itself in the others.

4. Relationship with the school community; Items here shall be similar with

Holdaways involvement with administrators in the other instrument.

Items related to students shall be similar to those in Holdaways student

factor. Items related to co-operation amongst teachers reflected relations

with co-workers in the other instruments.

5. Motivational factors. This category shall be similar to those in all the

standardized instruments mentioned above. Items such as pay, allowances

and opportunity for advancement and promotion shall be common in all.

This study did not set out to measure teacher job satisfaction; however, related

issues must be necessarily present for a satisfactory working environment that

will enhance teacher effectiveness. Thus, the instrument for this study shall

cover most of the indicators in general and for teacher job satisfaction in

particular as indicated in standardized instruments and literature


78

Review of Empirical Studies

School Administration

A research was carried out by Torkula (2004) on the assessment of the

management of public secondary schools in zone B senatorial district of Benue

state. Using a survey research design he sampled the opinions of 12 principals

and 397 teachers . The purpose of his study was to assess the management of

public secondary schools in zone B senatorial district of Benue State. Torkula

formulated three research questions and three null hypotheses. The instrument

for the data collection was a 36 item questionnaire which was organized and

analysed using mean for the research questions while the null hypotheses were

tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance.

Torkula found that in management, plans are usually not backed with strategies

to ensure success; security personnel are not involved in planning. Principals are

not involved in recruitment of personnel and new employees are not given

orientation on school rules, polices, and procedures. The study further found

that there were staff, financial and equipment related factors affecting the

management of public secondary schools in the area. These include; insufficient

number of qualified staff, inadequate plans for retaining qualified staff,

insufficient funds, poorly maintained facilities and equipment, inconsistency in

government polices and inadequate monitoring of material resource utilization.

Studying an evaluation of the administrative practices of government and

private secondary schools in zone A senatorial district of Benue state, Agee


79

(2005), used a descriptive survey research design to sample the opinions of 42

principals, 360 teachers and 42 non-teaching staff. Means and t-rest were used

to analyze the data obtained using a 32 item questionnaire. Results indicated

that physical facilities and equipment were adequately provided and supervision

was carried out to a great extent. However, the above issues were investigated

from a general perspective, while the present study will specify items to find out

the nature of facilities and instructional supervision.

Teachers perception of the effect of the principals leadership style on

their task performance formed the basis of Ayoo (2004) study. Using a survey

research design and a sample that consisted of 80 teachers from eight private

and government secondary schools in Markurdi and Gboko local government

areas. He used a z-test and chi-square to analyze the data from a 24 item

questionnaire and concluded that, private school teachers saw their principals as

democratic and as having a positive influence on their teaching. To find out the

impact of principals school management style on teaching and student

achievement, Oryima (2005) conducted a descriptive survey eliciting responses

from 60 teachers of selected secondary schools in Ukum local government

Area using a 24 1tem questionnaire. Data analysis using Chi-square led to the

conclusion that teaching and learning were effective (as indicated in students

high success rates in national examinations). The following factors were viewed

as contributory to the success; strict discipline, selective recruitment of trained

teachers, regular pay of teachers and student participation in decision making


80

and a strong P.T.A. It could be inferred that the leadership style here was

participatory and that the school community relations were conducive to both

teaching and learning.

The influence of the economic crises on teachers behaviour constituted

the main purpose of Ijoho (2005) study. He used a survey research design to

sample the opinions of 120 teachers from six schools in Katsina-ala local

government area. Using Chi-square to analyze the data from a 30 item

questionnaire he concluded that, due to salary cuts and delay in salary payment,

there was increased teacher absenteeism and less student evaluation. The result

also did show that about 69% expressed lack of motivation while 90 percent

had a poor self-image. Similarly Apavtars (2006) study set out to find out why

secondary school teachers had a low consciousness and commitment level to

their jobs. Using a survey research design and simple random sampling he

gathered the opinion of 120 teachers from six schools in Buruku local

government area with a 32 item questionnaire. The results from chi-square

analysis showed that teachers have a low level of commitment to their job due

to dissatisfaction with; salary, advancement opportunities, poor library facilities

and principals leadership style.

A more comprehensive study with respect to Benue state is that of

Akpallah (2006) who sought to determine the factors linked with teacher job

satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The sample of study consisted of 200 teachers

from government secondary schools across the state. because teachers were on
81

strike at the time, it was impossible to get a representative sample through

random sampling (hence the use of accidental sampling). The instrument was

an adapted version of the Job Descriptive index, a facet free job satisfaction

scale and an interview. He investigated the five-job dissensions of teaching

itself, pay, promotion, and supervision and relation with co-worker. Findings

(using ANOVA) show that teachers are satisfied with teaching itself,

supervision and relationship with co-workers. On the other hand, teachers were

dissatisfied with pay and promotion. Because the sample was not representative,

the researcher cautions that findings should be interpreted cautiously and no

generalizations should be made beyond the sample. The researcher also

recommends a comparative study of teachers in urban and rural areas. The

above limitations call for further exploration of the problem.

The studies reviewed above underline the effect of school management

practices on teachers and teaching. From each study can be recognized

administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness. Given that the sample and

study areas were small with respect to Benue state, the present study will be

based on a wider sample and area so as to further illumine the problem.

Teacher Effectiveness

The purpose of Apavtars (2005) study was to find out the perception of

professional geography teachers about their competences. Using a survey

research design with a 20 item questionnaire and a sample of 14 teachers from

10 secondary schools in Kwande local government Area, he came to the


82

conclusion that (ANOVA used for analysis) trained teachers perceived

themselves as more competent while untrained teachers felt in-adequate.

Results of the study also did show that out of the 14 teachers only 6 had

professional training. The major problem of the work was that it had no report

on sampling procedure and the sample is small compared to the total number of

teachers and schools in the whole state. However, the results demonstrate the

need and importance of instructional supervision to teacher effectiveness, and

the need for further research on the issue.

Ochefus (2004) quasi experiment set out to find the difference in

students achievement in mathematics when taught by trained and untrained

teachers. He randomly assigned 160 students from five secondary schools in

Oturkpo local government area to experimental and control groups. Using the

pre-test, post-test design and ANOVA and a t-test to analyze the data, he

arrived at the conclusion that trained mathematics teachers were more effective

than untrained ones as reflected by the scores of the two groups of students.

The need for supervision is again indicated. Although the study was limited to

one local government area in Benue state it is indicative of the fact that

untrained teachers are not as effective as trained ones. One of the aims of this

study was to find of if teachers are regularly supervised.

In the same vein, Amehs (2005) study aimed at investigating the effects

of training and experience on teachers in Ogbadibo local government of Benue

state. With a sample of 50 teachers from 13 primary schools, using a 24 item


83

questionnaire in a survey research, Chi-square was then used to analyze the

data. The results were that experienced teachers are more effective than trained

ones. The researcher however, did not indicate if experienced teachers were all

untrained or if the trained teachers were all inexperienced. In any case, the

findings substantiate the need for school administrators to attract and maintain

teachers whose experiences over the years will enhance their effectiveness.

Another study by Shamange (2004) investigated the factors militating

against the effective teaching and learning of French in post primary institutions

in zone A senatorial zone of Benue state. With a sample of 120 teachers and

students from 6 government secondary schools and a 26 item questionnaire he

came up with a conclusion using simple percentages for analysis that the result

of the survey research indicated that, inadequate training, non-availability of

modern instructional materials, lack of language laboratories and non

professional training of staff as well as dilapidating school plant and facilities

affected negatively the teaching and learning of French as a second language in

these schools and called on administrators to step up efforts at rectifying the

problem if educational goals envisaged by the study of the language were going

to be achieved.

Attempting to find out students perception of the extent to which

communication skills, classroom organization and questioning skills enhance

student performance, Nguaigba (2003) sampled all SS III student of

government model secondary school Katsina-ala. A chi-square analysis of the


84

data from a 28 item questionnaire indicated that students who perceived their

teachers as using a lot of questioning skills, group organization for instructional

activities and feed back performed better in SSCE examinations. This result

supported the need for teachers professional training and staff development

programs .

Another study by Orseer (2006) was aimed at finding out teachers

perception of factors that enhance effective teaching .The descriptive survey

was made up of 245 teachers from 20 Governments Secondary Schools in

Benue state. Analyzing the data from a 32 item questionnaire using Chi-square,

he arrived at the following conclusions; teacher effectiveness is enhanced by

participation in seminars, use of instructional materials, increased pay, clinical

and peer supervision and conducive school community relations.

All the above studies have identified some administrative factors

influencing teacher effectiveness. The general conclusion is that the provision of

such administrative services as staff development programs, supervision of

instruction, instructional material, a positive school community relations and

staff motivation enhance effective teaching. In view of some limitations of

these studies, the present study shall attempt to fill the gaps by specifically

seeking to identify the administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness

especially as they affect teachers in Benue state .


85

Summary of Literature Review

The literature in relation to this study was reviewed under the following

subheadings; conceptual framework, concepts of administration and teacher

effectiveness, organization for curriculum implementation, patterns of

supervision of instruction, school plant management and maintenance, school

community relations, motivational factors, theoretical framework and empirical

studies.

The theoretical foundations of this work were seen to be the human

relations management theory and theories for job satisfaction. Both theories

emphasize the human side of administration in that the physical and

psychological work environment must be conducive for a worker to be

effective. Providing such an environment was viewed as an administrative duty.

The concept of teacher effectiveness was reviewed to highlight the nature of the

teachers job, the possible constraints arising there from. The relationship

between teacher effectiveness and organization of curriculum implementation

was also reviewed.

The review of the literature also revealed that instructional supervision is

necessary for monitoring the quality of teaching and for providing technical

support to teachers. Similarly, it is evident from the literature that teachers

work harder in a positive school climate characterized by cordial school

community relations.
86

Teacher motivation was viewed in the literature, as providing a powerful

incentive for hard work. Motivational factors were seen to include: pay and

allowances, advancement, promotion and appointment opportunities as well as

other institutional policies concerning sanctions, transfers, dismissals, leave of

absence and insurance or personal benefits.

The review of related research literature seems to expose certain gaps in

research on the topic. Some studies were limited to one or two variables. Only

few of them covered the whole State in scope.. Others had problems with

sample and sampling procedure. Finally none took into account such

background variables as location. In view of these shortcomings, the present

study aims at providing further clarifications on what constitutes administrative

constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue

state and to what extent, by exploring more variables with a more

representative sample and by comparing the views of principals and teachers.


87

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter discusses the method and procedures adopted in carrying out

the study. It discusses the design of the study; area of the study; population of

the study, sample and sampling techniques; instrument for data collection;

validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument; method of data

collection and method of data analysis.

Design of the Study

The design of the study was a descriptive survey research design. Which

was a study centered on individuals and their opinions on a given subject.

According to Nworgu (1991), this design was used to collect data on a given

population so as to describe or present the facts of that population as it is. Ali

(1996) maintained that a survey research design was one in which a group of

people or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from a few people

or items that are representative of the entire group. This design was chosen in

line with the purpose of the study which was to identify and describe existing

administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary

schools in Benue State of Nigeria.

Area of the Study

The study was carried out in Benue state of Nigeria. The State was

created on the 3rd of February, 1976 with the capital city at Makurdi. As one of
88

the 36 States of the federation, it is situated in the North Central geo-political

zone of the country. Benue State has three educational zones, namely A, B, and

C, these were covered by the study.

Zone A comprises of Kastina-ala, Konshisha, Kwande, Logo, Ukum,

Ushongo and Vandeikya. Zone B comprises of Buruku, Gboko, Guma Gwer,

Gwer-West, Tarka and Markudi. Zone C comprises of Ado, Apa, Agatu,

Ohimini, Ogbadibo, Oju, Okpokwu and Oturkpo.

Each zone has a Zonal Director and three (3) assistants. The Directors

oversee the activities of principals, teachers and administrative staff in each

secondary school and submit reports to the Executive Secretary State Teaching

Service Board, who in turn reports to the state Ministry of Education in

Markudi. The area is known to be educationally backward.

Population of the Study

66 principals and 1,490 teachers formed the population of the study, this

represents all teachers and principals in all government secondary schools in

Benue State. This is in accordance with statistics from the Benue State Teaching

Service Board for 2008/2009 academic session, which indicated that this is the

number of principals and teachers under government employment in the state.

(See appendix 1)

Sample and Sampling Techniques

The sample will be made up of 33 principals, and 655 teachers giving a

total of 688 respondents. These will represent fifty percent of the principals and
89

fifty percent of teachers in government secondary schools in Benue State. (See

Appendix II)

The stratified random sampling technique was used in the selection of

principals and teachers. This is in line with Omu (2006) who stated that no fixed

number is ideal, rather it is the circumstances of the study situation that

determine what number or what percentage of the population that should be

studied.

Instrument for Data Collection

The instrument for data collection is questionnaire titled Administrative

constraints to Teacher Effectiveness Questionnaire (ACTEQ); it is a structured

questionnaire, developed along the lines of the research questions formulated

for study. The questionnaire contains two sections, A and B.

Section A of the instrument requested for the demographic data of

respondents such as status; principals or teacher. Section B has five clusters

with 40 items, cluster A sought information on organization for curriculum

implementation as reflected in items 1 10, cluster B sought information on

instructional supervision, (items 11-18). Information regarding school plant

management constituted cluster C (items 19 26) cluster D presents aspects of

school community relations as seen in items 27 to 33. And cluster E, presents

items on motivational factors (items 34 40)

To rate the items, a four-point rating scale will be used to identify what

constitutes administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness. The response


90

pattern used for clusters A, D & E is Very High Extent (VHE), High Extent (H.

E) Little Extent (L.E) and Very Little Extent (VLE). Cluster B has Very Regular

(VR), Regular (R) Irregular ( I ) and Very Irregular (VI). For Cluster C, the

following Pattern was used; Available, Adequate and Functional (A.A.F)

Available Adequate but Non-Functional (A.A.N), Available Inadequate but

Functional (A.I.F), Non-available, In-adequate and Non-Functional (N.I.N).

Validation of the Instrument

The instrument was face validated by five experts, three from the

Department of Educational Foundations, one from the Department of Arts

Education and another from the Department of Science Education of the

University of Nigeria Nsukka

The experts were requested to assess the suitability of the language; and

relevance of the items in addressing the research questions bearing in mind the

purpose of the study. Their corrections and advice gave rise to the modification

of the drafts and the final draft. (See Appendix VII attached)

Reliability of the Instrument

The instrument was trial tested using 30 teachers from Nsukka Education

Zone of Enugu State which is outside the area of study. Since the five clusters

contain non-dichotomously scored items, the internal consistency of the clusters

was determined using Cronbach Alpha. The internal consistency reliability

estimate yielded for organization for curriculum implementation is 0.90; for

instructional supervision 0.85; for school plant management and maintenance


91

0.89; for school community relations 0.83; and 0.69 for motivational factors.

The instrument had an overall reliability estimate of 0.97 which indicates that

the instrument is reliable. (See Appendix VIII attached)

Method of Data Collection

The direct delivery and retrieval method was employed in the

administration of the instruments. Five trained research assistants were

employed to assist the researcher in the administration of the instrument. The

research assistants were constituted of staff of the college of education in

Katsina-Ala, Benue state. They were briefed on the purpose of the exercise and

trained on how to assist the respondents in filling the questionnaire. Direct

administration by personal contact ensured a speedy and high return rate of one

hundred percent of filled questionnaires..

Method of Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics (mean scores and standard deviation) were used to

answer the research questions. The researcher employed the weights attached to

the scale to compute the mean scores for the items as well as for all the items of

the questionnaire. For the research questions, real limit of numbers; 0.00-1.49,

2.50-3.49 and 3.50 4.00 were used in analyzing the data and answering the

research questions. Any items with a mean of 2.50 3.49 and above was

considered accepted, otherwise it was considered rejected. The z- test statistics

was used to test the null hypotheses since the sample was over thirty.
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CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

This chapter presents the results of the analyses of the data collected

based on the five research questions and the five null hypotheses formulated to

guide the study. The results are presented in the order of the five research

questions and the five null hypotheses. The major findings of the study are also

presented in this chapter.

Research Question One

To what extent does organization for curriculum implementation


constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness?

The data for providing answers to the above research question are

presented on table 1 below.


93

Table 1: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of Principals


and Teachers on Organization for Curriculum Implementation.
S/N Questionnaire item Principals Teachers
X SD Decision X SD Decision
1 Recommended textbooks
are not accompanied by
teachers hand books 3.12 0.75 VHE 3.08 0.76 VHE

2 The approved syllabus is


too vast considering the
academic year 2.86 1.01 HE 3.11 0.62 VHE

3 The recommend work


load is too heavy on
teachers and students 3.00 0.92 VHE 3.06 0.65 VHE

4 Time table is not


satisfactory 2.92 0.77 HE 2.83 0.92 HE

5 The class size is more


than the recommended
number per class 3.50 0.63 VHE 3.50 0.62 VHE

6 Special programmes and


materials are not
provided for special
3.58 0.62 VHE 3.50 0.65 VHE
students

7 Teachers are assigned to


teach subjects they are
not specialized in 3.58 0.64 VHE 3.58 0.60 VHE

8 Appropriate instructional
materials are not
provided for use during 3.50 0.69 VHE 3.44 0.72 VHE
lessons

9 Teachers lesson plans


are not marked 2.50 0.94 HE 2.50 1.00 HE

10 Scheme of work is not


followed by teachers 2.00 1.00 LE 1.96 1.02 VLE

Cluster mean 3.06 0.80 VHE 3.06 0.76 VHE


* VHE = Very High Extent HE = High Extent LE = Low Extent VLE = Very
Low Extent
94

Data presented on Table 1 above shows the mean ratings of principals

and teachers in government secondary schools in the state with regard to how

organization for curriculum implementation constitutes constraints to teacher

effectiveness. The data indicates that the mean ratings of principals for items 1

to 10 are: 3.12, 2.86, 3.00, 2.92, 3.50, 3.58, 3.58, 3.50, 2.50 and 2.00 with

corresponding standard deviations of 0.75, 1.01, 0.92, 0.77, 0.63, 0.62, 0.64,

0.69, 0.94 and 1.00. The teachers rated these ten items thus: 3.08, 3.11, 3.06,

2.83, 3.50, 3.50, 3.58, 3.44, 2.50, and 1.96 with corresponding standard

deviations of 0.76, 0.62, 0.65, 0.92, 0.62, 0.65, 0.60, 0.72, 1.00 and 1.02.

Based on the cut-off point of 2.50 both the principals and the teachers

rated 1 to 9 acceptable indicating that recommended text books not being

accompanied by teachers hand books, vast nature of the approved syllabus; the

work load being too heavy on both teachers and students; unsatisfactory time

table; class size being more than the recommended forty students per class;

special programmes and materials not being provided for special students;

assigning teachers to teach subjects outside their area of specialization; absence

of appropriate instructional materials; and teachers lesson plans not being

marked are considered by the principals and teachers to constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness. Both the principals and the teachers rated scheme of work

not being followed by teachers 2.00 and 1.96 respectively which indicates that

they do not consider that as a constraint to teacher effectiveness. The cluster

means are 3.06 (for principals) and 3.06 (for teachers).


95

Research Question Two


To what extent does instructional supervision constitute constraints
to teacher effectiveness ?
The data for answering the above research question are presented on table
two below.
Table 2: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of Principals
and Teachers on Instructional Supervision.
S/N Questionnaire item Principals Teachers
X SD Decision X SD Decision
11 The principal
supervises instruction 2.75 1.02 R 2.64 0.88 R

12 Pedagogic advisers
supervise instruction 2.92 0.75 R 2.68 1.08 R

13 There is usually time


for post supervision
conferences 2.68 1.04 R 2.64 0.98 R

14 Teachers comply with


post supervision
conferences 2.61 1.04 R 2.86 1.06 R

15 Colleagues help to
supervise each other 2.61 1.04 R 2.67 1.03 R

16 Heads of department
help solve
instructional 2.84 0.94 R 2.88 1.02 R
problems

17 Opportunities for on-


going staff
development
programmes are
provided 2.68 1.04 R 2.67 0.98 R

18 Supervisors often
recommend measures
to improve
incompetent teachers 2.68 0.92 R 2.68 1.04 R

Cluster mean 2.72 0.97 R 2.72 1.01 R


* R = Regular
96

The data presented above show that the principals rated the eight items in

this cluster well above the cut-off point. Their ratings of items 11 to 18 are:

2.75, 2.92, 2.68, 2.61, 2.61, 2.84, 2.68 with corresponding standard deviations

of 1.02, 0.75, 1.04, 1.04, 0.94, 1.04 and 0.92.

The teachers equally rated all the 8 items above the cut-off point of 2.50.

Their ratings of the 8 items are 2.64, 2.68, 2.64, 2.86, 2.67, 2.88, 2.67, and 2.68

with corresponding standard deviations of 0.88, 1.08, 0.98, 1.06, 1.03, 1.02,

0.98, and 1.04.

Based on the data the respondents share the view that instructional

supervision is regular in their schools. According to them the principals

supervise instruction; pedagogic advisers supervise instruction, there is usually

time for post-supervision conferences; teachers comply with post-supervision

conferences, colleagues help to supervise each other, heads of departments help

solve instructional problems, opportunities for on-going staff development

programs are provided; and supervisors often recommend measures to improve

incompetent teachers. The cluster means are 2.72 (for principals) and 2.72 (for

teachers), which indicates that they share the view that instructional supervision

is regular in secondary schools in the state, and therefore does not constitute

constraints to teacher effectiveness.


97

Research Question Three

To what extent does school plant management constitute constraints


to teacher effectiveness?
The data for providing answers to the above research question are

presented on table three below.

Table 3: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of Principals


and Teachers on School Plant Management
S/N Questionnaire item Principals Teachers
X SD Decision X SD Decision
19 Electricity 2.45 0.64 AIF 2.48 0.94 AIF
20 Water Supply 2.46 0.64 AIF 2.44 0.98 AIF
21 Classroom facilities 2.32 0.65 AIF 2.31 0.61 AIF
22 Building for laboratories 2.44 .100 AIF 2.32 0.91 AIF
23 Buisldings for home 2.14 0.89 AIF 2.16 0.89 AIF
economics
24 Sports facilities 2.76 1.02 AAN 2.68 0.82 AAN
25 Staff-room, Furniture and
facilities 2.54 0.96 AAN 2.42 1.02 AIF
26 Workshop for introductory
technology 2.36 0.57 AIF 2.38 0.62 AIF
Cluster mean 2.43 0.80 AIF 2.40 0.85 AIF
* AIF = Available Inadequate but Functional.
* AAN = Available Adequate but non-Functional.

The data presented above show that both the principals and teachers rated

items 19, 20, 21, 23, and 26 below the cut-off point of 2.50. In other words,

according to them electricity; water supply, classroom facilities buildings for

laboratories, buildings for home economics, and workshop for introductory


98

technology are all available, inadequate but functional and thus constitute

constraints to teacher effectiveness. Both the principals and the teachers rated

sports facilities as being available, adequate but non-function implying that it

equally constrains teacher effectiveness. The principals rated staff-room

furniture and facilities as being available, adequate but non-functional while the

teachers rated them as being available, inadequate but functional. This means

that staff-room, furniture and facilities constrain teacher effectiveness because

they are inadequate. The cluster means are 2.43 (for principals) and 2.40 (for

teachers) in a four-point rating scale which means that the items in the cluster

are either available, adequate but non-functional or available, inadequate but

functional and therefore constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness.

Research Question Four

To what extent does school community relations constitute


constraints to teacher effectiveness?
The data for answering the above research question are presented on table

four below
99

Table 4: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of Principals


and Teachers on School Community Relations.
S/N Questionnaire item Principals Teachers
X SD Decision X SD Decision
27 Principal is not democratic 2.45 0.62 LE 2.80 0.96 HE

28 PTA does not have high


opinion of school
administration 2.67 1.05 HE 2.67 1.01 HE

29 School does not often


engage other schools in
co-curricular activities 2.17 1.01 LE 2.24 0.68 LE

30 Cordial, principal, staff,


and student relations do 2.72 0.84 HE 2.72 0.85 HE
not exist

31 The host community is


hostile to teachers 2.46 0.94 LE 2.42 0.98 LE

32 School management is
hostile to teachers
involved in community 2.76 0.74 HE 2.72 0.84 HE
politics

33 Principal has poor image


in the community 1.89 0.88 VLE 2.58 0.60 HE

Cluster mean 2.45 0.87 LE 2.59 0.85 HE


* LE = Low Extent HE = High Extent

The data presented on table 4 above show that the respondents are not

unanimous in all the items as regards the extent that school community relations

constrain teacher effectiveness.

The principals ratings of the seven items in this cluster are: 2.45, 2.67,

2.17, 2.72, 2.46, 2.76, and 1.89 with corresponding standard deviation of 0.62,
100

1.05, 1.01, 0.84, 0.94, 0.74 and 0.88. The teachers rated the seven items thus

2.80, 2.67, 2.24, 2.72, 2.42, 2.72 and 2.58 with corresponding standard

deviations of 0.96, 1.01, 0.68, 0.85, 0.98, 0.84 and 0.60. This implies that the

two groups of respondents share the view that low opinion of the school

administration by the PTA, absence of cordial principal, staff and community

relations; and hostility of the school management to teachers involved in

community politics all to a high extent constrain teacher effectiveness. Both

respondents share the view that not often engaging other schools in co-

curricular activities, and hostility of host community to teachers do not

constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness. However, where as the principals

share the view that undemocratic leadership of a principal, and poor image of

principal in the community do not constrain teacher effectiveness, the teachers

on the other hand by their ratings claim that these two things constrain teacher

effectiveness. The cluster means are 2.45 (for principals) and 2.59 (for teachers)

in a four-point rating scale.


101

Research Question Five


To what extent do inadequate motivational factors act as constraints
to teacher effectiveness?
The data for providing answers to the above research question are
presented on table five below.
Table 5: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of Principals
and Teachers on Motivational Factors.
S/N Questionnaire item Principals Teachers
X SD Decision X SD Decision
34 Salaries and allowance are
comparable to other
2.42 0.88 LE 2.42 0.86 LE
professions

35 Salaries and allowances


are paid promptly 2.24 0.77 LE 2.22 0.81 LE

36 Staff advancement is done


regularly 2.38 0.65 LE 2.32 0.61 LE

37 Salary structure is
favorable to staff 2.36 0.98 LE 2.22 0.88 LE

38 Teachers are transferred


with due consultation 1.83 0.91 VLE 1.96 1.14 VLE

39 Staff dismissal policies are


clearly stated 2.92 0.73 HE 2.86 1.06 HE

40 Principal shows
appreciation to teachers
2.64 0.88 HE 2.56 0.98 HE
work

Cluster mean 2.40 0.83 LE 2.34 0.91 LE


* LE = Low Extent VLE = Very Low Extent
* HE = High Extent.
The data presented on table five above show the principals, and teachers

mean ratings of the implementation of motivational factors for teachers in


102

Government secondary schools in Benue State the two groups rated items 34,

35, 36, 37 and 38 2.42, 2.24, 2.38, 2.36, and 1.83 respectively with

corresponding standard deviations of 0.88, 0.77, 0.65, 0.98 and 0.91. The

teachers ratings of items 34, 35, 36, 37, and 38 are: 2.42, 2.22, 2.32, 2.22 and

1.76 respectively with corresponding standard deviations of 0.86, 0.81, 0.61,

0.88 and 1.14 respectively. This implies that these motivational factors are

being implemented to low extent: salaries and allowances being comparable to

those of other professions; prompt payment of salaries and allowances; regular

staff advancement; favourable salary structure, and due consultation of teachers

before transferring them. In so far these motivational factors are not

effectively/highly implemented they constitute constraints to teacher

effectiveness.

The two groups of respondents rated items 39, and 40 as being

implemented to a high extent. The principals rate the two items 2.92 and 2.64

respectively with corresponding standard deviations of 0.73 and 0.88

respectively while the teachers rated the two items 2.86 and 2.56 respectively

with corresponding standard deviations of 1.06 and 0.98 respectively. This

means that the respondents are of the view that: dismissal policies are clearly

stated, and that principals show appreciation to teachers work. It then means

that the implementation of those two motivational factors do not constitute

constraints to teacher effectiveness in secondary schools in Benue State. The

cluster means are 2.40 (for principals) and 2.34 (for teachers) in a four-point
103

rating scale which indicates the low rating of the implementation of

motivational polices.

Hypothesis One

There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of


principals, and teachers of Benue State as to how organization of
curriculum implementation constitutes a constraint to teacher effectiveness
To test the hypothesis, a z test analysis was carried and using the cluster

mean scores and standard deviations obtained from items 1 to 10 of the

instrument. Table 6 below shows the summary of the analysis.

Table 6: Summary of z test for Hypothesis one


Subjects n X SD DF LS z -cal z -table Decision.
Principals 33 3.06 0.80 686 0.05 0 1.96 Accepted

Teachers 655 3.06 0.76

Table 6 above presents the independent z test analysis of the mean

difference the response opinions of principals, and teachers on how

organization of curriculum 0implementation constitutes constraints to teacher

effectiveness.

It is observable from the table that the calculated z -value is 0 at 686

degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. Since the calculated z -value

of 0 is less tan the critical table value of 1.96, this hypothesis is accepted. There

is therefore no significant difference between the opinions of principals and

teachers in government secondary schools in Benue State on the extent to

which organization of curriculum implementation constitutes constraints to

teacher effectiveness.
104

Hypothesis Two

There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of


principals, and teachers in government secondary schools as to how
instructional supervision constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness.
A z -test analysis was carried out with the cluster mean scores and

standard deviations obtained from item 11 to 18 of the instrument. Table 7

below shows the summary of the analysis

Table 7: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis two


Subjects n X SD DF LS z -cal z -table Decision.
Principals 33 2.72 0.97 686 0.05 0 1.96 Accepted

Teachers 655 2.72 1.01

Table 7 above presents the independent z-test analysis of the mean

difference in the response opinions of principals, and teachers on how

instructional supervision constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness.

Looking at the table one can see that the calculated z value is 0 at 686

degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. Since the calculated z -value

of 0 is less than the critical table value of 1.96 this hypothesis is accepted. In

other words, there is no significant difference between the opinions of

principals, and teachers on the extent instructional supervision constitutes

constraints to teacher effectiveness.


105

Hypothesis Three

There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of


principals, and teachers as regards school plant management constituting
constraints to teacher effectiveness.
A z -test analysis was carried out with the cluster mean scores and

standard deviations obtained from items 19 to 26 to the instrument.

Table 8 below presents the summary of the z -test analysis.

Table 8: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis Three


Subjects n X SD DF LS z -cal z -table Decision.
Principals 33 2.43 0.80 686 0.05 0.21 1.96 Accepted

Teachers 655 2.40 0.85

Table 8 above present the summary of the z-test analysis of the mean

difference in the response opinions of principals, and teachers as regards school

plant management constituting constraints to teacher effectiveness.

From the table one can see that the calculated z -value is 0.21 at 686

degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. Since the calculated z -value

of 0.21 is less than the critical table value of 1.96 this hypothesis is accepted.

There is therefore no significant difference between the mean ratings of

principals, and teachers with regard to school plant management constituting

constraints to teacher effectiveness.


106

Hypothesis Four

There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of


principals, and teachers with regards to school community relations
constituting constraints to teacher effectiveness.
A z -test analysis was carried out with the cluster mean scores and

standard deviations obtained from items 27 to 33 of the instrument. Table 9

below presents the summary of the z -test analysis

Table 9: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis Four


Subjects n X SD DF LS z -cal z -table Decision.
Principals 33 2.45 0.87 686 0.05 -0.92 1.96 Accepted

Teachers 655 2.59 0.85

Table 9 above presents the independent z -test analysis of the mean

difference in the response opinions of principals, and teachers as regards school-

community relations constituting constraints to teacher effectiveness in

government secondary schools in Benue State.

Looking at the table, one can see that the calculated z -value is 0.92 at

686 degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. Since the calculated z -

value of 0.92 is less than the critical table value of 1.96 this hypothesis is

accepted. This means that there is no significant difference between the mean

ratings of principals and teachers as regards school-community relations

constituting constraints to teacher effectiveness.


107

Hypothesis Five

There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of


principals, and teachers with regards to how in-adequate motivational
factors constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness.
A z -test analysis was carried out with the cluster mean scores and

standard deviations obtained from items 34 to 40 of the instrument. Table 10

below presents the summary of the z -test analysis.

Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis five


Subjects n X SD DF LS z -cal z -table Decision.
Principals 33 2.40 0.83 686 0.05 0.40 1.96 Accepted

Teachers 655 2,35 0.91

Table 10 above shows the independent z -test analysis of mean difference

in the response opinions of principals and teachers as how inadequate

motivational factors constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness in

government secondary schools in Benue State.

Looking at the table one can see that the calculated z -value at 686 degree

of freedom and 0.05 level of significance is 0.40. Since the calculated z -value

of 0.40 is less than the critical table value of 1.96 this hypothesis is accepted.

That means that there is no significant difference between the mean opinions of

principals and teachers as regards to how inadequate motivation constitutes

constraints to teacher effectiveness.


108

Summary of Findings

The following constitute the summary of the findings of this study

i. Organization for curriculum implementation has a lot of impact on

teacher effectiveness.

ii. Organization for curriculum implementation constitutes constraints to

teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue State.

iii. Some of the ways in which organization for curriculum implementation

impede teacher effectiveness include: recommended textbooks are not

accompanied by teachers handbook; the approved syllabus is too vast;

time table is not satisfactory, class size is more than standard per class;

teachers are assigned to teach subjects they are not specialized in.

iv. Instructional supervision does not constitute constraints to teacher

effectiveness in Benue State secondary schools.

v. Management of school plant constitute constraints to teacher

effectiveness in Benue state secondary schools especially as it relates to

electricity supply, water supply, classroom facilities, laboratories and

workshops.

vi. School community relations constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness

in Benue state secondary schools because the principals are not

democratic, the PTAs do not have high opinion of school administrations,

cordial relationships are absent.


109

vii. Inadequate motivation constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness

because salaries and allowances are not comparable to other professions,

salaries and allowances are not paid promptly staff advancement is not

regular, salary structure is not favourable to staff.

viii. There is no significant difference between the mean opinions of

principals and teachers as regards administrative constraints to teacher

effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue State.


110

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, IMPLICATIONS,

RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

This chapter presents the discussion of the findings of this study,

conclusions, the implications of the research findings, recommendations,

limitations of the study, suggestions for further research and summary. The

procedure adopted is that all the five research findings were discussed with the

corresponding hypotheses. The implications of the research findings,

recommendations, limitations, and suggestions for further research as well as

the summary of the study are then presented.

DISCUSSIONS

Organization for Curriculum Implementation as a Constraint to teacher

Effectiveness

It was the opinion of the principals and teachers in government secondary

schools in Benue State that organization for curriculum implementation in the

state constitutes a constraint to teacher effectiveness in the state. They indicated

to a very high extent that; recommended text books are not accompanied by

teachers handbooks, the approved syllabus is too vast considering the academic

year, and that recommended work load is too heavy on teachers and students.

These confirm the views of Denga (1993) who pointed out that, the

length and depth of curriculum content as well as the guides, books and

materials are matters that affect teaching. To Aboho (2000) the starting point
111

should be the provision of clear curriculum goals that the teacher can

accomplish within a specified period of time. For Ada (2000), in each subject

there should be a guide as to what the teacher is expected to teach and students

to learn. He stressed that the absence of this may encourage teachers to

emphasize on one aspect to the detriment of the other.

That the class size is more than the recommended number of students per

class and thus constituting a hindrance to teacher effectiveness confirms the

view of Ada (2000) who drew the conclusion that smaller classes had higher

achievement levels since there is more room for individual attention, effective

use of material and frequent homework and tests. That special programmes and

materials are not provided for special students could be counter productive as

noted by Williams (1988) and Anderson (1991) that a near homogenous

classroom makes teaching easier but since the tendency in recent years is

towards mainstreaming, programs and materials must be put in place to take

care of fast and slow learners to avoid frustration, and that physically challenged

students should be given special attention if they are to be mainstreamed.

The consequences of assigning teachers to teach subjects they are not

specialized in is obvious as noted by Akubue (1991). Such arrangement

constitutes a direct constraint to teacher effectiveness as the teacher is likely to

be deficient in content and method. The non-provision of appropriate

instructional materials as indicated in the findings constitutes a hindrance to

teacher effectiveness as Ada (2000) had pointed out that it is not un-common to
112

find teachers who teach lessons without writing on the board with the excuse

that chalk had not been provided.

Inspite of the fact that the findings point out to a very low extent that

scheme of work is not followed by teachers, thus indicating that, teachers are

more inclined to following their scheme of work which is a positive move

towards teacher effectiveness. It must be noted that if the other factors are more

on the negative they may embellish the good in this one factor. This is in line

with Nwaorgu (1991) who opined that hindrances to teacher effectiveness

abound in the classroom and ought to be solved or reduced to the bearest

minimum if the teacher is to be effective.

Analysis of hypothesis one, on table 6, indicated that there is no

significant difference between the opinions of principals and teachers in

government secondary schools in Benue State on the extent organization for

curriculum implementation constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness. This

is to say that even though the magnitude of the mean scores of principals, 2.43,

is greater than that of the teachers, 2.40, the difference is not statistically

significant. In other words both principals and teachers of government

secondary schools in Benue State indicated no significant difference

Instructional Supervision and Teacher Effectiveness

It was the opinion of principals and teachers of government secondary

schools in Benue State that on a regular basis the principal supervises

instruction and that pedagogic advisers (specialist subject supervisors) supervise


113

instruction. Both principals, and teachers agreed that on a regular basis there is

usually time for post supervision conferences and colleagues regularly help

supervise each other (per supervision).

These are some positive findings as Lee in Focho (2001) upheld that, the

teacher who does not continue to grow personally and professionally will wither

both as a person and as a teacher. To him, supervision aims at improving the

teachers skills and helping him/her realize his/her creative talent, not repressing

it. The process of teaching and learning is not static but dynamic, constant

changes occur in instructional methods and materials. For a teacher to be

effective, he must keep abreast with recent changes as Nwaogu (1980) affirmed

that supervision has to improve teaching through periodic criticism of existing

activities with regard to current trends and issues. Clinical supervision finds its

affirmation in these findings hence Segiovanni and Starrant in Afianmagbon

(2007) holds it to be a face-to-face encounter with teachers about teaching,

usually in a classroom with a double barreled intent of professional

development and improvement of instruction. The findings here confirm Adiele

(1987) who found that Cogans technique of supervision induced a higher

positive correlation between teachers effectiveness than other techniques.

The notion of peer supervision finds support in Oliva (1984) who held

these as generalist supervisors and as hardly effective since they lack expertise

in supervisory techniques, lack time and at best have expert knowledge only in

their subject of specialization. The alternative then is to introduce colleagueship


114

in supervision which Alfonso and Godsberry (1982) defined as the use of

teachers with special talents and abilities to supervise others. However, these

must be trained in the rudiments and techniques of supervision, as advocated by

Bang Jenson (1986), in order to have better results. In this regard, the current

status of heads of department could be raised to that of semi-specialist

supervisors, chosen with respect to their special abilities and made to undergo

special courses in instructional supervision through staff development programs.

Their teaching workload could be reduced to demonstrative lessons so as to

allow them enough time to help all teachers regularly. This may reduce the fear

and anxiety often generated by generalists and supervisors who often have to

give an evaluative mark to the teacher.

This study further reveals that, colleagues help supervise each other and

heads of departments help solve instructional problems. Also, that opportunities

for ongoing staff development programmes are provided and supervisors often

recommend measures to improve incompetent teachers.

The supervisors task as indicated by Glover and Law (1996), is to add to

the teachers professional knowledge; to improve the teachers skills and to

clarify professional values, all in an attempt to educate students more

effectively. Specific duties as outlined by Elders (1987) include: the induction

and socialization of new teachers, assigning teaching duties, time tabling of

subject matter, and providing opportunities for professional growth through

workshops, conferences and seminars. This agrees with the Benue situation.
115

According to Acheson and Gall (1980) all these begin with classroom

observation to see if teaching is effective or not. Observation of in-class

teaching will help the clinical supervisor to effectively plan staff development

programmes with teachers. Analysis of hypothesis two, table 7, indicates that

there was no significant difference between the mean ratings of secondary

schools principals and teachers in government secondary schools in Benue State

as to the extent to which instructional supervision constitutes constraint to

teacher effectiveness. This is to say that the cluster mean scores of principals,

2.72, which is same with that of teachers, 2.72, leaves no statistically significant

difference. In other words both principals and teachers indicated no significant

difference

School Plant Management and Teacher Effectiveness

It was the opinion of principals and teachers of government secondary

schools in Benue state that electricity, water supply, classroom facilities,

buildings for laboratories, buildings for home economics, staffroom, furniture

and facilities and workshop for introductory technology were available,

inadequate but functional. Therefore school plant management constituted a

constraint to teacher effectiveness.

The findings are in line with Ezeocha (1990) who perceived one of the

greatest problems facing government secondary schools in Nigeria to be that of

poor maintenance of buildings and equipments. As regards the factors

responsible for the depreciation of buildings and equipment, Ani (1997) pointed
116

these out to include: constant usage effects of the weather, age, carelessness,

negligence or abandonment.

That sporting facilities are available adequate but non-functional confirms

the findings of Okeke (2004) who pointed out that the absence or non

functionality of a proper play environment will prompt anxiety in staff and

students and inhibit the teaching learning process. He then called for efficient

play facilities as a way of increasing productivity in a school environment.

Investigating the factors militating against the effective learning of

French in post primary institutions in zone A senatorial zone of Benue state,

Shamange (2004) came up with a conclusion which affirms the present study,

that, inadequate training, non availability of modern instructional materials, lack

of functioning language laboratories as well as dilapidating school plant and

facilities affected negatively the teaching and learning of French in schools and

called on administrators to step up efforts at rectifying the problem if

educational goals envisaged by the study of the language were going to be

achieved. Analysis of hypothesis three, table 8, indicated that there is

no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals of government

secondary schools and teachers in Benue state as to the extent school plant

management constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness. This is to say that

even though the magnitude of the mean scores of principals, 2.43, is greater

than that of teachers, 2.40, the difference is not statistically significant. In other
117

words both principals and teachers indicated no significant difference in

opinion.

School Community Relations and Teacher Effectiveness

The opinion of principals and teachers as to what extent school

community relations constitute a constraint to teacher effectiveness was not

unanimous in all items. That the principal is not democratic was rated low

extent by principals themselves while teachers rated it high extent. This means

that what the principals saw themselves as doing with regards to their leadership

styles was viewed differently by their teachers. This confirms Akubue (1997)

who observed that what the principal does is very vital and the communities

expectations of his roles are quite high and he must therefore be cautions in

undertaking his duties in the midst of a fully conscious society.

The study of Oryima (2005) who studied the impact of principals school

management style on teaching and learning in secondary schools in Ukum Local

Government area, came out with a conclusion that where leadership style was

participatory school community relations yield to conducive teaching and

learning.

Principals and teachers in government secondary schools of Benue State

both opined to a high extent that, PTA does not have high opinion of school

administrations and that cordial principal, staff and student relations do not

exist, and also that school management is hostile to teachers involved in

community politics.
118

These findings agree with Akubue (1997) who held that where students

opinions about the school are unfavourable, a poor image of the school is

painted to the public whose interest and support for the school is consequently

affected. For better school community relations Adesina (1990) called for the

involvement of the local PTA in school affairs since teachers become more

committed and accountable and parents become more committed in helping to

enforce school rules and regulations which are jointly formulated.

It is a positive occurrence, that the community is rated by both principals

and teachers as being to a low extent hostile to teachers, and that the principals

rate themselves to a very low extent as having a poor image in the community,

even though their teachers feel otherwise. The views of Majason (1995) are that,

if the community looks down on principals and teachers and sometimes attacks

them unjustifiably, these will make teaching un-attractive and the teachers un-

dedicated and thus compromise efficiency.

Lamenting government maltreatment of teachers and consequent strikes,

Akarue (1990) affirmed that this is likely to affect the image of the teacher and

lower his morale. Teachers image, Jones (1985) affirmed had to be improved to

meet up other professionals in the society and warns that a society that

undermines its teachers undermines the foundation of its present and future

progress. For no society can rise above the quality of its teaching force.
119

Analysis of hypothesis four, table 9, indicated that there was no

significant difference between the mean scores of principals and teachers of

government secondary schools in Benue State as regards the extent that school

community relations constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness. This is to

say that even though the cluster mean of principals, 2.45, was less than that of

teachers, 2.59, the difference is not statistically significant. In other words, both

the principals and teachers indicated no significant difference in opinion

Motivational Factors and Teacher Effectiveness

The study revealed that in-adequate motivational factors do constitute

constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue

state. It was the opinion of both principals and teachers that salaries and

allowances of teachers are to a low extent, comparable to other professions.

Also rated low extent was the promptness in payment of salaries and allowances

as well as staff advancement and salary structure as being favourable to staff.

To compound issues both rated, to a very low extent, the fact that teachers are

transferred with due consultation. Even though both noted to a high extent that

staff dismissal policies are clearly stated and that principals try to show

appreciation to teachers work, the general opinion here is that motivational

factors are grossly insufficient thus constituting a constraint to teacher

effectiveness in the state.

Observing that in every human organization what induces people to work

may differ or change with time, Nwankwo (2007) confirmed that staff
120

motivation has always been of prime importance to the smooth functioning of

any organization. Motivation is viewed by Focho (2001) as the drive, need or

incentive which determines the workers attitude to work. Thus motivation

theorists have over the years tried to explain why people behave the way they

do, and to determine the cause of their behaviour.

The findings corroborate the views of Ijoho (2005) who studied the

influence of the economic crises on teachers behaviour from six schools in

Katsina ala Local Government Area of Benue State and concluded that, due to

salary cuts and delay in salary payment there was increased teacher absenteeism

and less student evaluation. Similarly Apavlars (2006) study set out to find out

why secondary school teachers had a low consciousness and commitment level

to their jobs. Using simple random sampling he gathered the opinion of 120

teachers from six schools in Buruku Local Government Area. The results

showed that teachers have a low level of commitment to their job due to

dissatisfaction with; salary, advancement opportunities, poor library facilities

and principals leadership style. Comparing the various cluster means,

motivational factors seem to constitute the most serious constraint to teachers

effectiveness (although its reliability value was the lowest). However,

inadequacy of identified motivational issues is bound to reduce work incentive,

thus hindering effectiveness. For instance, since teachers view their allowances

as unequal to those of comparable professions, they may feel cheated and their

jobs undermined. This can lead to laxity and a carefree attitude to work.
121

Further more, teachers can hardly be expected to put in extra work if

incentives are not available. The need for extra work is understood by the fact

that the classes are large, the syllabus is long and there is absence of programs

for special students (as indicated by the results of this study). Without adequate

motivation therefore, teachers are driven to be ineffective despite their innate

personal and high professional competencies. Analysis of hypothesis five, table

10, indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean scores

of principals and teachers of government secondary schools in Benue State as to

the extent to which in-adequate motivational factors constitute constraints to

teacher effectiveness. This is to say that even though the cluster mean scores of

principals, 2.40, is greater than that of teachers, 2.34, the difference is not

statistically significant. In other words, both the principals and teachers

indicated no significant difference in opinion

Conclusions from the Findings

The following conclusions have been drawn from the major findings of

the study:

1. Principals and teachers both indicated that organization for curriculum

implementation constituted a constraint to teacher effectiveness in Benue

State. The factors that constituted constraints to a very high extent

included the fact that recommended textbooks are not accompanied by

teachers hand books, the approved syllabus is too vast considering the

academic year, and that recommended work load is too heavy on teachers
122

and students as well as lack of special programs and materials for such

special students as the blind, the dumb, the deaf, the gifted and the slow

learners.

2. Principals and teachers both indicated that instructional supervision does

not constitute a constraint to teacher effectiveness in Benue State. Both

were of the opinion that on a regular basis the principal supervises

instruction and pedagogic advisers (specialist subject supervisors)

supervise instruction, there is usually time for post supervision

conferences and colleagues help supervise each other regularly,

recommending measures to help improve incompetent teachers.

3. For both principals and teachers, most of the required facilities and

equipment such as electricity, water supply, classrooms, furniture,

buildings for staff room, home economics and workshops for introductory

technology were available, in-adequate and functional and thus the school

plant management was noted as constituting a constraint to teacher

effectiveness.

4. School community relations were found to constitute a constraint to

teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue State to

a high extent as noted in the following: the principals are not democratic,

the PTAs do not have high opinions of school administration, and cordial

relationships between principal, staff and students are absent.


123

5. Principals and teachers both indicated that in-adequate motivation

constitutes a constraint to teacher effecetiveness in government secondary

schools in Benue State. The following constitute the highest constraints:

Salaries and allowances are not comparable to other professions, salaries

and allowances are not paid promptly, staff advancement is not regular,

salary structure is not favourable to staff and teachers are transferred

without due consultations.

6. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean ratings

of principals and teachers as to the extent to which organization for

curriculum implementation constitutes constraint to teacher effectiveness.

Both groups accept this variable as a constraint.

7. The difference in the mean ratings of principals and teachers as regards

instructional supervision was not statistically significant. Both accepted

this variable as not constituting a constraint to teacher effectiveness in

government secondary schools in Benue State.

8. With regard to school plant management there was no statistically

significant difference in the mean ratings of principals and teachers. Both

accepted this variable as constituting a constraint.

9. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean ratings of

principals and teachers as to the extent school community relations

constituted a constraint to teacher effectiveness. Both accept the variable

as a constraint.
124

10. As concerns motivational factors, the difference in mean ratings of

principals and teachers is also not significant. Both accepted that in-

adequate motivation constitutes a constraint to teacher effectiveness in

government secondary schools in the state.

Implications of Research Findings

The findings of this study have some important educational implications.

The implication of each finding as it relates to administrative constraints to

teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue state is hereby

highlighted.

The results show that organization for curriculum implementation is not

satisfactory. The use of textbooks without teachers guides implies that teachers

will arbitrarily select what to teach. Where subjects do not have outlined

programs on syllabus, the teacher will be faced with the textbook as the only

guide and sometimes it will be difficult to run through the book within the

academic year. Where the approved syllabus is too vast considering the

academic year, and recommended workload is too heavy on both teachers and

students with an unacceptable timetable arrangement, the tendency is that

teachers will not cover content requirements for subjects before students are

made to face national/external examinations. This will place students in a

possible position of gross disadvantage.

The lack of special programs and materials for special students will lead

to unequal opportunities for these students to succeed. Individual attention to


125

them will be minimal and they will probably be left on their own to make the

best of classroom instruction. Congested classrooms are certainly problematic to

teachers because more time will be spent on class management problems rather

than on instructional activities. Moreover there will be reduced individual

attention to students, homework and testing. Crammed classrooms also imply

that there will be little space for such instructional activities as group work and

dramatization. To assign teachers subjects including those they are not

specialized in leaves a situation where teachers may be deficient in content and

method and thus impede the teaching -learning process. Where teachers and

students are not provided with appropriate instructional materials the teaching

learning process becomes deficient and may never yield optimum results.

Where teachers lesson plans are not marked, administration may never know

whether the scheme of work is being followed nor content coverage assured.

The implication will be a sure ineffectiveness in the teaching learning process.

Instructional supervision, as indicated by the principals and teachers is

carried out regularly. These findings suggest that principals supervise

instruction on a regular basis and that pedagogic advisers (specialist subject

supervisors) supervise instruction regularly. There is usually time for post

supervision conferences and teachers do comply with post supervision

conferences. Also colleagues help to supervise each other (peer supervision) and

heads of departments help solve instructional problems while providing for

ongoing staff development programs. The implication here is that teachers will
126

be kept aware of their strengths and weaknesses and given room for

improvement. New teachers will be properly inducted and new vital

instructional practices and methods communicated and effected. This will

improve the quality of teaching and move teachers further down the road of

effectiveness.

Results on school plant management indicate the availability but

insufficiency of very many functional facilities such as electricity, water,

classroom facilities, buildings for laboratories, home economics, staff room,

furniture and facilities as well as workshops for introductory technology. The

implication is that teaching will be grossly limited and teachers will be un-able

to promote properly the quest for scientific knowledge. Schools may therefore

begin to turn out half-baked students at secondary level and this will

consequently affect learning outcomes at secondary and consequently tertiary

levels of education. If government is un-able to provide

adequate facilities and properly maintain them, the administrators of schools

must be prepared to turn to the private sector for support, or be innovative

enough within existing guidelines to supplement for their lack.

Findings of the study on school community relations indicate very many

mixed feelings. While the principals see themselves as very democratic, their

teachers feel other wise. Where teachers feel adequately involved in decision

making their impute may be strengthened and their support for school programs

stepped up. The Local Parents, Teachers, Association (PTA) needs to have a
127

high opinion of the school administration. Where this is lacking as indicated in

this study, parental support for school disciplinary programs will be lacking and

this may adversely affect the teaching learning situation in the school. Lack of

parental support indicates that students may not have the necessary books and

other materials. It becomes difficult then for the teacher to follow up the

progress of such students. In addition, students who fail to do home work and

who exhibit poor attitudes towards studies make the teacher unenthusiastic. He

may feel that his presence makes no difference and thus may put in just the

minimum effort required.

Cordial principal, staff and student relations are also capable of boosting

staff and students morale towards learning and must be encouraged. Where the

school engages other schools in co-curricula activities such as sports and

debates etc, friendships with other institutions are strengthened and this also

provides for good testing ground on learning outcomes. It is not always bad to

allow staff some participation in community politics since they are also

members of the community. However this must be undertaken with utmost

caution so as not to affect negatively the image of the school.

Findings of the study also indicate that teachers are not satisfied with

motivational factors. Inequitable allowances as compared to other professionals

may dampen the motivation to work. For instance, teachers in Benue State often

view their job as more tedious than that of a policeman. And if they feel a

policeman with five years of secondary education earns more than a teacher
128

with a university education, dissatisfaction sets in and effectiveness is

jeopardized. Also without any incentives for extra work, no teacher will be

willing to organize make up classes or help students with special needs outside

the normal class periods. Because there are no clearly defined and followed

policies for promotion and appointments, there will be little motivation to work

hard. Competent teachers may feel they can never be rewarded so why be

effective? Teachers who know people in high places may simply relax and

lobby for other appointments, thus making teaching almost a waiting ground.

The identified administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness imply

that administrators of education in Benue State must make conscious efforts to

implement policies that will enhance teacher effectiveness in the state. It must

be observed that education is the biggest industry in the state and due to its

importance in shaping the course of society, must be handled seriously.

Recommendations:

The following recommendations have been made in the light of the

findings, the discussion that followed and the various implications which have

been highlighted.

Teachers should be involved in textbook selection. For each subject,

competencies to be taught should be specified to guide selection of

textbooks. The government should encourage teachers by financing

textbook writing by Benue teachers.


129

Classrooms should be decongested by erecting new buildings in

individual schools or establishing more schools in the localities. The

present class size which officially stands at thirty five to forty students

per class should be enforced.

Educational authorities should provide special materials for handicapped

and gifted children in regular schools. For example, Braille equipment

should be made available and special translators employed to translate

examinations and tests.

In each school, heads of departments should be officially raised to the

status of specialist supervisors. Their teaching load should be reduced and

supervisory skills enhanced through seminars to give them enough time

and competence. Further more, substantial allowances should be allocated

to this position to increase motivation.

Staff development programs should include training in the rudiments of

instructional supervision to endow teachers with the necessary skills to

carryout peer supervision.

Seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized each term at

national, state and local government levels. This will give each teacher

the opportunity to attend at least one staff development program a year.

Every new teacher in the field should be under the supervision of a

trained experienced, and competent colleague for induction purpose. For


130

the first year, the new teacher should be observed at least weekly.

Strengths should be encouraged. Weaknesses identified and solutions

proposed.

The Ministry of Education or individual schools should solicit the help of

foreign countries, international organizations and foundations. Some have

been known to charitably provide funding for books, equipment, or water

and power supply. An adopt-a-school program could be encouraged

where institutions and cooperations are encouraged to realize projects in

their schools of choice.

Schools should organize associations of past students and seek help from

such associations. They should even sensitize present students on the

need to invest back in their schools after graduation.

Seminars should be organized for principals, parents, teachers, host

communities and students on the need for and nature of good school

community relations. This will hopefully reduce un-necessary

interference and promote collaboration.

The school authorities should use the PTAs to constantly sensitize

parents on the need to provide all school needs for students, checking

homework and enforcing discipline.

Principals should look for ways and means of motivating teachers in their

schools. They should not ignore the potential motivating factors of verbal

praise and encouragement, teacher of the year awards, free school parties
131

and an effectives staff union. Some schools run staff savings and loan

schemes and cooperatives. When teachers feel they can easily get help

from the school, they feel committed and motivated.

Teacher allowances should be raised to a level comparable with those of

other professionals such as policemen, nurses, medical doctors and

magistrates.

For advancements to be regular, school principals should be given the

responsibility of evaluating and compiling the names of those due and

forwarding them to the Ministry of Finance for immediate action. This

will reduce the practice of teachers leaving work to follow up these

advancements.

Teachers should be paid for excess workload.

Limitations of the Study

The research was limited to the items used to elicit responses. To this

end, the researchers conception of these variables may not have integrated

other possible views.

One other limitation was in accessing the adequacy of facilities and

equipment; the researcher was faced with the problem of the lack of a standard

official criterion of assessment. Thus, the opinions of principals and teachers

were taken to determine adequacy.

Finally, it is evident that not all the issues that constitute administrative

constraints have been raised here. However, despite these limitations, the study
132

was presumed to have fulfilled its purpose; to identify, highlight and propose

solutions to some administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in

government secondary schools in Benue state Nigeria.

Suggestions for Further Research:

Based on the findings and limitations of the study, the following

suggestions are made for further research in the area of administrative

constraints to teacher effectiveness in Benue State.

 A study of administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in all

secondary schools in Benue State.

 A comparative study of administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness

in government and private secondary schools.

 A study of administrative modalities for enhancing teacher effectiveness

in government secondary schools.

 A correlation study of administrative constraints and teacher effectiveness

in government secondary schools in Benue State

 A study of administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in tertiary

institutions.

Summary of the Study

Teacher effectiveness has been viewed as one of the most important

determinants of student learning which is often measured by success in tests,

examinations and other day-to-day interactions. There is also the assumption

that educational administrators can enhance teacher effectiveness by providing


133

all the physical, material, and psychological conditions. Apparently, teachers in

Benue State risk being in-effective as evidenced in the laxity and the less-than-

desirable performance of students in the SSCE and NECO examinations. More

over, the multiple strike actions of teachers over the years are indications that

the right working conditions are not in place. Thus the purpose of the study was

to identify the administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in Benue State

of Nigeria.

The following domains were used: Organization for curriculum

implementation; Instructional supervision; School plant management and

maintenance; School community relations, and Motivational factors. Five

research questions and Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

The research design used was the survey design and the population

consisted of principals and teachers in government secondary schools in Benue

State. The sample was made up of 33 principals and 655 teachers giving a total

of 688 respondents. The instrument was a 40 item questionnaire. The

instrument, which was developed by the researcher, was face and construct

validated. Cronbach Alpha was used to test the reliability of each of the five

clusters of the instrument with the following results; 0.90, 0.85, 0.89, 0.83, and

0.69. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher with the help of five

trained research assistants. The return rate was 100 percent.

Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research

questions and the Z test used to test the null hypotheses. From the data
134

analysis the following major findings were obtained, Organization for

curriculum implementation constitutes a constraint to teacher effectiveness in

Benue State. Instructional supervision does not constitute a constraint to teacher

effectiveness in Benue State. Management and maintenance of the school plant

constitutes a constraint to teacher effectiveness in government secondary

schools in Benue State especially as it relates to electricity supply, water supply,

classroom facilities, laboratories and work shops. School community relations

constitute a constraint to teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools

in Benue State because principals are not democratic, the PTA, do not have high

opinions of school administrations and cordial relationships between staff and

students are absent In-adequate motivation constitutes a constraint to teacher

effectiveness because salaries and allowances are not paid promptly, staff

advancement is not regular, salary structure is not favourble to staff. There was

no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers in

all the variables as regards administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in

secondary schools in Benue State.

From the findings, recommendations include; reviewing classroom

organization and textbook selection and provision of teacher workbooks and

guides, enhancing the regular program for instructional supervision, upgrading

and provision of adequate facilities and equipment, organization of workshops

and training to enhance school community relations, raising teaching

allowances and improving on the general motivation of teachers in all areas.


135

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144

Appendix I

Table 1: Distribution of principals/Teachers in government secondary


schools in Benue State.
S/N Local Govt. Area/ Zone Number of Number of
Schools/ Teachers
Principals
ZONE A

1 KATSINA-ALA 05 090

2 KWANDE 04 048

3 VANDEIKYA 04 044

4 KONSHISHA 03 050

5 LOGO 03 041

6 UKUM 01 046

7 USHONGO 02 052

T = 21 T = 371

ZONE B

8 GBOKO 03 124

9 TARKA 02 037

10 MAKURDI 07 237
11 BURUKU 04 078
12 GUMA 04 044
13 GWER 03 058

14 GWER-WEST 02 036

T = 24 T = 794
145

ZONE C

15 ADO 03 027

16 AGATU 01 014

17 APA 02 027

18 OBI 01 036

19 OGBADIGBO 03 038

20 OHIMINI 01 010

21 OJU 04 043

22 OKPOKWU 02 020

23 OTURKPO 03 090

T = 20 T = 325

OVER ALL TOTAL 66 1,490

Summary:

TOTAL NUMBER OF SCHOOLS/PRINCIPALS = 66


TOTAL NUMBER OF TEACHERS =1,490

SOURCE: Planning, Research and statistics Unit, TSB, Makurdi

March,2009.
146

Appendix II

Table 2: Distribution of Principals and teachers selected.

Zone Principals Teachers Total Number


of
Respondents
A 11 163 174

B 12 349 361

C 10 143 153

TOTAL 33 655 688


147

Appendix III

Table 3: Result of SSCE O Level and NECO O Level examinations in


Government secondary schools in Benue State 2005 2009
YEAR SSCE O LEVEL NECO O LEVEL
2005 56% 64%

2006 51% 54%

2007 60% 49%

2008 54% 52%

2009 52% 51%

Source: State Ministry of Education Dept. of Research, statistics and planning.


148

Appendix IV

List of Government Secondary Schools in Benue State according to their


Education Zones.
ZONE A.

1. Government Secondary School, Anwase


2. Government Secondary School, Koti
3. Government Day Secondary School, Kachi
4. Government Day Secondary School, Jato-Aka
5. Government Secondary School, Korinya
6. Government Secondary School, Gungul
7. Government Secondary School, Tse-Agberagba
8. Government Secondary School, Katsina-Ala
9. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Amaafu
10. Government Secondary School, Abaji
11. Government Day Secondary School, Katsina-Ala
12. Government Secondary School, Abako
13. Government Secondary School, Anyiin
14. Government Secondary School, Ugba
15. Government Secondary School, Afia
16. Government Secondary School, Lessel
17. Government Secondary School, Ushongo
18. Government Secondary School, Alu
19. Government Secondary School, Ihugh
20. Government Secondary School, Tsar
21. Government Secondary School, Vandeikya
ZONE B
22. Government Secondary School, Buruku
23. Government Secondary School, Garagboghol
24. Government Secondary School, Adi
149

25. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Ijer


26. Government Secondary School, Gboko
27. Government Secondary School, Ikpa-Mbatiereu
28. Government Secondary School, Buter-Gboko
29. Government Secondary School, Gbajimba
30. Government Secondary School, Agasha
31. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Udei
32. Government Secondary School, Torkula
33. Government Secondary School, Taraku
34. Government Girls Model School, Aliade
35. Government Secondary School, Ikpayongo
36. Government Secondary School, Aondona
37. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Naka
38. Government Secondary School, Anune
39. Government College Makurdi
40. Government Secondary School, North bank
41. Government Model College Makurdi
42. Government Secondary School, NAF Base Makurdi
43. Government Day Secondary School, Tatyough
44. Government Girls College, Makurdi
45. Special Science Secondary School, North Bank
46. Command Day Secondary School, Makurdi
47. Government College, Yagba
ZONE C.
48. Government Secondary School, Agila
49. Government Secondary School, Ulayi
50. Government College, Utonkon.
51. Government Secondary School, Obagaji
52. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Ugbokpo
150

53. Government Secondary School, Ito


54. Government Girls Secondary School, Obarike-Ito
55. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Otukpa
56. Government Secondary School, Ugbugbu
57. Government Secondary School, Orokam
58. Government Comprehensive Secondary School, Atio
59. Government Secondary School, Okpoga
60. Government Secondary School, Ede-Okpoga
61. Government Secondary School, Oju
62. Government Secondary School, Obusa
63. Government Secondary School, Ikachi
64. Government Secondary School, Odigo
65. Government Model College Otukpo
66. Government Day Secondary School, Otukpo
151

Appendix V

Letter of transmittal

Department of Educational Foundations


University of Nigeria
Nsukka
1st September, 2009.

Dear Sir/Madam,

ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS


IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BENUE STATE
NIGERIA
I am a post graduate student of the Department of Educational

Foundations of the above University, and I am carrying out a study on the above

stated topic. The purpose of the study it to identify administrative constraints to

teacher effectiveness.

Find here with a questionnaire designed for gathering information for the

study. For each section you are provided with different options. Please place X

against the option of your choice with respect to your school or school system. I

wish to assure you that all information provided is strictly confidential and will be

used only for the purpose of this research. No name is required, thus total honesty

is highly desirable without fear of repercussions.

Thanks for your co-operation

Yours faithfully,

Kajo Didacus
152

Appendix VI

DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT:

ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS

DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION 1: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

Please fill the blank spaces and tick X as appropriate in the boxes

provided

Status: Principal Teacher

SECTION II: INFORMATION ON ADMINISTRATIVE

CONSTRAINTS ON TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS

CLUSTER A: ORGANIZATION FOR CURRICULUM

IMPLEMENTATION

Please indicate the extent to which organization for curriculum

implementation constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness.

S/ no Items Very High Low Very


High Extent Extent Low
Extent Extent
1 Recommended textbooks are not
accompanied by teachers hand books.
2 The approved syllabus is too vast
considering the academic year.
3 The recommended workload is too heavy

on both teachers and students.


153

4 The time table is not satisfactory.

5 The class size is more than the

recommended forty students per class.

6 Special programs and materials are not

provided for special students (e.g. blind,

deaf, dumb, gifted, e.t.c.).

7 Teachers are assigned to teach subjects

including those they are not specialized in

8 Appropriate teaching aids are not provided

for use during lessons.

9 Teachers lesson plans are not marked.

10 Scheme of work is not followed by

teachers.

CLUSTER B: INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION

Using the rating scale below, indicate the nature of instructional

supervision in your school.

S/ no Items Very Regular Irregula Very


regular r irregular
11 The principal supervises instruction

12 Pedagogic advisers (specialist

subject supervisors) supervise


154

instruction.

13 There is usually time for post


supervision conferences.
14 Teachers comply to post
supervision conferences.
15 Colleagues help to supervise each
other (peer supervision).
16 Heads of departments help solve
instructional problems.
17 Opportunities for ongoing staff
development programs are
provided.

18 Supervisors often recommend


measures to improve incompetent
teachers.

CLUSTER C: SCHOOL PLANT MANAGEMENT

Please indicate the status of the school plant which may constitute

constraints to teacher effectiveness.

S/ no Items Available, Available, Available, Non-available


Adequate and Adequate but Inadequate In-Adequate
Functional Non- but and Non-
Functional Functional Functional
19 Electricity

20 Water supply
155

21 Classrooms/facilities

22 Buildings for

laboratories

23 Buildings for home

economics

24 Sports facilities

25 Staffroom furniture and

facilities

26 Workshop for

introductory technology

CLUSTER D: SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONS

Please identify those aspects of school community relations that act as

constraints to teacher effectiveness, indicate the extent to which the following is

true of your school.

S/ ITEMS Very High Low Very


NO High Extent Extent Low
Extent Extent
27 Principal is not democratic (does not

consult teachers, students and parents on

important matters)

28 Parents, Teachers, Association (PTA)does


156

not have a high opinion of school

administration.

29 School does not often engage other

schools in co-curricula activities (e.g. in

sports and debates etc)

30 Cordial, principal, staff, student and

community relations do not exist.

31 The host community is hostile to teachers

32 School management is hostile to teachers


involved in community politics
33 Principal has a poor image in the
community

CLUSTER E: MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

The purpose of this section is to find out those in-adequate motivational

factors that constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness. Please indicate the

extent to which the following is true of your school or school system.

ITEM ITEMS Very High Low Very


NO High Extent Extent Low
Extent Extent
34 Salaries and allowances are

comparable to other professions


157

35 There is promptness in payment of

salaries and allowances

36 Staff advancement is done regularly

37 Salary structure is favourable to staff

38 Teachers are transferred with due


consultations

39 Staff dismissal policies are clearly


stated.
40 Principal shows appreciation to
teachers work (eg by way of parties
and awards etc)
158

Appendix VII

Suggestions during validation

The experts who validated the instruments made the following

observations

Dr. F. A. Okwor suggested that the purpose of the study, the research questions,

the research hypotheses and consequently the items of the instrument should

reflect the topic. He equally moderated some of items and suggested more items

be added to certain clusters in order to properly address the research questions,

purpose of the study and hypotheses. He equally corrected notable grammatical

and technical errors in the instrument. He also suggested that instead of asking

respondents to simply state whether they were trained professionals or not they

be asked to state their qualifications.

These suggestions were taken into consideration. The purpose, the

research questions and the research hypotheses were revisited to reflect the topic

as suggested. The items were revisited too and more innovative items included

as suggested.

Dr. U. N. Eze suggested that location be added to the biographical data in

section I. He also effected grammatical corrections to the instrument and

moderated some items. He also called for a recast of some items.

The corrections were taken into consideration and the corrections

effected.
159

Prof. A. U. Akubue attempted an addition of the term evaluation to the topic,

but latter adjusted the response patterns to clearly address the topic and the

research questions. He equally moderated some items and suggested more items

to be added to certain clusters in order to properly address the research

questions, purpose of the study and hypotheses.

The suggestions were taken into consideration and relevant corrections effected