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Ayyanna Habal*, M.S. Amarnath** and G.L. Sivakumar Babu***

Every year Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) roadways are rehabilitated by milling the existing roadway and replacing the milled portion
with new HMA. As a result, a tremendous amount of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is created and also large amount of good
quality aggregates are required to construct new pavement by conventional method. This leads to the exploitation of mother earth
causing ecological imbalance, scarcity of new materials, natural resource depletion and many environmental issues. The RAP material
can be reused by stabilization with cementing material is a good option to obtain a stiff pavement base course structure with better
load dispersing characteristics. The utilization of RAP material in road bases and sub-bases has been limited because there is lack of
laboratory and field performance data. Hence in the present study an attempt is made to characterize the RAP material stabilized with
cementitious stabilizer for road bases by conducting various laboratory investigations. This paper consist laboratory evaluation of
stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement material. Cylindrical specimens of 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height are prepared by RAP
material blended with virgin aggregate and 4, 5, and 6% stabilizer dosages cured for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days curing period and
Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Durability, and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests are conducted. From the laboratory
studies it was observed that the stabilization of RAP with RBI Grade-81 increases the strength and durability with increase in dosage
of stabilizer and curing period.

1 INTRODUCTION conserving the natural resources. The stabilizer, developed for stabilization
A flexible pavement system basically use of reclaimed pavement materials of wide variety of soils. In the
consists of an asphalt surface layer, in road construction could serve the present study the Reclaimed Asphalt
a base course, a sub-base and the purpose of reducing the amount of Pavement (RAP) material stabilized
subgrade. The sub-base layer is construction debris disposed of in with cementitious stabilizer. The
employed as subsurface drainage landfills, reducing environmental purpose of this study is to characterize
layer, whereas, the base course which disturbance and the rate of natural the RAP material stabilized with 4%,
is in between the surface layer and the resource depletion. 5% and 6% stabilizer and present its
sub-base plays a very prominent role Most reclaimed asphalt pavement implications.
in transferring the loads coming onto materials, when used as a total 2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
the surface layer. Thus, base courses substitute for natural aggregates
in flexible pavements help to distribute The main objectives of the present
in base applications, do not often
the traffic load. This ability to meet the minimum requirements study are:
distribute load is primarily a function of standards/specifications. In such To study the compaction and
of stiffness and depth of base course. cases, stabilization with stabilizers CBR characteristics of RAP
The quality of the base course material like lime, cement or RBI Grade-81 material stabilized with 0, 4, 5
also affects the load distribution. While allows the use of these low quality and 6% dosage of stabilizer.
distributing the load, the base course reclaimed asphalt pavement materials To study the UCS characteristics
itself must not be a cause of failure. with the minimum required strength of stabilized RAP mix cured for
Therefore, the base course must have characteristics. Stabilization of base 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days.
enough strength to carry loads without course with traditional stabilizers Study the durability of stabilized
shear failure. Traditionally natural like lime, cement forms the rigid base RAP.
aggregates derived from a variety which may leads to the cracking/ Present relationships of
of rock sources have been used as a fatigue failure (Grey et al 2011) unconfined compression strength,
road base material. But the extraction meanwhile it should not be too much between curing period and
of these natural aggregate resources flexible. It should be in between rigid dosage.
is increasingly being constrained and flexible, semi-rigid layer is suitable
by urbanization, increased costs for base course this can be achieved 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
and environmental concerns. Thus, by stabilization with non-traditional Taha et al (1999) studied laboratory
Recycling of pavement materials stabilizer like RBI Grade-81. It is evaluation of RAP and RAP-virgin
has become an alternative in road a natural inorganic, cementitious aggregate mixtures as road base and
maintenance and rehabilitation by hydration activated powder-based soil sub-base materials at Oman and found
* Former M.E. Student, E-mail:, ** Professor, E-mail: Department
of Civil Engineering, UVCE Bangalore University, Bangalore, *** Professor, E-mail: Department of
Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore


that stabilized RAP material able to pavement foundation. To check to characterize the RAP material
function as conventional sub-base the suitability of RBI Grade-81 stabilized with RBI Grade-81
material. Another study conducted by stabilization in base layer Kumar et al stabilizer.
Thammovong et al (2006) evaluated (2010) studied the soil and aggregate 4 LABORATORY
the RAP material stabilized with stabilization using RBI Grade-81 INVESTIGATIONS
cement as treated base by conducting stabilizers for subgrade and base
The experimental program was
laboratory tests like UCS, ITS and layer and found that RBI Grade-81
designed and conducted to test and
Resilient modulus(Mr) tests and stabilized aggregate layer is suitable determine the strength and durability
found that stabilization of RAP with as a base layer. properties of stabilized RAP material
cement drastically increases the
From the literature survey it was specimens at obtained gradation and
strength with increase in stabilizer
observed that the RAP material can different dosage levels of stabilizer.
dosage and curing period. Similar
be recycled and utilized in the base RAP mix specimens of size 100 mm
study conducted by Grey et al (2011)
course with new or virgin aggregates diameter and 200 mm height are
found that cement stabilized pavement
to an extent of 10 to 100% RAP (Taha prepared and tested to determine the
layer from 1% to 3% cement content
et al 1999, 2002, Thammavong et strength and durability properties at
should be modeled as lightly bound
al 2006) in presence of stabilizing 4%, 5% and 6% stabilizer contents.
material and cement content greater
than 3% yields bound material.Solanki materials like fly ash, lime, cement, 4.1 Properties of the Test Materials
et al (2010) investigated the effects of foamed bitumen and RBI Grade-81 To check the suitability of materials,
different percentages of one traditional etc. which improves the strength and a series of basic and engineering
additive- hydrated lime and two by- durability of the RAP mix. Many tests have been conducted on new
products Class C fly ash (CFA) and researches have been conducted on aggregate and RAP material. The
cement kiln dust (CKD) on the resilient stabilization of RAP material with basic tests include: grain size
modulus (Mr) of four different clay traditional stabilizers like lime, distribution test, specific gravity,
subgrades. It was found that at lower cement, foamed bitumen etc. but impact test, and crushing strength
application rates (3% to 6%), the limited researchdonein the area of test. All the tests were conducted in
lime-stabilized soil specimens showed stabilization of RAP material with accordance with the current IS and
highest enhancement in the Mr values. non-traditional stabilizers like RBI ASTM standard testing procedures.
At higher application rates (10% Grade-81 stabilizer. Hence in the Table 1 presents the physical
to 15%), however, CKD treatment present study an attempt is made properties of test materials.
provided maximum improvements.
Table 1 Physical Properties of Test Materials
Chai et al(2005)conducted a case
study of in-situ stabilization of road Test RAP New Aggregate Standard Values as
base trial section in Malaysia. The per MoRTH
Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) Crushing Test 15.63% 26.92% ---
was adopted to determine the in situ
Impact Test 21.45% 23.45% Max 27%
stiffness of the cement stabilized
road base material. The FWD would Specific gravity 2.15 2.68 ---
assess the compressive strength and
the material stiffness of the cement Crushing and impact test results of 4.2 Material Proportioning by Trial
stabilized layer. The improvement RAP are lower compared to new and Error Method
in the stiffness of the stabilized base aggregates this is because RAP Due to mechanical degradation
layer was monitored. FWD was aggregates are coated with asphalt during asphalt pavement removal
found to be useful for the structural and pulverization the gradation is
binder which prevents crushing
disturbed. To get desired gradation
assessment of the cement stabilized and breaking of aggregates to some and percentage of additional material
base layer prior to the placement of extent. Also coating of RAP with required to be mixed with RAP
asphalt layers. Using the FWD data, low specific gravity asphalt binder material; trial and error method is
Chai et al proposed an empirical
decreased the specific gravity of RAP adopted. The test results are shown
relationship between the deflection in Table 2 and grain size distribution
than new aggregates.
and the stiffness modulus of the curves are shown in Fig. 1.


Table 2 Grain Size Distribution of Materials strength gaining. In order to determine
Gradation the strength of RAP mix CBR test
Sieve % Passing MoRT&H Limits was carried out as per IS:2720 part-16
Size, (Stabilized Base, Table for 0, 4, 5 and 6% stabilizer dosages
mm 400-4) immediately after preparing the
RAP 12.5 mm Dust Desired Lower Limit Upper sample. However soaked CBR test
down Grading (LL) Limit (UL) was conducted on untreated RAP mix.
The strength of the RAP mix increases
37.5 100 100 100 100 95 100
with increase in curing period. To
19.0 98.00 100 100 99 45 100 study this increase CBR tests were
9.50 66.98 66.7 100 77 35 100 also carried out on RAP mix cured for
4.75 33.06 1.10 99.6 45 25 100 7 days. The test results are shown in
0.60 6.50 0.25 47 17 8 65 Table 3.
0.30 3.86 0.20 34 12 5 40 Compaction test and un-soaked CBR
0.075 0.81 0.20 11 4 0 10 tests are conducted immediately after
preparation of RAP mix samples at
From trial and error method, the of 45, 25 and 30% respectively. this point of time stabilizer acts like
suitable proportion of RAP material, Modified proctor compaction test is low density (700 kg/m3) fine material
12.5 mm down aggregates and stone carried out as per IS:2720 part-8 for 0, and it will not provide any bonding.
dust to be mixed to get desired 4, 5 and 6% stabilizer dosages. OMC Hence decrease in un-soaked CBR
gradation are 45, 25 and 30% and MDD were determined for various and MDD with increase in stabilizer
respectively. dosages of stabilizers. The test results dosage was due to increase in low
are presented in Table 3. density fines content. However 7 days
4.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) cured sample CBR increased with
Test increase in stabilizer dosage this is
Need for the CBR test was to check contributed by cementing action of
the contribution of stabilizer in stabilizer.

Table 3 Results of Compaction and CBR Test

Stabilizer Dosage OMC in % MDD in g/cc CBR (%)
in % Unsoaked 7 Days Cured
Fig. 1 Grain Size Distribution Curve of
RAP Mix 0 8.60 2.177 104 95
Results shows that 12.5 mm down and 4 8.40 2.150 85 123
stone dust of 25 and 30 % respectively
5 8.60 2.170 76 185
are required to get the suitable graded
material for road construction. This 6 9.20 2.163 102 228
is because even after pulverization
process fines of the RAP are in bonded 4.5 Unconfined Compressive of RAP mix treated with 4, 5 and
state with asphalt so we cannot extract Strength (UCS) Test 6% stabilizer dosages and cured for
these fines; this led to the higher In order to study the effect of 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days under
requirement of fines in blend. stabilizer dosage and curing period damp sand. Fig. 2 shows the relation
4.3 Compaction Characteristics on strength of RAP mix, UCS test between unconfined compressive
The RAP mix is prepared by blending was carried out as per IS:2720 strength and curing period for RAP
RAP material, new aggregate and Part-10 on 100 mm diameter and mix treated with different dosage of
stone dust in the obtained proportions 200 mm height cylindrical specimens stabilizer.


predicted values of UCS is given in
Fig. 4.
UCS = -1347.73 + 429.90*(1) +
14.93*(2) ... Equ (1)
UCS = Unconfined Compressive
Strength in kPa
1 = Stabilizer dosage in %
2 = Curing period in days
4.6 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV)
In order to determine the dynamic
modulus of stabilized RAP mix UPV
Fig. 2 Effect of Curing Period on Unconfined Compressive Strength test was conducted. Ultrasonic waves
have a higher transmission velocity
Fig. 3 shows the relation between period for different dosage of than sound waves. These waves
Static Elastic Modulus and curing stabilizer. can pass through solids and can be
detected at far ends. The velocity and
scatter of the waves depend mainly on
the density and the elastic property
of the medium. The test consists of
short bursts of waves of frequency
range 20-150 kHz using an acoustic-
electro transducer and detecting the
pulses by the receiver across the
body of the specimen. The equipment
measures and records the time taken
by the waves to travel through the
specimen. Velocity is determined
from the time of travel which will
be in microseconds.The test is
conducted as per IS:13311 Part 1
(2004). Dynamic Youngs Modulus (E)
Fig. 3 Effect of Curing Period on Static Elastic Modulus is determined by using the following
From the UCS test it was observed relation.
varying curing period andstabilizer
that strength of the stabilized RAP dosage. Equation 1 presents the
mix increases with increase in multiple linear regression model
stabilizer dosage and curing period obtained based on the analysis. The
this is because stabilizer used is equation has correlation coefficient Where,
cementation in nature as the dosage of determination (R) of 0.972 E = Dynamic Youngs Modulus in
and curing period increases bonding and corresponds to 95% level of MPa
between the RAP material, new confidence with a standard error = Dynamic poisons ratio
aggregates and fines increases which of 161.8 kPa. It may be noted that = Density in kg/m3
helpsin gaining the strength. maximum and minimum values used
4.5.1 Analysis of UCS Test Results in the analysis are 2826 kPa and V = pulse velocity in Km/sec
Multiple linear regression analysis is 386 kPa respectively and hence the In the present study for the calculation
conducted to develop the model by regression equation represents the best of dynamic modulus, poisons ratio is
considering dependent variable as fit among the considered variables. assumed as 0.25 and the density is taken
UCS and independent variables as A comparison of measured and from compaction test for respective


dosages of stabilizer. The results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Testing is 4.7 Durability Test
UPV test are presented in Table 4. shown in Fig. 5. In order to check the durability of
the stabilized mix for base course
durability test by method-1 as per
IRC:SP:89-2010 is conducted. Two
identical set (containing 3 specimens
each) of UCS specimen which are
cured in a normal manner (under damp
sand) at constant moisture content for
7 days. At the end of 7 days period
one set is immersed in water while the
other set is continued to cure under
damp sand. When both sets are 14
days old they are tested for UCS. The
strength of the set immersed in water
as a percentage of the strength of set
Fig. 4 Measured Vs. Predicted UCS Values
cured at constant moisture content is
Table 4 Results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test calculated. This index is a measure of
Stabilizer Dosage in Pulse Velocity (m/s) Dynamic Youngs the resistance to the effect of water on
% Modulus, E in MPa strength. If this value is lower than 80
4 1069 2047 % it is considered that the stabilizer
content is low and its value should be
5 1740 5477
increased. The results are shown in
6 2248 9106 Table 5.

Table 5 Results of Durability Test

Stabilizer UCS in kPa % UCS of Soaked
Dosage in 14 Days Cured 7 Days Sand Cured + Sample w.r.t
% under Damp 7 Days Immersed in Normal Cured
Sand Water Sample

(a) (b) (c) (c/b*100)

4 591 602 101.86
5 993 1030 103.73
6 1034 1121 108.41
Fig. 5 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Testing
It was observed that the UCS 5 CONCLUSIONS
From UPV test results it was value of 7 days normal cured and Based on the laboratory investigations
observed that dynamic modulus of 7 days soaked specimens has been following conclusions are made:
the stabilized RAP mix increases marginally increased about 1.86,
With increase in dosage of stabi-
with increase in stabilizer 3.72 and 8.41% for 4, 5 and 6%
dosage indicating that RAP mix lizer there is no significant varia-
stabilizer dosages respectively,
stabilized with 6% stabilizer is compared to 14 days normal tion in OMC and corresponding
better than 4 and 5%. Increase in cured specimens in all the dosages MDD.
stabilizer dosage provides more of stabilizer. This is because of With increase in dosage of
bonding material in the mix which cementation action of stabilizer due stabilizer there is an increase
leads to the stronger mix. to soaking of stabilized mix. in CBR value of about 29,


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