You are on page 1of 16

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266972901

Three-dimensional vibration analysis of


isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with
elastic boundary restraints

Article in International Journal of Mechanical Sciences December 2014


DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.09.005

CITATIONS READS

20 140

4 authors, including:

Guoyong Jin Zhu Su


Harbin Engineering University Harbin Engineering University
86 PUBLICATIONS 893 CITATIONS 32 PUBLICATIONS 382 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE

Tiangui Ye
Harbin Engineering University
39 PUBLICATIONS 541 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

All content following this page was uploaded by Guoyong Jin on 16 January 2017.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the original document
and are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

Three-dimensional vibration analysis of isotropic and orthotropic


conical shells with elastic boundary restraints
Guoyong Jin n, Zhu Su n, Tiangui Ye, Xingzhao Jia
College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, PR China

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, a three-dimensional (3-D) solution method is presented for the free vibration of isotropic
Received 16 March 2014 and orthotropic conical shells with elastic boundary restraints. The formulation is derived by means of
Received in revised form the RayleighRitz procedure based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory. Displacement compo-
19 July 2014
nents of the conical shells are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and a double
Accepted 10 September 2014
Available online 21 September 2014
Fourier cosine series supplemented with several auxiliary functions in thickness and meridional
directions. The supplementary functions in the form of the product of a polynomial function and a
Keywords: single cosine series are introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series representa-
Isotropic and orthotropic tions. To validate the present method, the convergence behavior is demonstrated, and several
Conical shell
comparisons of the numerical results with those published in the literature and obtained by ANASYS
Three-dimensional elasticity theory
are performed. Numerous new results for the isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with elastic
Free vibration
Elastic boundary restraints boundary conditions are presented. The effects of the geometrical parameters, orthotropic properties
and boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of conical shells are illustrated.
& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction detailed descriptions on this subject may be found in several


monographs respectively by Qatu [17], Reddy [18], Carrera et al.
Shell structures are extensively used in various engineering [19], and Leiss and Qatu [20].
applications, particularly in aerospace, marine and structural As one of the common shell structures, conical shells play a
engineering. In order to ensure a reliable design, a detailed signicant role in many industrial elds. However, compared with
understanding of their dynamic characteristics must rst be the studies of the cylindrical shells, the literature about conical
determined. In the past several decades, various shell theories shells is limited. Most investigations [2141] were carried out
and different computational methods have been proposed and based on 2-D theories. Saunders et al. [21] applied RayleighRitz
developed by researchers in order to predict the vibration beha- method to compute the frequencies for free vibration of isotropic
vior of the shells. The shell theories mainly include three- thin conical shells with free or simply supported boundary
dimensional (3-D) elasticity theory and two-dimensional (2-D) condition. Garnet and Kemper [22] also employed this method
theories which reduce the dimensions of the shell problem from to study the lowest axisymmetric modes of truncated conical
three to two by making certain hypotheses regarding the stress shells, and the transverse shear deformation and rotatory inertia
and strain elds along the thickness of the shell and can be effects are accounted for. The axisymmetric modes and natural
classied into three main categories: classical shell theory (CST), frequencies of isotropic thin conical shells were obtained by
rst-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order Goldberg et al. [23] using numerical intergration method and
shear deformation theory (HSDT). A number of computational classical shell theory (CST). Tong [26] developed the power series
methods have been proposed and developed, such as Rayleigh expansion approach to analyze free vibration of isotropic and
Ritz method [13], Haar wavelet method [4], differential quad- orthotropic conical shells. Free vibration of isotropic conical shells
rature method [5,6], nite element method [7], meshless methods was studied by Shu [27] using a global method of generalized
[815] and discrete singular convolution method [1638]. More differential quadrature (GDQ) on the basis of classical shell theory
(CST) and two types of boundary conditions were considered
including simply supported and clamped edges. Free vibration
n analysis of thin isotropic conical shells under different classical
Corresponding authors. Tel.: 86 451 82569458; fax: 86 451 82518264.
E-mail addresses: guoyongjin@hrbeu.edu.cn (G. Jin), boundary conditions was carried out by Liew et al. [28] using
xiuzhu0403@163.com (Z. Su). the element-free kp-Ritz method based on CST, and the kernel

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.09.005
0020-7403/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
208 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

particle (kp) functions were introduced to approximate the two-


dimensional displacement eld. Soyec et al. [29] studied the
vibration and stability of non-homogeneous orthotropic conical
shells subjected to hydrostatic pressure using the Garlerkin
method in the context of CST, in which the material properties
of conical shells vary continuously in the thickness direction. The
free and forced vibration of isotropic conical shells were studied by
Li et al. [31] by the means of Hamilton's principle in conjunction
with the RayleighRitz method based on the rst-order shear
deformation theory (FSDT). Some researchers [3238] have ana-
lyzed the free vibration of the rotating conical shells by different
methods. Liew et al. [39] and Lim and Liew [40,41] investigated the
Fig. 1. Coordinate system and geometry of a conical shell.
free vibration of shallow conical shell using pb-2 Ritz method on
the basis of shallow shell theories. There is a limited amount of
literature [4245] concerning the vibration analysis of conical and the distance of P from the axis of revolution is expressed as
shells based on 3-D elasticity theory. Leissa and Kang [42] and
Rr; s Rr; s cos s sin R1 r cos
Kang and Leissa [43] presented a three-dimensional method of
analysis for determining the free vibration frequencies and mode
shapes of thick shells with variable thickness. The relations of the Cartesian coordinates (i.e. x, y and z) and
From the review of the literature, the available 3-D elasticity the curvilinear coordinates (i.e. r, and s) are given as
solutions for the vibration problems of isotropic and orthotropic
x Rr; s cos cos Rr; s cos ;
conical shells are relatively scarce, and most of the previous
y Rr; s cos sin Rr; s sin ;
studies regarding the conical shells are conned to the classical
boundary conditions. However, elastic boundaries are often z s cos  r sin
encountered in engineering applications, and there is a consider-
able lack of corresponding research regarding elastic boundary
conditions. 2.2. Energy functional
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) solution method is
presented for the free vibration of isotropic and orthotropic According to 3-D elasticity theory, the linear relations between
conical shells with elastic boundary restraints, which can be strains and displacements of an elastic body are given as follows:
considered as an extension of the authors' previous works [4648].
1 u 1 H 1 1 H 1 1 v 1 H 2 1 H 2
The formulation is derived by means of the RayleighRitz proce- rr v w; w u
H 1 r H 1 H 2 H 1 H 3 s H 2 H 2 H 3 s H H r
dure based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory. Displace-    2 1
1 w 1 H 3 1 H 3 H2 v H3 w
ment components of the conical shells are represented by Fourier ss u w; s ;
H 3 s H 3 H 1 r H 3 H 2 H 3 s H 2 H 2 H 3
       
series in the circumferential direction and a double Fourier cosine H3 w H1 u H2 v H1 u
rs ; r 1
series supplemented with auxiliary functions in meridional and H 1 r H 3 H 3 s H 1 H 1 r H 2 H 2 H 1
normal directions. The supplementary functions in the form of the
where H1, H2 and H3 are the Lam coefcients. For the conical
product of a polynomial function and a single cosine series are
shell, the Lam coefcients are given as
introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series
"  2  2 #1=2
representations. To validate the present method, the convergence x 2 y z
H1 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 1=2 1
behavior is demonstrated, and comparisons with available results r r r
in the literature are performed. Numerous new results for the "   2  2 #1=2
x 2 y z
isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with elastic boundary H2 Rr; s2 sin 2 Rr; s2 cos 2 1=2 Rr; s

conditions are presented. The effects of the geometrical para- "   2  2 #1=2
x 2 y z
meters, orthotropic properties and boundary conditions on free H3
2 2 2
sin cos 2 sin sin cos 2 1=2 1
s s s
vibration of conical shells are illustrated.
2

2. Theoretical formulations
Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1), the straindisplacement rela-
tions of a conical shell can be depicted as
2.1. Description of model
u 1 v sin cos w
rr ; w u; ss ;
Let us consider a conical shell with slant height L, thickness H, r R R R s
semi-vertex angle . The curvilinear coordinate system composed v 1 w sin w u v 1 u cos
s  v; rs ; r  v
of coordinates r, , and s is introduced as shown in Fig. 1, which s R R r s r R R
can be derived from the Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, and z). 3
The coordinates r and s along the thickness and meridional
directions are measured from the small edge and inner surface Based on Hooke's law, the relations of the stresses and strains
of the conical shell. The conical shell domain is bounded by can be expressed as
0 rr rH, 0 r r2, 0r srL. R1 and R2 are the radii of the inner
rr c11 rr c12 c13 ss
surface of conical shell at the small and large ends. The displace-
c12 rr c22 c23 ss
ments of the conical shell are denoted by u, v, and w in r, and s
directions, respectively. The radius of curvature in the circumfer- ss c13 rr c23 c33 ss
ential direction at any point P is given by s c44 s ; rs c55 rs ; r c66 r 4
where cij i; j 1; 2; 6 are the elastic stiffness coefcients. For the
Rr; s s tan R1 = cos r orthotropic, three-dimensional conical shell, the elastic stiffness
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 209

coefcients can be expressed as where is the mass density per volume, and the over dots denote
c11 Er 1  s s ; c12 E r rs s time derivatives.
In this work, the edges of the conical shells are restrained by
c22 E 1  rs sr ; c23 Es s r rs
springs to simulate the given or typical boundary conditions. The
c33 Es 1  r r ; c31 Er sr s r
boundary conditions of thick shell can be dened as [20]
c44 Gs ; c55 Grs ; c66 Gr 5
where 1=1 r r  s s  sr rs  r s sr  r rs s . Acco- sr1 sr or u1 u
rding to the Maxwell reciprocity relations s1 s or v1 v
ss1 ss or w1 w
r E r Er ; rs Es sr Er ; s E s Es 6
where sr1, s1, and ss1 represent shear and normal stresses at
ends with s constant. u1, v1, w1 are the displacement functions at
The isotropic, three-dimensional conical shell can be consid- ends, respectively. Therefore, three sets of independent linear
ered as a special case in which springs (ku, kv, and kw) in r, and s directions are introduced,
c11 c22 c33 2G and the boundary conditions for the ends can be expressed as
c12 c13 c21 c23 c31 c32
ku0 u sr ; kv0 v s ; kw0 w ss at s 0
c44 c55 c66 G 7
kuL u sr ; kvL v s ; kwL w ss at s L
where ku0, kv0, kw0, kuL, kvL and kwL are the stiffnesses of the spring.
where
The general boundary conditions can be obtained by assuming
E E spring stiffness equal to proper value. For example, the free
;G
1 1  2 21 boundary condition corresponds to the case in which the spring
stiffness is set equal to zero. On the contrary, for the clamped edge,
and E and represent Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. the stiffness is innite. For computational purposes, innity is
The strain energy U of the conical shell can be expressed in the represented by a very large spring value, i.e. 1  1015 N m  3. The
integral form as potential energy L of the elastic reactions of the springs is
calculated as
1
U V rr rr ss ss s s sr sr r r dV
2
Z Z Z Z Z
1 L 2 H 1 2 H
rr rr ss ss s s sr sr r r Rr; sdrdds L Rr; 0ku0 u2 kv0 v2 kw0 w2 s 0
2 0 0 2 0 0
0

8 Rr; LkuL u2 kvL v2 kwL w2 s L drd 11

The total energy functional is thus given as


Substituting Eqs. (3) and (4) into Eq. (8), the strain energy U can
be written as T U L 12
Z Z Z h
1 L 2 H u2 1 v sin cos
2 uw
U c11 r c22 R R w R u c13 c31 r s
2 0 0 0
   2  2.3. Admissible displacement functions
1 v sin cos
u w
c12 c21 w c33
u
R R rR s
    
Considering the circumferential symmetry of the conical shells
1 v sin cos w w u 2 in the coordinate , the 3-D problem of the conical shell can be
c23 c32 w u c55
R R R s r s transformed to 2-D analysis by using the Fourier series in
 2   
v 1 w sin v 1 u cos 2 circumferential direction. In this study, a 2-D modied Fourier
c44  v c66  v Rr; sdrdds
s R R r R R cosine series which is constructed as the linear superposition of a
9 double Fourier cosine series and several supplementary functions
are employed in the thickness and meridional directions. The
The kinetic energy T of the conical shell is given as supplementary functions are used to remove the potential dis-
 
T V u_ 2 v_ 2 w
_ 2 dV continuities with the displacements and their derivatives. The
2 displacements of the conical shell can be expressed in the follow-
Z Z Z
L 2 H  2 
ing forms [4648]:
u_ v_ 2 w
_ 2 Rr; wdrddz 10
2 0 0 0

ur; ; s; t Ur; ; sejt


8 N M Q 2 M 2 Q
9
>
> ~ >
>
>
> A mnq cos m r cos q s a lmn ls cos m r a lnq lr cos q s cos n >
>
< n 0 m 0q 0 =
l 1m 0 l 1q 0 13:a
eit
>
> N M Q 2 M 2 Q
~ >
>
>
> A cos r cos s a cos r a cos s sin n >
>
: mnq m q lmn ls m lnq lr q ;
n 1 m 0q 0 l 1m 0 l 1q 0

vr; ; s; t V r; ; sejt
8 N M Q 2 M 2 Q
9
> >
> Bmnq cos m r cos q s blmn ls cos m r b~ lnq lr cos q s sin n >
>
> >
>
< n 1 m 0q 0 =
l 1m 0 l 1q 0 13:b
eit
> N M Q 2 M 2 Q >
> Bmnq cos m r cos q s blmn ls cos m r b~ lnq lr cos q s cos n >
>
> >
>
: ;
n 0 m 0q 0 l 1m 0 l 1q 0
210 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

wr; ; s; t Wr; ; sejt


8 N M Q 2 M 2 Q
9
>
> ~ >
>
>
> C mnq cos m r cos q s c lmn ls cos m r c lnq lr cos q s cos n >
>
< n 0 m 0q 0 =
l 1m 0 l 1q 0 13:c
eit
>
> N M Q 2 M 2 Q
~ >
>
>
> C cos r cos s c cos r c cos s sin n >
>
: mnq m q lmn ls m lnq lr q ;
n 1 m 0q 0 l 1m 0 l 1q 0

2 ~ ~ 3
KFG KFg KFijg KijFG KijFg KijF g
where denotes the natural frequency of the conical shell, t is the 6 ij ij
7
6 fG ~ ~ 7
time variable, the nonnegative 6K Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kijf g Kijf g 7
p integer n represents the circumfer- 6 ij 7
ential wave number, j 1, m m=H and q q=L. M and Q 6 ~ 7
6 fG ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ 7
are the Fourier series truncated numbers, and N is the maximum 6 Kij Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kfijg Kfijg 7
6 7
Kij 6 FG ~ 7 20
wave number. Amnq , almn , a~ lnq , Amnq , almn , a~ lnq , Bmnq , blmn , b~ lnq , Bmnq , 6K KFg
~
KFijg KijFG KijFg KijF g 7
~ 6 ij 7
blmn , blnq , C mnq , clmn , c~ lnq , C mnq , clmn and c~ lnq are Fourier coefcients
ij
6 7
6 fG ~ f g~ 7
to be determined. The closed-form functions lr and ls are dened 6 Kij Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kijf g Kij 7
6 7
separately over [0, H] and [0, L] and the supplementary functions 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ 5
~
are introduced to remove any potential discontinuities of the KfijG Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kijf g Kijf g
original displacements and their relevant derivatives, and accel-
2 3
erate the convergence of the series representations. Based on the ~
MFG
ij MFg MijF g 0 0 0
3-D elasticity theory, the displacements of the conical shells have 6 ij
7
6 fG ~ 7
at least continuous two-order derivatives at any point in the shell 6 Mij Mfijg Mijf g 0 0 0 7
6 7
space. Therefore, the closed-form functions lr and ls are dened 6 f~ G ~ ~~ 7
6M Mfijg Mfijg 0 0 0 7
6 ij 7
as in the following form: 6 7
Mij 6 F g~ 7 21
r 2 r2  r  6 0 0 0 MijFG MijFg Mij 7
6 7
1r r r 1 ; 2r r 1 6 ~ 7
H H H 6 0 0 0 Mijf G Mijf g Mfijg 7
s 2 6 7
s2  s  6
4 ~~ 5
7
1s s s  1 ; 2s s 1 14 ~ ~
L L L 0 0 0 Mijf G Mijf g Mfijg

It is easy to verify that in which i; j u; v; w and the superscripts of the elements


indicate the location of corresponding Fourier coefcients. In order
1r 0 1r H 01r H 0; 01r 0 1
to clarify the calculations of the sub-matrices Mij and Kij , the
2r 0 2r H 02r 0 0; 02r H 1 detailed expressions for elements in typical matrices Muu and Kuu
1s 0 1s L 01s L 0; 01s 0 1 are given in Appendix A.
2s 0 2s L 02s 0 0; 02s L 1 15 All eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be calculated from
Eq. (16). It is mentioned that the elements of eigenvectors are
It can be proven that derivatives of the expansions given in Eq. the Fourier coefcients, and the mode shapes can be easily
(13) can be obtained simply through term-by-term differentiation. obtained by substituting the eigenvectors into Eq. (13).

2.4. Solution procedure

The eigenvalue problem is formulated by minimizing the total 3. Computed results and discussion
energy functional with respect to the Fourier coefcients.
Substituting Eqs. (9)-(11) and (13) into Eq. (12), and performing In this section, several examples on free vibration analysis of
the RayleighRitz operation, a set of linear algebraic equation isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with different geometric
against the unknown coefcients can be obtained as and material parameters are presented to demonstrate the con-
2 38 9 2 38 9 vergence, accuracy and reliability of the present method. Different
Kuu Kuv Kuw > au > Muu 0 0
< = < au >
> =
6 K 7 6 7 boundary conditions including classical restraints and elastic
4 uv Kvv Kvw 5 bv  4 0 Mvv 0 5 bv 0 16
> > > > supports are considered. The free boundary (F) implies that the
Kuw Kvw Kww : cw ; 0 0 Mww : cw ;
two ends of conical shells are stress-free in all coordinate direc-
where tions (i.e. sr s ss 0), and the clamped boundary (C) is
dened as that all displacement components at the end face are
au A000 ; ; Amnq ; ; AMNQ ; al00 ; ; alnm ; ; alNM ; a~ l00 ; ; a~ lnq ; ; a~ lNQ ;
i restrained (i.e.u v w 0). The simply-supported boundary con-
A000 ; ; Amnq ; ; AMNQ ; al10 ; ; alnm ; ; alNM ; a~ l10 ; ; a~ lnq ; ; a~ lNQ ditions have a variety of interpretations, and in the present work
17 three types of simply-supported boundary conditions are consid-
ered: simply-supported I (S1) is completely supported in the and
h
bu B000 ; ; Bmnq ; ; BMNQ ; bl10 ; ; blnm ; ; blNM ; b~ l10 ; ; b~ lnq ; ; b~ lNQ ; s directions with full slip along the r direction (i.e. v w 0;
i sr 0); simply-supported II (S2) is only free in directions
~ ~ ~
B000 ; ; Bmnq ; ; BMNQ ; bl00 ; ; blnm ; ; blNM ; bl00 ; ; blnq ; ; blNQ (i.e. u w 0; s 0); and simply-supported III (S3) is the stan-
18 dard shear diaphragm case (i.e. u v 0; ss 0). Three types of
elastic boundary conditions (i.e. E1, E2, E3) are also studied in this

cu C 000 ; ; C mnq ; ; C MNQ ; cl00 ; ; clnm ; ; clNM ; c~ l00 ; ; c~ lnq ; ; c~ lNQ ; section: E1 is only elastically restrained in r direction (i.e.
i v w 0; u a 0); E2 is dened to be elastic in directions (i.e.
C 000 ; ; C mnq ; ; C MNQ ; cl00 ; ; clnm ; ; clNM ; c~ l00 ; ; c~ lnq ; ; c~ lNQ
u w 0; v a 0); and E3 is considered to be elastic in s direction (i.
19 e. u v 0; w a 0). The corresponding spring stiffnesses of the
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 211

boundary condition are given as 3.1. Convergence study

Since the accuracy of the method depends on the truncated


F : ku kv kw 0; C : ku kv kw 1  1015 numbers M and Q, the convergence of the present method must be
p the rst 10 non-dimensional frequency
checked. Table 1 shows
S1 : kv kw 1  1015 ; ku 0; S2 : ku kw 1  1015 ; kv 0
parameters L =G of isotropic conical shells subjected to
CF boundary with different thickness-to-radius ratios H/R1. The
S3 : ku kv 1  1015 ; kw 0; E1 : kv kw 1  1015 ; ku 1  1010
conical shells are made from material with the following proper-
ties: E 168 GPa, 5700 kg/m3 and 0.3. The geometric para-
meters of the conical shells are taken to be H/R1 0.1, 0.2 and
E2 : ku kw 1  1015 ; kv 1  1010 ; E3 : ku kv 1  1015 ; kw 1  1010
0.5, Lcos2 m, R1 1 m and 301. It is observed that the
22
current method has stable monotonic convergence characteristics.

Table 1
p
The non-dimensional frequency parameters L =G of isotropic conical shells with different thickness-to-radius ratios H/R1 (Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, 301, E 168 GPa,
3
5700 kg/m , and 0.3; and boundary condition: CF).

H/R1 MQ Mode

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.1 10  10 0.3111 0.3111 0.3196 0.3196 0.4645 0.4645 0.5453 0.5453 0.6979 0.6979
11  11 0.3109 0.3109 0.3194 0.3194 0.4644 0.4644 0.5452 0.5452 0.6978 0.6978
12  12 0.3109 0.3109 0.3193 0.3193 0.4643 0.4643 0.5451 0.5451 0.6977 0.6977
13  13 0.3108 0.3108 0.3191 0.3191 0.4643 0.4643 0.5449 0.5449 0.6976 0.6976
14  14 0.3108 0.3108 0.3191 0.3191 0.4642 0.4642 0.5449 0.5449 0.6975 0.6975
0.2 10  10 0.3876 0.3876 0.5133 0.5133 0.5734 0.5734 0.8441 0.8441 0.9656 1.2821
11  11 0.3874 0.3874 0.5132 0.5132 0.5732 0.5732 0.8440 0.8440 0.9656 1.2819
12  12 0.3873 0.3873 0.5131 0.5131 0.5731 0.5731 0.8439 0.8439 0.9656 1.2818
13  13 0.3871 0.3871 0.5131 0.5131 0.5730 0.5730 0.8438 0.8438 0.9656 1.2817
14  14 0.3871 0.3871 0.5130 0.5130 0.5729 0.5729 0.8438 0.8438 0.9656 1.2817
0.5 10  10 0.6024 0.6024 0.6601 0.6601 1.0105 1.0123 1.0123 1.3380 1.6725 1.6725
11  11 0.6022 0.6022 0.6599 0.6599 1.0105 1.0122 1.0122 1.3379 1.6724 1.6724
12  12 0.6020 0.6020 0.6598 0.6598 1.0105 1.0121 1.0121 1.3378 1.6724 1.6724
13  13 0.6019 0.6019 0.6596 0.6596 1.0105 1.0121 1.0121 1.3377 1.6724 1.6724
14  14 0.6018 0.6018 0.6595 0.6595 1.0105 1.0120 1.0120 1.3377 1.6724 1.6724

Table 2
p
The non-dimensional frequency parameters L =G of isotropic conical shells with different thickness-to-height ratios H/L (R1/L 0.25, 301, E168 GPa, 5700 kg/m3,
and 0.3; boundary condition: FF and CC).

n Mode FF CC

H/L 0.25 H/L 1 H/L 0.25 H/L 1

Ref.[44] Present Ref.[44] Present Ref.[44] Present Ref.[44] Present

0 1 1.928 1.928 1.274 1.274 3.050 3.049 3.172 3.171


2 2.956 2.956 1.880 1.880 3.226 3.226 3.311 3.310
3 3.523 3.523 3.218 3.218 4.734 4.733 4.865 4.865
4 3.650 3.650 3.650 3.650 5.742 5.740 5.356 5.351
5 5.521 5.518 4.238 4.236 6.329 6.328 5.573 5.570
6 5.661 5.661 4.488 4.487 7.455 7.447 6.302 6.300
1 1 2.158 2.158 1.769 1.768 2.483 2.483 3.001 3.000
2 2.965 2.965 1.961 1.961 4.296 4.295 3.651 3.650
3 3.477 3.476 3.622 3.622 4.840 4.839 5.205 5.203
4 5.169 5.168 3.964 3.963 5.463 5.462 5.499 5.498
5 5.348 5.348 4.181 4.180 7.293 7.289 5.662 5.656
6 5.770 5.766 4.585 4.584 7.605 7.599 6.124 6.121
2 1 0.618 0.618 0.786 0.786 2.555 2.555 3.205 3.203
2 1.468 1.468 1.077 1.076 4.900 4.900 4.248 4.248
3 3.005 3.004 2.775 2.774 5.534 5.532 5.332 5.330
4 3.697 3.696 2.799 2.799 6.394 6.393 5.834 5.828
5 4.614 4.613 4.099 4.097 7.729 7.721 6.049 6.045
6 5.480 5.479 4.316 4.315 8.994 8.991 6.387 6.381
3 1 1.497 1.496 1.687 1.687 3.323 3.323 3.770 3.766
2 3.096 3.095 2.200 2.198 5.530 5.530 4.986 4.984
3 4.225 4.224 3.668 3.667 6.575 6.573 5.583 5.581
4 4.792 4.791 3.733 3.732 7.934 7.932 6.252 6.244
4 1 2.509 2.508 2.538 2.537 4.440 4.439 4.414 4.411
2 4.448 4.448 3.159 3.157 6.568 6.566 5.690 5.687
3 5.439 5.438 4.405 4.404 7.756 7.755 6.103 6.100
4 6.499 6.497 4.516 4.515 9.008 9.001 6.703 6.693
212 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

Table 3
The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of the isotropic conical shells with different semi-vertices (R1 1 m, Lcos 2 m, E 168 GPa, 5700 kg/m3, and 0.3).

H/R1 FF FC CF CC

Present ANASYS Present ANASYS Present ANASYS Present ANASYS

301 0.10 22.17 22.19 174.75 174.98 72.12 72.19 249.35 249.57
0.20 41.47 41.51 214.81 214.90 89.83 89.82 346.86 346.95
0.50 86.76 86.85 305.18 305.37 139.66 139.66 520.60 520.71
1.00 131.68 131.85 343.83 343.87 186.42 186.36 635.06 635.59
451 0.10 13.33 13.33 137.70 137.90 40.00 40.04 169.56 169.72
0.20 25.15 25.17 175.03 175.13 51.29 51.28 238.80 238.87
0.50 55.06 55.12 261.66 261.84 83.96 83.94 378.38 378.44
1.00 91.18 91.28 293.86 293.95 116.56 116.49 484.83 485.11
601 0.10 6.98 6.98 82.22 82.34 16.60 16.57 89.28 89.35
0.20 13.19 13.20 107.09 107.17 22.16 22.13 126.38 126.41
0.50 29.74 29.76 167.10 167.16 39.64 39.63 210.14 210.13
1.00 53.17 53.22 199.09 199.12 55.00 54.94 293.21 293.24

Table 4
The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of isotropic conical shells with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, Lcos 2 m, E 70 GPa, 2707 kg/m3, and 0.3).

H/R1 S1S1 S2S2 S3S3 CS2 CS3 E1E1 E2E2 E3E3

151 0.10 272.90 228.22 58.07 281.14 257.69 284.90 279.96 241.33
0.20 342.91 275.07 66.42 294.82 352.34 373.93 352.63 329.99
0.50 387.67 362.48 81.82 303.71 495.47 461.22 344.88 351.43
1.00 403.82 378.18 94.66 315.89 563.83 493.88 334.42 352.97
301 0.10 215.10 180.61 86.17 206.46 203.01 226.65 218.27 193.34
0.20 270.12 223.57 99.80 209.87 283.37 304.16 289.99 268.78
0.50 305.01 308.84 129.45 219.62 397.19 384.54 316.13 297.24
1.00 319.36 332.78 158.70 233.93 468.06 416.43 307.97 327.07
451 0.10 146.49 128.30 82.26 131.04 137.77 155.34 147.76 133.14
0.20 181.77 162.79 96.48 133.41 192.34 212.23 201.58 185.81
0.50 210.60 240.89 131.55 140.35 267.65 285.76 268.43 216.24
1.00 221.41 276.18 178.16 151.13 342.36 314.72 264.00 269.20
601 0.10 78.23 72.66 53.34 66.88 72.13 82.59 78.06 70.97
0.20 96.03 94.13 63.16 67.95 102.19 114.63 108.40 97.86
0.50 113.20 152.72 88.48 71.14 139.34 172.35 178.21 120.20
1.00 121.64 199.89 132.26 76.33 195.69 199.61 199.90 164.51
751 0.10 23.92 22.21 17.87 19.70 21.09 24.59 23.21 21.24
0.20 29.96 29.81 21.33 19.90 28.29 34.22 32.19 28.82
0.50 34.01 51.17 30.16 20.50 39.17 56.10 55.50 36.91
1.00 37.67 83.95 47.16 21.51 60.32 78.39 88.71 53.76

Table 5
The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells (Type I) with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, and Lcos 2 m).

H/R1 CC S1S1 S2S2 S3S3 CS2 E1E1 E2E2 E3E3

151 0.10 170.79 157.42 113.18 27.53 154.37 168.75 163.95 147.11
0.20 231.90 198.18 139.52 31.60 183.44 227.13 215.29 203.45
0.50 340.72 225.03 193.85 39.92 189.33 312.33 307.72 286.18
1.00 414.43 220.78 202.38 46.72 196.93 355.86 337.84 346.24
301 0.10 135.02 124.34 89.00 40.82 116.54 133.78 128.50 117.81
0.20 185.28 154.25 112.71 47.50 130.83 182.21 172.55 162.94
0.50 279.64 175.98 163.75 63.50 136.92 260.58 260.54 227.41
1.00 355.93 174.45 176.73 78.91 145.84 305.14 309.75 280.42
451 0.10 91.32 84.48 63.02 38.88 76.33 90.75 86.98 80.48
0.20 126.38 102.96 81.65 45.82 83.17 124.88 118.91 111.11
0.50 196.43 117.04 126.74 64.65 87.50 187.65 188.01 153.41
1.00 265.93 121.54 146.17 90.10 94.22 232.67 252.01 199.17
601 0.10 47.74 44.99 35.72 25.13 39.34 47.58 45.77 42.40
0.20 66.53 54.56 47.09 29.88 42.36 66.07 63.39 58.48
0.50 106.23 60.63 79.70 43.17 44.35 103.48 103.39 81.07
1.00 153.30 65.86 105.99 67.25 47.59 141.20 151.87 111.13
751 0.10 13.96 13.63 11.28 8.39 11.53 13.94 13.48 12.51
0.20 19.40 15.62 14.99 10.05 12.40 19.35 18.72 17.09
0.50 31.43 17.46 26.55 14.56 12.78 31.17 30.86 24.02
1.00 47.90 19.50 44.83 23.47 13.41 46.61 47.90 34.53
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 213

The differences between solutions form 13  13 and 14  14 are boundary conditions are considered. The comparisons of the
very small, and the maximum discrepancy is 0.02%. Thus, in the present results with those of 3-D solutions reported by Buchanan
following examples the truncated numbers will be uniformly and Wong [44] using a nite element method are presented. It is
selected as 13  13. seen that very good agreement of the results is obtained. Table 3
presents the fundamental frequencies of the conical shells with
3.2. Isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with various boundary different semi-vertex angles ( i.e. 301, 451 and 601). The conical
conditions shells also are made from zirconia with the following geometrical
data: R1 1 m, Lcos2 m and H/R1 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0. Four
In order to conrm the accuracy of the current method, kinds of boundary conditions (i.e. FF, FC, CF and CC) are
studies on free vibration of the conical shells with different considered. The results are compared with those of 3-D solutions
boundary conditions are carried out, and the present results are by using ANSYS with SOLID 45 elements. The comparisons show
compared with available solutions in the literature or obtained very good agreement.
by ANASYS. Table 2 shows the non-dimensional frequency para- The comparisons of the present results with those published in
p
meters L =G of isotropic conical shells with different literature and obtained from ANASYS in Tables 2 and 3 indicate
thickness-to-height H/L. The geometric parameters of the conical that the current analysis is accurate and reliable. Numerous new
shells are taken to be R1/L 0.25, 301, H/L 0.25 and 1. The results of the isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with different
conical shells are made from Zirconia. Young's modulus, mass boundary conditions including classical edges and elastic
density and Poisson's ratio for the zirconia are E 168 GPa, restraints are given. Table 4 shows the fundamental frequencies
5700 kg/m3, and 0.3. The completely free and clamped of isotropic conical shells with various boundary conditions (i.e.

Table 6
The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells (Type II) with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, and Lcos 2 m).

H/R1 CC S1S1 S2S2 S3S3 CS2 E1E1 E2E2 E3E3

151 0.10 229.96 224.62 214.83 72.72 194.49 227.39 219.94 203.76
0.20 271.38 259.60 260.46 82.74 196.62 266.04 263.99 237.89
0.50 372.24 330.95 302.30 93.40 202.55 354.71 344.51 321.34
1.00 432.32 353.76 331.19 97.71 210.67 404.68 349.11 367.03
301 0.10 185.43 181.59 174.51 105.22 137.69 184.13 180.73 170.27
0.20 223.16 212.68 211.29 120.59 139.97 219.07 215.51 198.66
0.50 313.02 271.76 258.06 140.14 146.47 298.55 296.24 271.93
1.00 374.77 295.67 293.25 153.96 156.01 348.35 320.40 314.35
451 0.10 127.64 124.84 121.32 96.33 87.39 126.95 125.19 118.32
0.20 158.40 150.65 149.10 111.17 88.97 156.10 152.59 144.06
0.50 233.37 196.20 195.63 134.64 93.60 224.25 220.89 205.83
1.00 283.79 219.79 235.73 158.00 100.79 262.24 263.07 236.57
601 0.10 69.71 68.10 65.18 58.95 44.60 69.46 68.11 65.25
0.20 87.33 82.96 82.25 68.61 45.32 86.55 84.20 81.07
0.50 133.34 111.41 116.28 88.05 47.45 129.54 126.65 115.54
1.00 170.47 119.59 153.51 112.89 50.91 158.78 163.77 142.50
751 0.10 21.37 20.95 19.51 18.08 13.14 21.32 20.35 20.00
0.20 26.91 25.60 25.47 21.36 13.27 26.81 26.02 25.17
0.50 40.69 33.68 37.34 29.65 13.67 40.03 39.36 35.32
1.00 57.94 36.38 55.38 42.84 14.35 55.65 56.87 49.01

Table 7
The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells (Type III) with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, and Lcos 2 m).

H/R1 CC S1S1 S2S2 S3S3 CS2 E1E1 E2E2 E3E3

151 0.10 253.10 189.64 170.45 38.00 194.49 240.83 244.35 183.62
0.20 362.08 212.42 210.05 47.52 196.62 320.55 344.21 261.97
0.50 460.17 226.94 218.22 56.32 202.55 371.73 354.55 390.23
1.00 489.29 209.59 197.06 53.96 210.67 382.51 349.10 453.62
301 0.10 203.91 144.97 138.93 57.97 137.69 195.14 197.12 145.10
0.20 302.26 161.40 173.31 75.65 139.97 268.73 290.08 210.45
0.50 401.82 174.43 182.48 93.58 146.47 322.05 325.43 328.30
1.00 434.25 167.09 170.57 91.73 156.00 333.25 320.39 390.36
451 0.10 139.11 96.96 102.35 56.82 87.39 134.83 135.10 97.90
0.20 215.35 107.21 133.76 78.61 88.97 195.95 209.25 143.86
0.50 311.01 119.04 145.61 109.17 93.60 252.51 276.81 235.96
1.00 345.90 116.24 141.11 111.86 100.79 265.46 273.35 297.51
601 0.10 72.28 51.47 60.27 37.16 44.60 71.15 70.59 50.97
0.20 116.99 56.29 88.10 53.02 45.32 110.78 114.86 75.57
0.50 193.11 64.89 104.78 92.69 47.45 163.22 188.93 130.64
1.00 230.06 65.48 104.94 108.61 50.91 181.40 206.11 181.20
751 0.10 20.52 14.87 19.08 12.56 13.14 20.43 20.14 14.83
0.20 33.91 16.19 30.84 17.21 13.27 33.40 33.51 21.91
0.50 66.76 19.46 54.89 33.68 13.67 62.11 66.39 39.34
1.00 96.12 21.40 58.78 56.19 14.35 82.22 95.55 62.78
214 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

S1S1, S2S2, S3S3, CS2, CS3, E1E1, E2E2 and E3E3). The conical Type I is dened as those subscripts 1, 2, 3 which denote r, , and s
shells are made from aluminum with material properties as: directions; Type II is considered to be those subscripts 1, 2, 3 which
E 70 GPa, 2707 kg/m3 and 0.3. Different thickness-to- denote , r, and s directions; and Type III is considered to be those
radius ratios (i.e. H/R1 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0) and semi-vertex angles subscripts 1, 2, 3 which denote s, , and r directions. The
(i.e. 151, 301, 401, 601, 751) are considered. The fundamental geometrical parameters of the conical shells are taken to be
frequencies of the orthotropic conical shells with various R1 1 m, Lcos 2 m, and 151, 301, 451, 601, and 751 and H/
boundary conditions are presented in Tables 57. The orthotropic R1 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0. Five types of classical edges (i.e. CC, S1
material properties of the conical shells are given as: S1, S2S2, S3S3, and CS2) and three types of elastic restraints (i.e.
E1 137.9 GPa, E2 8.963 GPa, E3 8.963 GPa, G12 7.101 GPa, E1E1, E2E2, E3E3) are studied. It is observed from tables that the
G23 6.205 GPa, G13 7.101 GPa, 12 0.3, 23 0.49, 13 0.3, and boundary conditions play a signicant role on the natural fre-
1605 kg/m3. Three types of ber orientations are considered. quencies of the isotropic and orthotropic conical shells. It is

Mode shapes 1-2 Mode shape 3

Mode shapes 4-5 Mode shapes 6-7


Fig. 2. Mode shapes of Al conical shells with CC boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

Mode shapes 1 mode shapes 2-3

Mode shapes 4-5 Mode shape 6


Fig. 3. Mode shapes of orthotropic conical shells (Type I) with FC boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 215

Mode shapes 1 mode shapes 2-3

Mode shapes 4-5 Mode shapes 6-7


Fig. 4. Mode shapes of orthotropic conical shells (Type II) with S3S3 boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

Mode shapes 1 Mode shapes 2-3

Mode shapes 4-5 Mode shape 6


Fig. 5. Mode shapes of orthotropic conical shells (Type III) with E2E2 boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

evident that the fundamental frequency is quite sensitive to the vertex angles . It is obvious that the fundamental frequencies of
change of the semi-vertex angle and thickness-to-radius ratios the conical shells decrease as the semi-vertex angle increases
H/R1. The mode shapes of the conical shells are illustrated in except in the case of the conical shells with S3S3 boundary
Figs. 25. condition. For the isotropic conical shell with S3S3 boundary
condition the fundamental frequency of the conical shell rst
3.3. Parametric studies increases then decreases with an increase in semi-vertex angle .
The effect of the semi-vertex angle on the natural frequencies of
In this section, the effects of the semi-vertex angle and the orthotropic conical shells is illustrated in Fig. 7. The variation
thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the natural frequencies of conical trends of fundamental frequencies of orthotropic conical with
shells are studied. Fig. 6 shows the variation of fundamental different ber orientations are similar. Fig. 8 shows the effect of
natural frequency of isotropic conical shells with different semi- the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the fundamental natural
216 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

frequencies of isotropic conical shells with different boundary III material subjected to S1S1, S3S3 and E2E2 boundary condi-
conditions. The fundamental natural frequencies of isotropic con- tions, the fundamental frequencies rst increase and then
ical shells with CC and S3S3 boundary conditions increase as decrease as the thickness-to-radius H/R1 increases.
the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 increases. The effect of the
thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the fundamental natural fre- 4. Conclusions
quencies of orthotropic conical shells with different boundary
conditions is demonstrated in Fig. 9. For the conical shells with In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) solution method is
Type II materials, the fundamental frequencies increase as the presented for the free vibration of isotropic and orthotropic
thickness-to-radius H/R1 increases. For the conical shells with Type conical shells with elastic boundary restraints. The formulation is

700 600
C-C
600 C-C S1-S1
S1-S1 500
S3-S3
500
Natural Frequency

3 3
S -S E2-E2

Natural frequency
400
E2-E2
400
300
300

200 200

100 100

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
H/R1
Fig. 6. Effect of the semi-vertex angle on the natural frequencies (Hz) of isotropic
conical shells with different boundary condition (H/R1 0.5, Lcos 2 m, and Fig. 8. Effect of the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the natural frequencies (Hz) of
R1 1 m). isotropic conical shells with different boundary condition (Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m,
and 301).

500 350
Type I Type I
300
400 Type II Type II
Type III 250 Type III
Natural frequency

Natural frequency

300 200

200 150

100
100
50

0 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Semi-vertex angle Semi-vertex angle

150 500
Type I Type I
Type II Type II
400
Type III Type III
Natural frequency

Natural frequency

100
300

200
50

100

0 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Semi-vertex angle Semi-vertex angle
Fig. 7. Effect of the semi-vertex angle on the natural frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells with different boundary condition (H/R1 0.5, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m):
(a) CC; (b) S1S1;(c) S3S3; and (d) E2E2.
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 217

450 300

400
250

Natural frequency
Natural frequency
350

300
200
250

200 Type I
150 Type I
Type II
150 Type III Type II
Type III
100 100
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
H/R1 H/R1

160 400

140 350
Type I

Natural frequency
Natural frequency

120 Type II 300


Type III
100 250

80 200
Type I
60 150 Type II
Type III
40 100
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
H/R1 H/R1

Fig. 9. Effect of the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the natural frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells with different boundary condition (Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and
301): (a) CC; (b) S1S1;(c) S3S3; and (d) E2E2.

derived by means of the RayleighRitz procedure based on the solution for other computational techniques in the future research.
three-dimensional elasticity theory. Displacement components The effects of the geometrical parameters, orthotropic properties
of the conical shells are represented by Fourier series in the and boundary conditions on free vibration of conical shells are
circumferential direction and a double Fourier cosine series illustrated.
and several supplementary functions in meridional and normal
directions. The supplementary functions in the form of the
product of a polynomial function and a single cosine series are
introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series Acknowledgment
representations. To validate the present method, the convergence
behavior is demonstrated, and comparisons with available results The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their
in the literature are performed. Numerous new results for the constructive comments. The authors gratefully acknowledge the
isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with elastic boundary nancial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of
conditions are presented, which can serve as the benchmark China (Nos. 51175098 and 51279035).

Appendix A. Detailed expressions for the stiffness matrix and mass matrix

The superscripts of the elements in the mass matrix Mij and stiffness matrix Kij are given as follows:

F F M 1  q m 1; G G M 1  q1 m1 1
f f M 1  l 1 m 1; g g M 1  l1  1 m1 1
~
f~ f Q 1  l 1 q 1; g~ g~ Q 1  l1  1 q1 1
The detailed expressions of elements in matrices Muu are:
Z L Z H
MFG
uu C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:1
0 0
218 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

Z L Z H
MFg
uu C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:2
0 0
Z L Z H
Fg
Muu C oo Rr; s cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:3
0 0

Z L Z H
Mfuu
G
C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s cos q1 sdrds A:4
0 0

Z L Z H
Mfuu
g
C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl1 s sdrds A:5
0 0

Z L Z H
fg
Muu C oo Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 sdrds A:6
0 0

Z L Z H
Mfuu
G
C oo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:7
0 0

Z L Z H
Mfuu
g
C oo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:8
0 0

Z L Z H
fg
Muu C oo Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:9
0 0

Z L Z H
~~
MFuuG Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:10
0 0

Z L Z H
~~
MFuug Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:11
0 0

Z L Z H
~~
Fg
Muu Soo Rr; s cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:12
0 0

Z L Z H
~~
MfuuG Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s cos q1 sdrds A:13
0 0

Z L Z H
~~
Mfuug Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl1 s sdrds A:14
0 0

Z L Z H
~~
Mfuug Soo Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 sdrds A:15
0 0

~~
Z L Z H
Mfuu
G
Soo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:16
0 0

~
Z L Z H
fg ~
Muu Soo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:17
0 0

~~
Z L Z H
fg
Muu Soo Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:18
0 0
The detailed expressions of elements in matrices Kuu are
2 3
c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s
6 c C =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s cos s 7
6 66 11 m m1 q q1 7
Z LZ H6 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m r cos q s cos q s
7
7
FG 6 1 7
Kuu
1
6 7drds A:19
0 6 c55 C 00 q q1 Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r sin q s sin q1 s 7
0
6 7
6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL  cos m r cos m r  1q q1  7
4 1 5
c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3
c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s
6 c C =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s s 7
Z LZ H6
6
66 11 m m1 q l1 s 7
7
Fg 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl s s  7
Kuu 6 1 7drds A:20
0 6 7
0
6 c55 C 00 q Rr; s cos m r cos m r sin q s' s  7
4 1 l1 s 5
c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 219

2 3
 c11 C 00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s
6 c C =Rr; s cos r r cos s cos s 7
6 66 11 m l1 r q q1 7
Z Z 6 7
L H 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m rl r r cos q s cos q s 7
Fg 6 7
A:21
1 1
Kuu 6 7drds
6 c55 C 00 q q1 Rr; s cos m rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7
0 0
6 7
6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL  cos m rl r r  1q q1  7
4 1 5
c12 C 00 cos m sin m rl1 r r  cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3
c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s
6 7
Z L Z H 6 c66 C 11 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Kfuu
G
6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls ss cos q1 s  7drds A:22
6 7
0 0 6 7
4 c55 C 00 q1 Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s sin q1 s  5
c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s

2 3
c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s
6 c C =Rr; s cos r cos r s s 7
Z LZ H6
6
66 11 m m1 ls l1 s 7
7
6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl s s 7
Kfuu
g
6 1 7drds A:23
6 7
0 0
6 c55 C 00 Rr; s cos m r cos m r' s' s  7
4 1 ls l1 s 5
c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s

2 3
 c11 C 00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s
6 7
6 c66 C 11 =Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Z L Z H 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r r s cos q s  7
6 l1 r ls 7
6 7drds
1
fg
Kuu 6 c C Rr; s cos r r' s sin s 7 A:24
0 0 6 55 00 q1 m l1 r ls q1 7
6 7
6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL  cos m rl r r  1 q q1
 7
4 1 5
c12 C 00 cos m sin m rl1 r r  cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s

2 3
 c11 C 00 m1 Rr; s' lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s
6 7
6 c66 C 11 =Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Z LZ 6 7
H 6c C
22 00 cos 2
=Rr; s lr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s 7
Kfuu
G
6 7drds A:25
6 c55 C 00 q q Rr; s r cos m r sin q s sin q s 7
0 0 6 1 lr 1 1 7
6 7
6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL lr r cos m1 r  1q q1  7
4 5
'
c12 C 00 cos  lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3
 c11 C 00 m1 Rr; slr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s
6 c C =Rr; s r cos r cos s s 7
6 66 11 lr m1 q l1 s 7
Z LZ H6 7
6 c C cos 2 =Rr; s r cos m r cos q s s  7
fg
Kuu 6 22 00 lr 1 l1 s 7drds A:26
6 7
0 0 6 ' 7
6 c55 C 00 q Rr; slr r cos m1 r sin q s l1 s s  7
4 5
'
c12 C 00 cos  lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

2 3
c11 C 00 Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s
6 7
6 c66 C 11 =Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Z L Z H 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; slr rl r r cos q s cos q s 7
6 7
6 7drds
1 1
fg
Kuu 6 c55 C 00 q q1 Rr; slr rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7 A:27
0 0 6 7
6 C Rr; 0k Rr; Lk  r r  1 q q
7
6 00 uo uL lr l1 r
1
7
4 5
'
c12 C 00 cos lr rl1 r r lr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3
c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s
6 c S =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s cos s 7
6 66 11 m m1 q q1 7
Z Z 6 7
L H 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m r cos q s cos q s 7
~~ 6 7
KFuuG
1 1
6 7drds A:28
6 c55 S00 q q1 Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r sin q s sin q1 s 7
0 0
6 7
6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL  cos m r cos m r  1q q1  7
4 1 5
c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s
220 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

2 3
c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s
6 c S =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s s 7
Z Z 6 66 11 m m1 q l1 s 7
L H 6 7
~~ 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl s s  7
KFuug 6 1 7drds A:29
6 7
0 0
6 c55 S00 q Rr; s cos m r cos m r sin q s s 
' 7
4 1 l1 s 5
c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

2 3
 c11 S00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s
6 c s =Rr; s cos r r cos s cos s 7
6 66 11 m l1 r q q1 7
6
Z L Z H 6 c S cos 2 =Rr; s cos r r cos s cos s 7
7
F~ g~ 6 22 00 m l1 r q q1 7
Kuu 6 7drds A:30
0 6 c55 S00 q q1 Rr; s cos m rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7
0
6 7
6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL  cos m rl r r  1q q1  7
4 1 5
c12 S00 cos m sin m rl1 r r  cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3
c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s
6 c66 S11 =Rr; s cos m r cos m r s cos q s 7
Z Z 6 1 ls 1 7
~~
L H 6 7
KfuuG 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls ss cos q1 s  7drds A:31
6 7
0 0 6 c S Rr; s cos r cos r s sin s  7
4 55 00 q1 m m1 ls q1 5
c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s

2 3
c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s
6 c S =Rr; s cos r cos r s s 7
Z Z 6 66 11 m m1 ls l1 s 7
L H 6 7
f~ g~ 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl s s 7
Kuu 6 1 7drds A:32
6 7
0 0
6 c55 S00 Rr; s cos m r cos m r' s' s  7
4 1 ls l1 s 5
c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s

2 3
 c11 S00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s
6 7
6 c66 S11 =Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Z LZ 6
H 6 c22 S00 cos =Rr; s cos m rl r rls s cos q1 s 
2 7
~~ 7
fg
Kuu 6 1
7drds A:33
6 c S Rr; s cos r r' s sin s 7
0 0 6 55 00 q1 m l1 r ls q1 7
6 7
6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL  cos m rl r r 1q q1  7
4 1 5
c12 S00 cos m sin m rl1 r r  cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s

2 3
 c11 S00 m1 Rr; s' lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s
6 7
6 c66 S11 =Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Z LZ H 6 7
~~ 6 c22 S00 cos =Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s
2
7
fG
Kuu 6 7drds A:34
6 7
0 0 6 c55 S00 q q1 Rr; slr r cos m1 r sin q s sin q1 s 7
6 7
6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL lr r cos m1 r 1q q1  7
4 5
'
c12 S00 cos  lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3
 c11 S00 m1 Rr; slr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s
6 c S =Rr; s r cos r cos s s 7
6 66 11 lr m1 q l1 s 7
Z Z 6 7
~
f g~
L H 6 c S cos 2 =Rr; s r cos m r cos q s s  7
Kuu 6 22 00 lr 1 l1 s 7drds A:35
6 7
0 0 6 ' 7
6 c55 S00 q Rr; slr r cos m1 r sin q s l1 s s  7
4 5
'
c12 S00 cos  lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

2 3
c11 S00 Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s
6 7
6 c66 S11 =Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s 7
6 7
Z LZ 6
H 6 c22 S00 cos =Rr; slr rl r r cos q s cos q1 s
2 7
~~ 7
fg
Kuu 6 1
7drds A:36
6 c S Rr; slr rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7
0 0 6 55 00 q q1 7
6 S Rr; 0k Rr; Lk  r r 1q q1 7
6 00 uo uL lr l1 r 7
4 5
'
c12 S00 cos lr rl1 r r lr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s
Where
Z 2 i j Z 2 i j
d cos n d cos n d sin n d sin n
C ij d; Sij d
0 di dj 0 di dj
G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 221

Reference [23] Goldberg JE, Bogdanoff JL, Marcus L. On the calculation of the axisymmetric
modes and frequencirs of conical shells. J Acoust Soc Am 1960;32:73842.
[24] Irie T, Yamada G, Kaneko Y. Free vibration of a conical shell with variable
[1] Loy CT, Lam KY, Reddy JN. Vibration of functionally graded cylindrical shells. thickness. J Sound Vib 1982;82:8394.
Int J Mech Sci 1999;41:30924. [25] Irie T, Yamada G, Kaneko Y. Natural frequencies of truncated conical shells. J
[2] Jin GY, Ma XL, Shi SX, Ye TG, Liu ZG. A modied Fourier series solution for Sound Vib 1984;92:44753.
vibration analysis of truncated conical shells with general boundary condi- [26] Tong LY. Free vibration of orthotropic conical shells. Int J Eng Sci
tions. Appl Acoust 2014;85:8296. 1993;31:71933.
[3] Ye TG, Jin GY, Chen YH, Shi SX. A unied formulation for vibration analysis of [27] Shu C. An efcient apporach for free vibration analysis of conical shells. Int J
open shells with arbitrary boundary conditions. Int J Mech Sci 2014;81:4259. Mech Sci 1996;38:93549.
[4] Jin GY, Xie X, Liu ZG. The Haar wavelet method for free vibration analysis of [28] Liew KM, Ng TY, Zhao X. Free vibration analysis of conical shells via the
functionally graded cylindrical shells based on the shear deformation theory. element-free kp-Ritz method. J Sound Vib 2005;281:62745.
Compos Struct 2014;108:43548. [29] Soyev AH, Omurtag MH, Schnack E. The vibration and stability of orthotropic
[5] Tornabene F. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded conical, cylindrical
conical shells with non-homogeneous material properties under a hydrostatic
shell and annular plate structures with a four-parameter power-law distribu-
pressure. J Sound Vib 2009;319:96383.
tion. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2009;198:291135.
[30] Soyev AH, Kuruoglu N, Halilov HM. The vibration and stability of non-
[6] Tornabene F, Viola E, Inman DJ. 2-D differential quadrature solution for
homogeneous orthotropic conical shells with clamped edges subjected to
vibration analysis of functionally graded conical, cylindrical and annular plate
uniform external pressures. Appl Math Model 2010;34:180722.
structures. J Sound Vib 2009;328:25990. [31] Li FM, Kishimoto K, Huang WH. The calculations of natural frequencies and
[7] Buchanan GR, Yii CBY. Effect of symmetrical boundary conditions on the forced vibration responses of conical shell using the Rayleigh-Ritz method.
vibration of thick hollow cylinders. Appl Acoust 2002;63:54766. Mech Res Commun 2009;36:595602.
[8] Zhu P, Zhang LW, Liew KM. Geometrically nonlinear thermomechanical [32] Kalnins A. Free vibration of rotatonally symmetric shells. J Acoust Soc Am
analysis of moderately thick functionally graded plates using a local Petrov- 1964;36:135565.
Galerkin approach with moving Kriging interpolation. Compos Struct [33] Sivadas KR. Vibration snalysis of pre-stressed rotating thick circular conical
2014;107:298314. shell. J Sound Vib 1995;186:99109.
[9] Zhang LW, Zhu P, Liew KM. Thermal buckling of functionally graded plates [34] Lam KY, Li H. Vibration analysis of a rotating truncated circular conical shell.
using a local Kriging meshless method. Compos Struct 2014;108:47292. Int J Solids Struct 1997;34:218397.
[10] Zhang LW, Lei ZX, Liew KM, Yu JL. Static and dynamic of carbon nanotube [35] Lam KY, Li H. Inuence of boundary conditions on the frequency characteristics
reinforced functionally graded cylindrical panels. Compos Struct 2014;111: of a rotating truncated circular conical shell. J Sound Vib 1999;223:17195.
20512. [36] Lam KY, Li H. On free vibration of a rotating truncated circular orthotropic
[11] Lei ZX, Zhang LW, Liew KM, Yu JL. Dynamic stability analysis of carbon conical shell. Compos Part B: Eng 1999;30:13544.
nanotube-reinforced functionally graded cylindrical panels using element-free [37] Li H. Frequency analysis of rotating truncated circular orthotropic conical
kp-Ritz method. Compos Struct 2014;113:32838. shells with different boundary conditions. Compos Sci Tech 2000;60:294555.
[12] Liew KM, Lei ZX, Yu JL, Zhang LW. Postbucking of carbon nanotube-reinforced [38] Civalek . An efcient method for free vibration analysis of rotating truncated
functionally graded cylindrical panels under axial compression using a conical shells. Int J Press Vessels Pip 2006;83:112.
meshless approach. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2014;268:117. [39] Liew KM, Lim MK, Lim CW, Li DB, Zhang YR. Effects of initial twist and
[13] Zhang LW, Lei ZX, Liew KM, Yu JL. Large deection geometrically nonlinear thickness variation on the vibration behaviour of shallow conical shells. J
analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded cylindrical panels. Sound Vib 1995;180:27196.
Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2014;273:118. [40] Lim CW, Liew KM. Vibration behavior of shallow conical shells by a global Ritz
[14] Zhang LW, Deng YJ, Liew KM. An improved element-free Galerkin method for formulation. Eng Struct 1995;17:6370.
numerical modeling of the biological population problems. Eng Anal Bound [41] Lim CW, Liew KM. Vibration of shallow conical shells with shear exibility: a
Elem 2014;40:1818. rst-order theory. Int J Solids Struct 1996;33:45168.
[15] Cheng RJ, Zhang LW, Liew KM. Modeling of biological population problems [42] Leissa AW, Kang JH. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of thick shells of
using the element-free kp-Ritz method. Appl Math Comput 2014;227:27490. revolution. J Eng Mech 1999;125:136571.
[16] Civalek O. Numerical analysis of free vibrations of laminated composite conical [43] Kang JH, Leissa AW. Three-dimensional vibration of hollow cones and
and cylindrical shells: Discrete singular convolution (DSC) approach. J Comput cylinders with linear thickness variations. J Acoust Soc Am 1999;106:74855.
Appl Math 2007;205:25171. [44] Buchanan GR, Wong FT-I. Frequencies and mode shapes for thick truncated
[17] Qatu MS. Vibration of Laminated Shells and Plates. San Diego: Elsevier; 2004. hollow cones. Int J Mech Sci 2001;43:281531.
[18] Reddy JN. Mechanics of Laminated Composites Plates and Shells. Florida: CRC [45] Kang JH, Leissa AW. Three-dimensional vibrations of solid cones with and
Press; 2003. without an axial circular cylindrical hole. Int J Solids Struct 2004;41:373546.
[19] Carrera E, Brischetto S, P. Nali. Plates and Shells for Smart Structures: Classical [46] Jin GY, Su Z, Shi SX, Ye TG, Gao SY. Three-dimensional exact solution for the
and Advanced Theories for Modeling and Analysis. New York: John Wiley & free vibration of arbitrarily thick functionally graded rectangular plates with
Sons; 2011. general boundary conditions. Compos Struct 2014;108:56577.
[20] Leissa AW, Qatu MS. Vibrations of Continuous Systems. New York: McGraw [47] Su Z, Jin GY, Shi SX, Ye TG, Jia XZ. A unied solution for vibration analysis of
Hills; 2011. functionally graded cylindrical, conical shells and annular plates with general
[21] Saunders H, Wisniewski EJ, Paslay PR. Vibration of conical shells. J Acoust Soc boundary conditions. Int J Mech Sci 2014;80:6280.
Am 1960;32:76572. [48] Su Z, Jin GY, Shi SX, Ye TG. A unied accurate solution for vibration analysis of
[22] Garnet H, Kemper J. Axisymmetric free vibration of conical shells. J Appl Mech arbitrary functionally graded spherical shell segments with general end
1964;31:45866. restraints. Compos Struct 2014;111:27184.

View publication stats