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discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266972901

isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with

elastic boundary restraints

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.09.005

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International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

conical shells with elastic boundary restraints

Guoyong Jin n, Zhu Su n, Tiangui Ye, Xingzhao Jia

College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, PR China

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, a three-dimensional (3-D) solution method is presented for the free vibration of isotropic

Received 16 March 2014 and orthotropic conical shells with elastic boundary restraints. The formulation is derived by means of

Received in revised form the RayleighRitz procedure based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory. Displacement compo-

19 July 2014

nents of the conical shells are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and a double

Accepted 10 September 2014

Available online 21 September 2014

Fourier cosine series supplemented with several auxiliary functions in thickness and meridional

directions. The supplementary functions in the form of the product of a polynomial function and a

Keywords: single cosine series are introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series representa-

Isotropic and orthotropic tions. To validate the present method, the convergence behavior is demonstrated, and several

Conical shell

comparisons of the numerical results with those published in the literature and obtained by ANASYS

Three-dimensional elasticity theory

are performed. Numerous new results for the isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with elastic

Free vibration

Elastic boundary restraints boundary conditions are presented. The effects of the geometrical parameters, orthotropic properties

and boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of conical shells are illustrated.

& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

monographs respectively by Qatu [17], Reddy [18], Carrera et al.

Shell structures are extensively used in various engineering [19], and Leiss and Qatu [20].

applications, particularly in aerospace, marine and structural As one of the common shell structures, conical shells play a

engineering. In order to ensure a reliable design, a detailed signicant role in many industrial elds. However, compared with

understanding of their dynamic characteristics must rst be the studies of the cylindrical shells, the literature about conical

determined. In the past several decades, various shell theories shells is limited. Most investigations [2141] were carried out

and different computational methods have been proposed and based on 2-D theories. Saunders et al. [21] applied RayleighRitz

developed by researchers in order to predict the vibration beha- method to compute the frequencies for free vibration of isotropic

vior of the shells. The shell theories mainly include three- thin conical shells with free or simply supported boundary

dimensional (3-D) elasticity theory and two-dimensional (2-D) condition. Garnet and Kemper [22] also employed this method

theories which reduce the dimensions of the shell problem from to study the lowest axisymmetric modes of truncated conical

three to two by making certain hypotheses regarding the stress shells, and the transverse shear deformation and rotatory inertia

and strain elds along the thickness of the shell and can be effects are accounted for. The axisymmetric modes and natural

classied into three main categories: classical shell theory (CST), frequencies of isotropic thin conical shells were obtained by

rst-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order Goldberg et al. [23] using numerical intergration method and

shear deformation theory (HSDT). A number of computational classical shell theory (CST). Tong [26] developed the power series

methods have been proposed and developed, such as Rayleigh expansion approach to analyze free vibration of isotropic and

Ritz method [13], Haar wavelet method [4], differential quad- orthotropic conical shells. Free vibration of isotropic conical shells

rature method [5,6], nite element method [7], meshless methods was studied by Shu [27] using a global method of generalized

[815] and discrete singular convolution method [1638]. More differential quadrature (GDQ) on the basis of classical shell theory

(CST) and two types of boundary conditions were considered

including simply supported and clamped edges. Free vibration

n analysis of thin isotropic conical shells under different classical

Corresponding authors. Tel.: 86 451 82569458; fax: 86 451 82518264.

E-mail addresses: guoyongjin@hrbeu.edu.cn (G. Jin), boundary conditions was carried out by Liew et al. [28] using

xiuzhu0403@163.com (Z. Su). the element-free kp-Ritz method based on CST, and the kernel

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.09.005

0020-7403/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

208 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

dimensional displacement eld. Soyec et al. [29] studied the

vibration and stability of non-homogeneous orthotropic conical

shells subjected to hydrostatic pressure using the Garlerkin

method in the context of CST, in which the material properties

of conical shells vary continuously in the thickness direction. The

free and forced vibration of isotropic conical shells were studied by

Li et al. [31] by the means of Hamilton's principle in conjunction

with the RayleighRitz method based on the rst-order shear

deformation theory (FSDT). Some researchers [3238] have ana-

lyzed the free vibration of the rotating conical shells by different

methods. Liew et al. [39] and Lim and Liew [40,41] investigated the

Fig. 1. Coordinate system and geometry of a conical shell.

free vibration of shallow conical shell using pb-2 Ritz method on

the basis of shallow shell theories. There is a limited amount of

literature [4245] concerning the vibration analysis of conical and the distance of P from the axis of revolution is expressed as

shells based on 3-D elasticity theory. Leissa and Kang [42] and

Rr; s Rr; s cos s sin R1 r cos

Kang and Leissa [43] presented a three-dimensional method of

analysis for determining the free vibration frequencies and mode

shapes of thick shells with variable thickness. The relations of the Cartesian coordinates (i.e. x, y and z) and

From the review of the literature, the available 3-D elasticity the curvilinear coordinates (i.e. r, and s) are given as

solutions for the vibration problems of isotropic and orthotropic

x Rr; s cos cos Rr; s cos ;

conical shells are relatively scarce, and most of the previous

y Rr; s cos sin Rr; s sin ;

studies regarding the conical shells are conned to the classical

boundary conditions. However, elastic boundaries are often z s cos r sin

encountered in engineering applications, and there is a consider-

able lack of corresponding research regarding elastic boundary

conditions. 2.2. Energy functional

In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) solution method is

presented for the free vibration of isotropic and orthotropic According to 3-D elasticity theory, the linear relations between

conical shells with elastic boundary restraints, which can be strains and displacements of an elastic body are given as follows:

considered as an extension of the authors' previous works [4648].

1 u 1 H 1 1 H 1 1 v 1 H 2 1 H 2

The formulation is derived by means of the RayleighRitz proce- rr v w; w u

H 1 r H 1 H 2 H 1 H 3 s H 2 H 2 H 3 s H H r

dure based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory. Displace- 2 1

1 w 1 H 3 1 H 3 H2 v H3 w

ment components of the conical shells are represented by Fourier ss u w; s ;

H 3 s H 3 H 1 r H 3 H 2 H 3 s H 2 H 2 H 3

series in the circumferential direction and a double Fourier cosine H3 w H1 u H2 v H1 u

rs ; r 1

series supplemented with auxiliary functions in meridional and H 1 r H 3 H 3 s H 1 H 1 r H 2 H 2 H 1

normal directions. The supplementary functions in the form of the

where H1, H2 and H3 are the Lam coefcients. For the conical

product of a polynomial function and a single cosine series are

shell, the Lam coefcients are given as

introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series

" 2 2 #1=2

representations. To validate the present method, the convergence x 2 y z

H1 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 1=2 1

behavior is demonstrated, and comparisons with available results r r r

in the literature are performed. Numerous new results for the " 2 2 #1=2

x 2 y z

isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with elastic boundary H2 Rr; s2 sin 2 Rr; s2 cos 2 1=2 Rr; s

conditions are presented. The effects of the geometrical para- " 2 2 #1=2

x 2 y z

meters, orthotropic properties and boundary conditions on free H3

2 2 2

sin cos 2 sin sin cos 2 1=2 1

s s s

vibration of conical shells are illustrated.

2

2. Theoretical formulations

Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1), the straindisplacement rela-

tions of a conical shell can be depicted as

2.1. Description of model

u 1 v sin cos w

rr ; w u; ss ;

Let us consider a conical shell with slant height L, thickness H, r R R R s

semi-vertex angle . The curvilinear coordinate system composed v 1 w sin w u v 1 u cos

s v; rs ; r v

of coordinates r, , and s is introduced as shown in Fig. 1, which s R R r s r R R

can be derived from the Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, and z). 3

The coordinates r and s along the thickness and meridional

directions are measured from the small edge and inner surface Based on Hooke's law, the relations of the stresses and strains

of the conical shell. The conical shell domain is bounded by can be expressed as

0 rr rH, 0 r r2, 0r srL. R1 and R2 are the radii of the inner

rr c11 rr c12 c13 ss

surface of conical shell at the small and large ends. The displace-

c12 rr c22 c23 ss

ments of the conical shell are denoted by u, v, and w in r, and s

directions, respectively. The radius of curvature in the circumfer- ss c13 rr c23 c33 ss

ential direction at any point P is given by s c44 s ; rs c55 rs ; r c66 r 4

where cij i; j 1; 2; 6 are the elastic stiffness coefcients. For the

Rr; s s tan R1 = cos r orthotropic, three-dimensional conical shell, the elastic stiffness

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 209

coefcients can be expressed as where is the mass density per volume, and the over dots denote

c11 Er 1 s s ; c12 E r rs s time derivatives.

In this work, the edges of the conical shells are restrained by

c22 E 1 rs sr ; c23 Es s r rs

springs to simulate the given or typical boundary conditions. The

c33 Es 1 r r ; c31 Er sr s r

boundary conditions of thick shell can be dened as [20]

c44 Gs ; c55 Grs ; c66 Gr 5

where 1=1 r r s s sr rs r s sr r rs s . Acco- sr1 sr or u1 u

rding to the Maxwell reciprocity relations s1 s or v1 v

ss1 ss or w1 w

r E r Er ; rs Es sr Er ; s E s Es 6

where sr1, s1, and ss1 represent shear and normal stresses at

ends with s constant. u1, v1, w1 are the displacement functions at

The isotropic, three-dimensional conical shell can be consid- ends, respectively. Therefore, three sets of independent linear

ered as a special case in which springs (ku, kv, and kw) in r, and s directions are introduced,

c11 c22 c33 2G and the boundary conditions for the ends can be expressed as

c12 c13 c21 c23 c31 c32

ku0 u sr ; kv0 v s ; kw0 w ss at s 0

c44 c55 c66 G 7

kuL u sr ; kvL v s ; kwL w ss at s L

where ku0, kv0, kw0, kuL, kvL and kwL are the stiffnesses of the spring.

where

The general boundary conditions can be obtained by assuming

E E spring stiffness equal to proper value. For example, the free

;G

1 1 2 21 boundary condition corresponds to the case in which the spring

stiffness is set equal to zero. On the contrary, for the clamped edge,

and E and represent Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. the stiffness is innite. For computational purposes, innity is

The strain energy U of the conical shell can be expressed in the represented by a very large spring value, i.e. 1 1015 N m 3. The

integral form as potential energy L of the elastic reactions of the springs is

calculated as

1

U V rr rr ss ss s s sr sr r r dV

2

Z Z Z Z Z

1 L 2 H 1 2 H

rr rr ss ss s s sr sr r r Rr; sdrdds L Rr; 0ku0 u2 kv0 v2 kw0 w2 s 0

2 0 0 2 0 0

0

Substituting Eqs. (3) and (4) into Eq. (8), the strain energy U can

be written as T U L 12

Z Z Z h

1 L 2 H u2 1 v sin cos

2 uw

U c11 r c22 R R w R u c13 c31 r s

2 0 0 0

2 2.3. Admissible displacement functions

1 v sin cos

u w

c12 c21 w c33

u

R R rR s

Considering the circumferential symmetry of the conical shells

1 v sin cos w w u 2 in the coordinate , the 3-D problem of the conical shell can be

c23 c32 w u c55

R R R s r s transformed to 2-D analysis by using the Fourier series in

2

v 1 w sin v 1 u cos 2 circumferential direction. In this study, a 2-D modied Fourier

c44 v c66 v Rr; sdrdds

s R R r R R cosine series which is constructed as the linear superposition of a

9 double Fourier cosine series and several supplementary functions

are employed in the thickness and meridional directions. The

The kinetic energy T of the conical shell is given as supplementary functions are used to remove the potential dis-

T V u_ 2 v_ 2 w

_ 2 dV continuities with the displacements and their derivatives. The

2 displacements of the conical shell can be expressed in the follow-

Z Z Z

L 2 H 2

ing forms [4648]:

u_ v_ 2 w

_ 2 Rr; wdrddz 10

2 0 0 0

8 N M Q 2 M 2 Q

9

>

> ~ >

>

>

> A mnq cos m r cos q s a lmn ls cos m r a lnq lr cos q s cos n >

>

< n 0 m 0q 0 =

l 1m 0 l 1q 0 13:a

eit

>

> N M Q 2 M 2 Q

~ >

>

>

> A cos r cos s a cos r a cos s sin n >

>

: mnq m q lmn ls m lnq lr q ;

n 1 m 0q 0 l 1m 0 l 1q 0

vr; ; s; t V r; ; sejt

8 N M Q 2 M 2 Q

9

> >

> Bmnq cos m r cos q s blmn ls cos m r b~ lnq lr cos q s sin n >

>

> >

>

< n 1 m 0q 0 =

l 1m 0 l 1q 0 13:b

eit

> N M Q 2 M 2 Q >

> Bmnq cos m r cos q s blmn ls cos m r b~ lnq lr cos q s cos n >

>

> >

>

: ;

n 0 m 0q 0 l 1m 0 l 1q 0

210 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

8 N M Q 2 M 2 Q

9

>

> ~ >

>

>

> C mnq cos m r cos q s c lmn ls cos m r c lnq lr cos q s cos n >

>

< n 0 m 0q 0 =

l 1m 0 l 1q 0 13:c

eit

>

> N M Q 2 M 2 Q

~ >

>

>

> C cos r cos s c cos r c cos s sin n >

>

: mnq m q lmn ls m lnq lr q ;

n 1 m 0q 0 l 1m 0 l 1q 0

2 ~ ~ 3

KFG KFg KFijg KijFG KijFg KijF g

where denotes the natural frequency of the conical shell, t is the 6 ij ij

7

6 fG ~ ~ 7

time variable, the nonnegative 6K Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kijf g Kijf g 7

p integer n represents the circumfer- 6 ij 7

ential wave number, j 1, m m=H and q q=L. M and Q 6 ~ 7

6 fG ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ 7

are the Fourier series truncated numbers, and N is the maximum 6 Kij Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kfijg Kfijg 7

6 7

Kij 6 FG ~ 7 20

wave number. Amnq , almn , a~ lnq , Amnq , almn , a~ lnq , Bmnq , blmn , b~ lnq , Bmnq , 6K KFg

~

KFijg KijFG KijFg KijF g 7

~ 6 ij 7

blmn , blnq , C mnq , clmn , c~ lnq , C mnq , clmn and c~ lnq are Fourier coefcients

ij

6 7

6 fG ~ f g~ 7

to be determined. The closed-form functions lr and ls are dened 6 Kij Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kijf g Kij 7

6 7

separately over [0, H] and [0, L] and the supplementary functions 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ 5

~

are introduced to remove any potential discontinuities of the KfijG Kfijg Kfijg Kijf G Kijf g Kijf g

original displacements and their relevant derivatives, and accel-

2 3

erate the convergence of the series representations. Based on the ~

MFG

ij MFg MijF g 0 0 0

3-D elasticity theory, the displacements of the conical shells have 6 ij

7

6 fG ~ 7

at least continuous two-order derivatives at any point in the shell 6 Mij Mfijg Mijf g 0 0 0 7

6 7

space. Therefore, the closed-form functions lr and ls are dened 6 f~ G ~ ~~ 7

6M Mfijg Mfijg 0 0 0 7

6 ij 7

as in the following form: 6 7

Mij 6 F g~ 7 21

r 2 r2 r 6 0 0 0 MijFG MijFg Mij 7

6 7

1r r r 1 ; 2r r 1 6 ~ 7

H H H 6 0 0 0 Mijf G Mijf g Mfijg 7

s 2 6 7

s2 s 6

4 ~~ 5

7

1s s s 1 ; 2s s 1 14 ~ ~

L L L 0 0 0 Mijf G Mijf g Mfijg

indicate the location of corresponding Fourier coefcients. In order

1r 0 1r H 01r H 0; 01r 0 1

to clarify the calculations of the sub-matrices Mij and Kij , the

2r 0 2r H 02r 0 0; 02r H 1 detailed expressions for elements in typical matrices Muu and Kuu

1s 0 1s L 01s L 0; 01s 0 1 are given in Appendix A.

2s 0 2s L 02s 0 0; 02s L 1 15 All eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be calculated from

Eq. (16). It is mentioned that the elements of eigenvectors are

It can be proven that derivatives of the expansions given in Eq. the Fourier coefcients, and the mode shapes can be easily

(13) can be obtained simply through term-by-term differentiation. obtained by substituting the eigenvectors into Eq. (13).

The eigenvalue problem is formulated by minimizing the total 3. Computed results and discussion

energy functional with respect to the Fourier coefcients.

Substituting Eqs. (9)-(11) and (13) into Eq. (12), and performing In this section, several examples on free vibration analysis of

the RayleighRitz operation, a set of linear algebraic equation isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with different geometric

against the unknown coefcients can be obtained as and material parameters are presented to demonstrate the con-

2 38 9 2 38 9 vergence, accuracy and reliability of the present method. Different

Kuu Kuv Kuw > au > Muu 0 0

< = < au >

> =

6 K 7 6 7 boundary conditions including classical restraints and elastic

4 uv Kvv Kvw 5 bv 4 0 Mvv 0 5 bv 0 16

> > > > supports are considered. The free boundary (F) implies that the

Kuw Kvw Kww : cw ; 0 0 Mww : cw ;

two ends of conical shells are stress-free in all coordinate direc-

where tions (i.e. sr s ss 0), and the clamped boundary (C) is

dened as that all displacement components at the end face are

au A000 ; ; Amnq ; ; AMNQ ; al00 ; ; alnm ; ; alNM ; a~ l00 ; ; a~ lnq ; ; a~ lNQ ;

i restrained (i.e.u v w 0). The simply-supported boundary con-

A000 ; ; Amnq ; ; AMNQ ; al10 ; ; alnm ; ; alNM ; a~ l10 ; ; a~ lnq ; ; a~ lNQ ditions have a variety of interpretations, and in the present work

17 three types of simply-supported boundary conditions are consid-

ered: simply-supported I (S1) is completely supported in the and

h

bu B000 ; ; Bmnq ; ; BMNQ ; bl10 ; ; blnm ; ; blNM ; b~ l10 ; ; b~ lnq ; ; b~ lNQ ; s directions with full slip along the r direction (i.e. v w 0;

i sr 0); simply-supported II (S2) is only free in directions

~ ~ ~

B000 ; ; Bmnq ; ; BMNQ ; bl00 ; ; blnm ; ; blNM ; bl00 ; ; blnq ; ; blNQ (i.e. u w 0; s 0); and simply-supported III (S3) is the stan-

18 dard shear diaphragm case (i.e. u v 0; ss 0). Three types of

elastic boundary conditions (i.e. E1, E2, E3) are also studied in this

cu C 000 ; ; C mnq ; ; C MNQ ; cl00 ; ; clnm ; ; clNM ; c~ l00 ; ; c~ lnq ; ; c~ lNQ ; section: E1 is only elastically restrained in r direction (i.e.

i v w 0; u a 0); E2 is dened to be elastic in directions (i.e.

C 000 ; ; C mnq ; ; C MNQ ; cl00 ; ; clnm ; ; clNM ; c~ l00 ; ; c~ lnq ; ; c~ lNQ

u w 0; v a 0); and E3 is considered to be elastic in s direction (i.

19 e. u v 0; w a 0). The corresponding spring stiffnesses of the

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 211

F : ku kv kw 0; C : ku kv kw 1 1015 numbers M and Q, the convergence of the present method must be

p the rst 10 non-dimensional frequency

checked. Table 1 shows

S1 : kv kw 1 1015 ; ku 0; S2 : ku kw 1 1015 ; kv 0

parameters L =G of isotropic conical shells subjected to

CF boundary with different thickness-to-radius ratios H/R1. The

S3 : ku kv 1 1015 ; kw 0; E1 : kv kw 1 1015 ; ku 1 1010

conical shells are made from material with the following proper-

ties: E 168 GPa, 5700 kg/m3 and 0.3. The geometric para-

meters of the conical shells are taken to be H/R1 0.1, 0.2 and

E2 : ku kw 1 1015 ; kv 1 1010 ; E3 : ku kv 1 1015 ; kw 1 1010

0.5, Lcos2 m, R1 1 m and 301. It is observed that the

22

current method has stable monotonic convergence characteristics.

Table 1

p

The non-dimensional frequency parameters L =G of isotropic conical shells with different thickness-to-radius ratios H/R1 (Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, 301, E 168 GPa,

3

5700 kg/m , and 0.3; and boundary condition: CF).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.1 10 10 0.3111 0.3111 0.3196 0.3196 0.4645 0.4645 0.5453 0.5453 0.6979 0.6979

11 11 0.3109 0.3109 0.3194 0.3194 0.4644 0.4644 0.5452 0.5452 0.6978 0.6978

12 12 0.3109 0.3109 0.3193 0.3193 0.4643 0.4643 0.5451 0.5451 0.6977 0.6977

13 13 0.3108 0.3108 0.3191 0.3191 0.4643 0.4643 0.5449 0.5449 0.6976 0.6976

14 14 0.3108 0.3108 0.3191 0.3191 0.4642 0.4642 0.5449 0.5449 0.6975 0.6975

0.2 10 10 0.3876 0.3876 0.5133 0.5133 0.5734 0.5734 0.8441 0.8441 0.9656 1.2821

11 11 0.3874 0.3874 0.5132 0.5132 0.5732 0.5732 0.8440 0.8440 0.9656 1.2819

12 12 0.3873 0.3873 0.5131 0.5131 0.5731 0.5731 0.8439 0.8439 0.9656 1.2818

13 13 0.3871 0.3871 0.5131 0.5131 0.5730 0.5730 0.8438 0.8438 0.9656 1.2817

14 14 0.3871 0.3871 0.5130 0.5130 0.5729 0.5729 0.8438 0.8438 0.9656 1.2817

0.5 10 10 0.6024 0.6024 0.6601 0.6601 1.0105 1.0123 1.0123 1.3380 1.6725 1.6725

11 11 0.6022 0.6022 0.6599 0.6599 1.0105 1.0122 1.0122 1.3379 1.6724 1.6724

12 12 0.6020 0.6020 0.6598 0.6598 1.0105 1.0121 1.0121 1.3378 1.6724 1.6724

13 13 0.6019 0.6019 0.6596 0.6596 1.0105 1.0121 1.0121 1.3377 1.6724 1.6724

14 14 0.6018 0.6018 0.6595 0.6595 1.0105 1.0120 1.0120 1.3377 1.6724 1.6724

Table 2

p

The non-dimensional frequency parameters L =G of isotropic conical shells with different thickness-to-height ratios H/L (R1/L 0.25, 301, E168 GPa, 5700 kg/m3,

and 0.3; boundary condition: FF and CC).

n Mode FF CC

2 2.956 2.956 1.880 1.880 3.226 3.226 3.311 3.310

3 3.523 3.523 3.218 3.218 4.734 4.733 4.865 4.865

4 3.650 3.650 3.650 3.650 5.742 5.740 5.356 5.351

5 5.521 5.518 4.238 4.236 6.329 6.328 5.573 5.570

6 5.661 5.661 4.488 4.487 7.455 7.447 6.302 6.300

1 1 2.158 2.158 1.769 1.768 2.483 2.483 3.001 3.000

2 2.965 2.965 1.961 1.961 4.296 4.295 3.651 3.650

3 3.477 3.476 3.622 3.622 4.840 4.839 5.205 5.203

4 5.169 5.168 3.964 3.963 5.463 5.462 5.499 5.498

5 5.348 5.348 4.181 4.180 7.293 7.289 5.662 5.656

6 5.770 5.766 4.585 4.584 7.605 7.599 6.124 6.121

2 1 0.618 0.618 0.786 0.786 2.555 2.555 3.205 3.203

2 1.468 1.468 1.077 1.076 4.900 4.900 4.248 4.248

3 3.005 3.004 2.775 2.774 5.534 5.532 5.332 5.330

4 3.697 3.696 2.799 2.799 6.394 6.393 5.834 5.828

5 4.614 4.613 4.099 4.097 7.729 7.721 6.049 6.045

6 5.480 5.479 4.316 4.315 8.994 8.991 6.387 6.381

3 1 1.497 1.496 1.687 1.687 3.323 3.323 3.770 3.766

2 3.096 3.095 2.200 2.198 5.530 5.530 4.986 4.984

3 4.225 4.224 3.668 3.667 6.575 6.573 5.583 5.581

4 4.792 4.791 3.733 3.732 7.934 7.932 6.252 6.244

4 1 2.509 2.508 2.538 2.537 4.440 4.439 4.414 4.411

2 4.448 4.448 3.159 3.157 6.568 6.566 5.690 5.687

3 5.439 5.438 4.405 4.404 7.756 7.755 6.103 6.100

4 6.499 6.497 4.516 4.515 9.008 9.001 6.703 6.693

212 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

Table 3

The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of the isotropic conical shells with different semi-vertices (R1 1 m, Lcos 2 m, E 168 GPa, 5700 kg/m3, and 0.3).

H/R1 FF FC CF CC

301 0.10 22.17 22.19 174.75 174.98 72.12 72.19 249.35 249.57

0.20 41.47 41.51 214.81 214.90 89.83 89.82 346.86 346.95

0.50 86.76 86.85 305.18 305.37 139.66 139.66 520.60 520.71

1.00 131.68 131.85 343.83 343.87 186.42 186.36 635.06 635.59

451 0.10 13.33 13.33 137.70 137.90 40.00 40.04 169.56 169.72

0.20 25.15 25.17 175.03 175.13 51.29 51.28 238.80 238.87

0.50 55.06 55.12 261.66 261.84 83.96 83.94 378.38 378.44

1.00 91.18 91.28 293.86 293.95 116.56 116.49 484.83 485.11

601 0.10 6.98 6.98 82.22 82.34 16.60 16.57 89.28 89.35

0.20 13.19 13.20 107.09 107.17 22.16 22.13 126.38 126.41

0.50 29.74 29.76 167.10 167.16 39.64 39.63 210.14 210.13

1.00 53.17 53.22 199.09 199.12 55.00 54.94 293.21 293.24

Table 4

The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of isotropic conical shells with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, Lcos 2 m, E 70 GPa, 2707 kg/m3, and 0.3).

151 0.10 272.90 228.22 58.07 281.14 257.69 284.90 279.96 241.33

0.20 342.91 275.07 66.42 294.82 352.34 373.93 352.63 329.99

0.50 387.67 362.48 81.82 303.71 495.47 461.22 344.88 351.43

1.00 403.82 378.18 94.66 315.89 563.83 493.88 334.42 352.97

301 0.10 215.10 180.61 86.17 206.46 203.01 226.65 218.27 193.34

0.20 270.12 223.57 99.80 209.87 283.37 304.16 289.99 268.78

0.50 305.01 308.84 129.45 219.62 397.19 384.54 316.13 297.24

1.00 319.36 332.78 158.70 233.93 468.06 416.43 307.97 327.07

451 0.10 146.49 128.30 82.26 131.04 137.77 155.34 147.76 133.14

0.20 181.77 162.79 96.48 133.41 192.34 212.23 201.58 185.81

0.50 210.60 240.89 131.55 140.35 267.65 285.76 268.43 216.24

1.00 221.41 276.18 178.16 151.13 342.36 314.72 264.00 269.20

601 0.10 78.23 72.66 53.34 66.88 72.13 82.59 78.06 70.97

0.20 96.03 94.13 63.16 67.95 102.19 114.63 108.40 97.86

0.50 113.20 152.72 88.48 71.14 139.34 172.35 178.21 120.20

1.00 121.64 199.89 132.26 76.33 195.69 199.61 199.90 164.51

751 0.10 23.92 22.21 17.87 19.70 21.09 24.59 23.21 21.24

0.20 29.96 29.81 21.33 19.90 28.29 34.22 32.19 28.82

0.50 34.01 51.17 30.16 20.50 39.17 56.10 55.50 36.91

1.00 37.67 83.95 47.16 21.51 60.32 78.39 88.71 53.76

Table 5

The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells (Type I) with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, and Lcos 2 m).

151 0.10 170.79 157.42 113.18 27.53 154.37 168.75 163.95 147.11

0.20 231.90 198.18 139.52 31.60 183.44 227.13 215.29 203.45

0.50 340.72 225.03 193.85 39.92 189.33 312.33 307.72 286.18

1.00 414.43 220.78 202.38 46.72 196.93 355.86 337.84 346.24

301 0.10 135.02 124.34 89.00 40.82 116.54 133.78 128.50 117.81

0.20 185.28 154.25 112.71 47.50 130.83 182.21 172.55 162.94

0.50 279.64 175.98 163.75 63.50 136.92 260.58 260.54 227.41

1.00 355.93 174.45 176.73 78.91 145.84 305.14 309.75 280.42

451 0.10 91.32 84.48 63.02 38.88 76.33 90.75 86.98 80.48

0.20 126.38 102.96 81.65 45.82 83.17 124.88 118.91 111.11

0.50 196.43 117.04 126.74 64.65 87.50 187.65 188.01 153.41

1.00 265.93 121.54 146.17 90.10 94.22 232.67 252.01 199.17

601 0.10 47.74 44.99 35.72 25.13 39.34 47.58 45.77 42.40

0.20 66.53 54.56 47.09 29.88 42.36 66.07 63.39 58.48

0.50 106.23 60.63 79.70 43.17 44.35 103.48 103.39 81.07

1.00 153.30 65.86 105.99 67.25 47.59 141.20 151.87 111.13

751 0.10 13.96 13.63 11.28 8.39 11.53 13.94 13.48 12.51

0.20 19.40 15.62 14.99 10.05 12.40 19.35 18.72 17.09

0.50 31.43 17.46 26.55 14.56 12.78 31.17 30.86 24.02

1.00 47.90 19.50 44.83 23.47 13.41 46.61 47.90 34.53

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 213

The differences between solutions form 13 13 and 14 14 are boundary conditions are considered. The comparisons of the

very small, and the maximum discrepancy is 0.02%. Thus, in the present results with those of 3-D solutions reported by Buchanan

following examples the truncated numbers will be uniformly and Wong [44] using a nite element method are presented. It is

selected as 13 13. seen that very good agreement of the results is obtained. Table 3

presents the fundamental frequencies of the conical shells with

3.2. Isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with various boundary different semi-vertex angles ( i.e. 301, 451 and 601). The conical

conditions shells also are made from zirconia with the following geometrical

data: R1 1 m, Lcos2 m and H/R1 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0. Four

In order to conrm the accuracy of the current method, kinds of boundary conditions (i.e. FF, FC, CF and CC) are

studies on free vibration of the conical shells with different considered. The results are compared with those of 3-D solutions

boundary conditions are carried out, and the present results are by using ANSYS with SOLID 45 elements. The comparisons show

compared with available solutions in the literature or obtained very good agreement.

by ANASYS. Table 2 shows the non-dimensional frequency para- The comparisons of the present results with those published in

p

meters L =G of isotropic conical shells with different literature and obtained from ANASYS in Tables 2 and 3 indicate

thickness-to-height H/L. The geometric parameters of the conical that the current analysis is accurate and reliable. Numerous new

shells are taken to be R1/L 0.25, 301, H/L 0.25 and 1. The results of the isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with different

conical shells are made from Zirconia. Young's modulus, mass boundary conditions including classical edges and elastic

density and Poisson's ratio for the zirconia are E 168 GPa, restraints are given. Table 4 shows the fundamental frequencies

5700 kg/m3, and 0.3. The completely free and clamped of isotropic conical shells with various boundary conditions (i.e.

Table 6

The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells (Type II) with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, and Lcos 2 m).

151 0.10 229.96 224.62 214.83 72.72 194.49 227.39 219.94 203.76

0.20 271.38 259.60 260.46 82.74 196.62 266.04 263.99 237.89

0.50 372.24 330.95 302.30 93.40 202.55 354.71 344.51 321.34

1.00 432.32 353.76 331.19 97.71 210.67 404.68 349.11 367.03

301 0.10 185.43 181.59 174.51 105.22 137.69 184.13 180.73 170.27

0.20 223.16 212.68 211.29 120.59 139.97 219.07 215.51 198.66

0.50 313.02 271.76 258.06 140.14 146.47 298.55 296.24 271.93

1.00 374.77 295.67 293.25 153.96 156.01 348.35 320.40 314.35

451 0.10 127.64 124.84 121.32 96.33 87.39 126.95 125.19 118.32

0.20 158.40 150.65 149.10 111.17 88.97 156.10 152.59 144.06

0.50 233.37 196.20 195.63 134.64 93.60 224.25 220.89 205.83

1.00 283.79 219.79 235.73 158.00 100.79 262.24 263.07 236.57

601 0.10 69.71 68.10 65.18 58.95 44.60 69.46 68.11 65.25

0.20 87.33 82.96 82.25 68.61 45.32 86.55 84.20 81.07

0.50 133.34 111.41 116.28 88.05 47.45 129.54 126.65 115.54

1.00 170.47 119.59 153.51 112.89 50.91 158.78 163.77 142.50

751 0.10 21.37 20.95 19.51 18.08 13.14 21.32 20.35 20.00

0.20 26.91 25.60 25.47 21.36 13.27 26.81 26.02 25.17

0.50 40.69 33.68 37.34 29.65 13.67 40.03 39.36 35.32

1.00 57.94 36.38 55.38 42.84 14.35 55.65 56.87 49.01

Table 7

The fundamental frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells (Type III) with various boundary conditions (R1 1 m, and Lcos 2 m).

151 0.10 253.10 189.64 170.45 38.00 194.49 240.83 244.35 183.62

0.20 362.08 212.42 210.05 47.52 196.62 320.55 344.21 261.97

0.50 460.17 226.94 218.22 56.32 202.55 371.73 354.55 390.23

1.00 489.29 209.59 197.06 53.96 210.67 382.51 349.10 453.62

301 0.10 203.91 144.97 138.93 57.97 137.69 195.14 197.12 145.10

0.20 302.26 161.40 173.31 75.65 139.97 268.73 290.08 210.45

0.50 401.82 174.43 182.48 93.58 146.47 322.05 325.43 328.30

1.00 434.25 167.09 170.57 91.73 156.00 333.25 320.39 390.36

451 0.10 139.11 96.96 102.35 56.82 87.39 134.83 135.10 97.90

0.20 215.35 107.21 133.76 78.61 88.97 195.95 209.25 143.86

0.50 311.01 119.04 145.61 109.17 93.60 252.51 276.81 235.96

1.00 345.90 116.24 141.11 111.86 100.79 265.46 273.35 297.51

601 0.10 72.28 51.47 60.27 37.16 44.60 71.15 70.59 50.97

0.20 116.99 56.29 88.10 53.02 45.32 110.78 114.86 75.57

0.50 193.11 64.89 104.78 92.69 47.45 163.22 188.93 130.64

1.00 230.06 65.48 104.94 108.61 50.91 181.40 206.11 181.20

751 0.10 20.52 14.87 19.08 12.56 13.14 20.43 20.14 14.83

0.20 33.91 16.19 30.84 17.21 13.27 33.40 33.51 21.91

0.50 66.76 19.46 54.89 33.68 13.67 62.11 66.39 39.34

1.00 96.12 21.40 58.78 56.19 14.35 82.22 95.55 62.78

214 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

S1S1, S2S2, S3S3, CS2, CS3, E1E1, E2E2 and E3E3). The conical Type I is dened as those subscripts 1, 2, 3 which denote r, , and s

shells are made from aluminum with material properties as: directions; Type II is considered to be those subscripts 1, 2, 3 which

E 70 GPa, 2707 kg/m3 and 0.3. Different thickness-to- denote , r, and s directions; and Type III is considered to be those

radius ratios (i.e. H/R1 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0) and semi-vertex angles subscripts 1, 2, 3 which denote s, , and r directions. The

(i.e. 151, 301, 401, 601, 751) are considered. The fundamental geometrical parameters of the conical shells are taken to be

frequencies of the orthotropic conical shells with various R1 1 m, Lcos 2 m, and 151, 301, 451, 601, and 751 and H/

boundary conditions are presented in Tables 57. The orthotropic R1 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0. Five types of classical edges (i.e. CC, S1

material properties of the conical shells are given as: S1, S2S2, S3S3, and CS2) and three types of elastic restraints (i.e.

E1 137.9 GPa, E2 8.963 GPa, E3 8.963 GPa, G12 7.101 GPa, E1E1, E2E2, E3E3) are studied. It is observed from tables that the

G23 6.205 GPa, G13 7.101 GPa, 12 0.3, 23 0.49, 13 0.3, and boundary conditions play a signicant role on the natural fre-

1605 kg/m3. Three types of ber orientations are considered. quencies of the isotropic and orthotropic conical shells. It is

Fig. 2. Mode shapes of Al conical shells with CC boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

Fig. 3. Mode shapes of orthotropic conical shells (Type I) with FC boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 215

Fig. 4. Mode shapes of orthotropic conical shells (Type II) with S3S3 boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

Fig. 5. Mode shapes of orthotropic conical shells (Type III) with E2E2 boundary condition (H/R1 1, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and 601).

evident that the fundamental frequency is quite sensitive to the vertex angles . It is obvious that the fundamental frequencies of

change of the semi-vertex angle and thickness-to-radius ratios the conical shells decrease as the semi-vertex angle increases

H/R1. The mode shapes of the conical shells are illustrated in except in the case of the conical shells with S3S3 boundary

Figs. 25. condition. For the isotropic conical shell with S3S3 boundary

condition the fundamental frequency of the conical shell rst

3.3. Parametric studies increases then decreases with an increase in semi-vertex angle .

The effect of the semi-vertex angle on the natural frequencies of

In this section, the effects of the semi-vertex angle and the orthotropic conical shells is illustrated in Fig. 7. The variation

thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the natural frequencies of conical trends of fundamental frequencies of orthotropic conical with

shells are studied. Fig. 6 shows the variation of fundamental different ber orientations are similar. Fig. 8 shows the effect of

natural frequency of isotropic conical shells with different semi- the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the fundamental natural

216 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

frequencies of isotropic conical shells with different boundary III material subjected to S1S1, S3S3 and E2E2 boundary condi-

conditions. The fundamental natural frequencies of isotropic con- tions, the fundamental frequencies rst increase and then

ical shells with CC and S3S3 boundary conditions increase as decrease as the thickness-to-radius H/R1 increases.

the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 increases. The effect of the

thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the fundamental natural fre- 4. Conclusions

quencies of orthotropic conical shells with different boundary

conditions is demonstrated in Fig. 9. For the conical shells with In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) solution method is

Type II materials, the fundamental frequencies increase as the presented for the free vibration of isotropic and orthotropic

thickness-to-radius H/R1 increases. For the conical shells with Type conical shells with elastic boundary restraints. The formulation is

700 600

C-C

600 C-C S1-S1

S1-S1 500

S3-S3

500

Natural Frequency

3 3

S -S E2-E2

Natural frequency

400

E2-E2

400

300

300

200 200

100 100

0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

H/R1

Fig. 6. Effect of the semi-vertex angle on the natural frequencies (Hz) of isotropic

conical shells with different boundary condition (H/R1 0.5, Lcos 2 m, and Fig. 8. Effect of the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the natural frequencies (Hz) of

R1 1 m). isotropic conical shells with different boundary condition (Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m,

and 301).

500 350

Type I Type I

300

400 Type II Type II

Type III 250 Type III

Natural frequency

Natural frequency

300 200

200 150

100

100

50

0 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Semi-vertex angle Semi-vertex angle

150 500

Type I Type I

Type II Type II

400

Type III Type III

Natural frequency

Natural frequency

100

300

200

50

100

0 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Semi-vertex angle Semi-vertex angle

Fig. 7. Effect of the semi-vertex angle on the natural frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells with different boundary condition (H/R1 0.5, Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m):

(a) CC; (b) S1S1;(c) S3S3; and (d) E2E2.

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 217

450 300

400

250

Natural frequency

Natural frequency

350

300

200

250

200 Type I

150 Type I

Type II

150 Type III Type II

Type III

100 100

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

H/R1 H/R1

160 400

140 350

Type I

Natural frequency

Natural frequency

Type III

100 250

80 200

Type I

60 150 Type II

Type III

40 100

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

H/R1 H/R1

Fig. 9. Effect of the thickness-to-radius ratio H/R1 on the natural frequencies (Hz) of orthotropic conical shells with different boundary condition (Lcos 2 m, R1 1 m, and

301): (a) CC; (b) S1S1;(c) S3S3; and (d) E2E2.

derived by means of the RayleighRitz procedure based on the solution for other computational techniques in the future research.

three-dimensional elasticity theory. Displacement components The effects of the geometrical parameters, orthotropic properties

of the conical shells are represented by Fourier series in the and boundary conditions on free vibration of conical shells are

circumferential direction and a double Fourier cosine series illustrated.

and several supplementary functions in meridional and normal

directions. The supplementary functions in the form of the

product of a polynomial function and a single cosine series are

introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series Acknowledgment

representations. To validate the present method, the convergence

behavior is demonstrated, and comparisons with available results The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their

in the literature are performed. Numerous new results for the constructive comments. The authors gratefully acknowledge the

isotropic and orthotropic conical shells with elastic boundary nancial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of

conditions are presented, which can serve as the benchmark China (Nos. 51175098 and 51279035).

Appendix A. Detailed expressions for the stiffness matrix and mass matrix

The superscripts of the elements in the mass matrix Mij and stiffness matrix Kij are given as follows:

F F M 1 q m 1; G G M 1 q1 m1 1

f f M 1 l 1 m 1; g g M 1 l1 1 m1 1

~

f~ f Q 1 l 1 q 1; g~ g~ Q 1 l1 1 q1 1

The detailed expressions of elements in matrices Muu are:

Z L Z H

MFG

uu C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:1

0 0

218 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

Z L Z H

MFg

uu C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:2

0 0

Z L Z H

Fg

Muu C oo Rr; s cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:3

0 0

Z L Z H

Mfuu

G

C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s cos q1 sdrds A:4

0 0

Z L Z H

Mfuu

g

C oo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl1 s sdrds A:5

0 0

Z L Z H

fg

Muu C oo Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 sdrds A:6

0 0

Z L Z H

Mfuu

G

C oo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:7

0 0

Z L Z H

Mfuu

g

C oo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:8

0 0

Z L Z H

fg

Muu C oo Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:9

0 0

Z L Z H

~~

MFuuG Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:10

0 0

Z L Z H

~~

MFuug Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:11

0 0

Z L Z H

~~

Fg

Muu Soo Rr; s cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:12

0 0

Z L Z H

~~

MfuuG Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s cos q1 sdrds A:13

0 0

Z L Z H

~~

Mfuug Soo Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl1 s sdrds A:14

0 0

Z L Z H

~~

Mfuug Soo Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 sdrds A:15

0 0

~~

Z L Z H

Mfuu

G

Soo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:16

0 0

~

Z L Z H

fg ~

Muu Soo Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q sl1 s sdrds A:17

0 0

~~

Z L Z H

fg

Muu Soo Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 sdrds A:18

0 0

The detailed expressions of elements in matrices Kuu are

2 3

c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

6 c C =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s cos s 7

6 66 11 m m1 q q1 7

Z LZ H6 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m r cos q s cos q s

7

7

FG 6 1 7

Kuu

1

6 7drds A:19

0 6 c55 C 00 q q1 Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r sin q s sin q1 s 7

0

6 7

6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL cos m r cos m r 1q q1 7

4 1 5

c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

6 c C =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s s 7

Z LZ H6

6

66 11 m m1 q l1 s 7

7

Fg 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl s s 7

Kuu 6 1 7drds A:20

0 6 7

0

6 c55 C 00 q Rr; s cos m r cos m r sin q s' s 7

4 1 l1 s 5

c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 219

2 3

c11 C 00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

6 c C =Rr; s cos r r cos s cos s 7

6 66 11 m l1 r q q1 7

Z Z 6 7

L H 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m rl r r cos q s cos q s 7

Fg 6 7

A:21

1 1

Kuu 6 7drds

6 c55 C 00 q q1 Rr; s cos m rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7

0 0

6 7

6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL cos m rl r r 1q q1 7

4 1 5

c12 C 00 cos m sin m rl1 r r cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s

6 7

Z L Z H 6 c66 C 11 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Kfuu

G

6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls ss cos q1 s 7drds A:22

6 7

0 0 6 7

4 c55 C 00 q1 Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls s sin q1 s 5

c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 C 00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s

6 c C =Rr; s cos r cos r s s 7

Z LZ H6

6

66 11 m m1 ls l1 s 7

7

6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl s s 7

Kfuu

g

6 1 7drds A:23

6 7

0 0

6 c55 C 00 Rr; s cos m r cos m r' s' s 7

4 1 ls l1 s 5

c12 C 00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s

2 3

c11 C 00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s

6 7

6 c66 C 11 =Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Z L Z H 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r r s cos q s 7

6 l1 r ls 7

6 7drds

1

fg

Kuu 6 c C Rr; s cos r r' s sin s 7 A:24

0 0 6 55 00 q1 m l1 r ls q1 7

6 7

6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL cos m rl r r 1 q q1

7

4 1 5

c12 C 00 cos m sin m rl1 r r cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 C 00 m1 Rr; s' lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

6 7

6 c66 C 11 =Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Z LZ 6 7

H 6c C

22 00 cos 2

=Rr; s lr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s 7

Kfuu

G

6 7drds A:25

6 c55 C 00 q q Rr; s r cos m r sin q s sin q s 7

0 0 6 1 lr 1 1 7

6 7

6 C 00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL lr r cos m1 r 1q q1 7

4 5

'

c12 C 00 cos lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 C 00 m1 Rr; slr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

6 c C =Rr; s r cos r cos s s 7

6 66 11 lr m1 q l1 s 7

Z LZ H6 7

6 c C cos 2 =Rr; s r cos m r cos q s s 7

fg

Kuu 6 22 00 lr 1 l1 s 7drds A:26

6 7

0 0 6 ' 7

6 c55 C 00 q Rr; slr r cos m1 r sin q s l1 s s 7

4 5

'

c12 C 00 cos lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

2 3

c11 C 00 Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

6 7

6 c66 C 11 =Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Z L Z H 6 c22 C 00 cos 2 =Rr; slr rl r r cos q s cos q s 7

6 7

6 7drds

1 1

fg

Kuu 6 c55 C 00 q q1 Rr; slr rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7 A:27

0 0 6 7

6 C Rr; 0k Rr; Lk r r 1 q q

7

6 00 uo uL lr l1 r

1

7

4 5

'

c12 C 00 cos lr rl1 r r lr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

6 c S =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s cos s 7

6 66 11 m m1 q q1 7

Z Z 6 7

L H 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m r cos q s cos q s 7

~~ 6 7

KFuuG

1 1

6 7drds A:28

6 c55 S00 q q1 Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r sin q s sin q1 s 7

0 0

6 7

6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL cos m r cos m r 1q q1 7

4 1 5

c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

220 G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221

2 3

c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

6 c S =Rr; s cos r cos r cos s s 7

Z Z 6 66 11 m m1 q l1 s 7

L H 6 7

~~ 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 r cos q sl s s 7

KFuug 6 1 7drds A:29

6 7

0 0

6 c55 S00 q Rr; s cos m r cos m r sin q s s

' 7

4 1 l1 s 5

c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

2 3

c11 S00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

6 c s =Rr; s cos r r cos s cos s 7

6 66 11 m l1 r q q1 7

6

Z L Z H 6 c S cos 2 =Rr; s cos r r cos s cos s 7

7

F~ g~ 6 22 00 m l1 r q q1 7

Kuu 6 7drds A:30

0 6 c55 S00 q q1 Rr; s cos m rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7

0

6 7

6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL cos m rl r r 1q q1 7

4 1 5

c12 S00 cos m sin m rl1 r r cos m rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s

6 c66 S11 =Rr; s cos m r cos m r s cos q s 7

Z Z 6 1 ls 1 7

~~

L H 6 7

KfuuG 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls ss cos q1 s 7drds A:31

6 7

0 0 6 c S Rr; s cos r cos r s sin s 7

4 55 00 q1 m m1 ls q1 5

c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 S00 m m1 Rr; s sin m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s

6 c S =Rr; s cos r cos r s s 7

Z Z 6 66 11 m m1 ls l1 s 7

L H 6 7

f~ g~ 6 c22 S00 cos 2 =Rr; s cos m r cos m1 rls sl s s 7

Kuu 6 1 7drds A:32

6 7

0 0

6 c55 S00 Rr; s cos m r cos m r' s' s 7

4 1 ls l1 s 5

c12 S00 cos m sin m r cos m1 r m1 cos m r sin m1 rls sl1 s s

2 3

c11 S00 m Rr; s sin m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s

6 7

6 c66 S11 =Rr; s cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Z LZ 6

H 6 c22 S00 cos =Rr; s cos m rl r rls s cos q1 s

2 7

~~ 7

fg

Kuu 6 1

7drds A:33

6 c S Rr; s cos r r' s sin s 7

0 0 6 55 00 q1 m l1 r ls q1 7

6 7

6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL cos m rl r r 1q q1 7

4 1 5

c12 S00 cos m sin m rl1 r r cos m rl1 r rls s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 S00 m1 Rr; s' lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

6 7

6 c66 S11 =Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Z LZ H 6 7

~~ 6 c22 S00 cos =Rr; slr r cos m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2

7

fG

Kuu 6 7drds A:34

6 7

0 0 6 c55 S00 q q1 Rr; slr r cos m1 r sin q s sin q1 s 7

6 7

6 S00 Rr; 0kuo Rr; LkuL lr r cos m1 r 1q q1 7

4 5

'

c12 S00 cos lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q s cos q1 s

2 3

c11 S00 m1 Rr; slr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

6 c S =Rr; s r cos r cos s s 7

6 66 11 lr m1 q l1 s 7

Z Z 6 7

~

f g~

L H 6 c S cos 2 =Rr; s r cos m r cos q s s 7

Kuu 6 22 00 lr 1 l1 s 7drds A:35

6 7

0 0 6 ' 7

6 c55 S00 q Rr; slr r cos m1 r sin q s l1 s s 7

4 5

'

c12 S00 cos lr r cos m1 r m1 lr r sin m1 r cos q sl1 s s

2 3

c11 S00 Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

6 7

6 c66 S11 =Rr; slr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s 7

6 7

Z LZ 6

H 6 c22 S00 cos =Rr; slr rl r r cos q s cos q1 s

2 7

~~ 7

fg

Kuu 6 1

7drds A:36

6 c S Rr; slr rl1 r r sin q s sin q1 s 7

0 0 6 55 00 q q1 7

6 S Rr; 0k Rr; Lk r r 1q q1 7

6 00 uo uL lr l1 r 7

4 5

'

c12 S00 cos lr rl1 r r lr rl1 r r cos q s cos q1 s

Where

Z 2 i j Z 2 i j

d cos n d cos n d sin n d sin n

C ij d; Sij d

0 di dj 0 di dj

G. Jin et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 89 (2014) 207221 221

Reference [23] Goldberg JE, Bogdanoff JL, Marcus L. On the calculation of the axisymmetric

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