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Fig 1. Image from a Plane Mirror

Fig. 2. The Image Formation of a Spherical Mirror (Concave Mirror)


The first part of the experiment is proving whether the Laws of Reflection is true. The second

part focuses on the number of images that will be formed in a certain angle. Based on equation

one, the proportionality of series of images formed is direct to the angle between them. In order

for the given equation to make sense, the calculated images must be identically close while

comparing it to observed images by the group. The third part focuses on proving whether the

theory on concave and convex about the difference of its focal length and radius is true. It is

observed that the focal length and the radius of a convex mirror is smaller compared to concave

mirror because convex mirror produces an image that is far smaller than of concave mirrors. The

last part of the experiment focuses on figuring out on how the images are observed when the

distance of the object is greater or less than the distance of the image and proven using a candle

as a light source and a screen as an image distance. When the light source is behind the screen,

the image formed by the concave mirror is large. It means that it is between the center and the

focus just like in the fourth table. When the light source is in front of the screen, it also shows a

same result just like in the previous table if object is beyond the center. Lastly, when an object

distance is equal to the image distance, the object can be virtual and enlarged if object is between

the center and the focus.

There are two laws explained by our instructor. The main focus of this experiment is on the

first law. It is proven and agrees to our result in the part one of the experiment. Theory in part

two states that the number of images formed are dependent on how large and small the given

theta is. It is proven that if the angle at certain angle is small, the images that will be observed are

also all and if the angle is decreasing, the images observed will also decreased. The theory on the

third tackles about the second equation given in the manual. Our result agrees in this theory since
the images observed is smaller in the convex mirror rather than concave mirror. Last theory on

the experiment states that a concave mirror can produce a large image if it is in concave and

small image and large if it is in convex. The gathered data agrees in the stated theory proven that

the focal length computed is nearly equal to the actual focal length given.

The main principles discussed and performed in the second experiments focuses on the laws

of reflection on the first part and the difference of plane, convex and concave mirrors and to be

able to describe the images formed. We also use the mirror equation to determine the focal

lengths of the two spherical mirrors. When two mirrors are placed in certain and unknown angle,

many images will be formed because of the reflection. The center and the focus of two spherical

mirrors differ when passing through focus with reflected rays. In convex mirrors, C and F is

behind the mirror while the points are in front if it is in concave mirrors. Distances that are

beyond the mirror must be positive otherwise it is negative according to the convention rule.

The principle was proven in the first part by how the incidence angle is same to the reflection

angle. The next principle proven was the determination of number of images formed. It is proven

by how the observed images are increasing while the angle between two plane mirrors also

increases. The next principle states the difference of how the images are observed in convex or in

concave mirrors. The image observed is smaller in convex than of concave. This principle is

proven because it is observed that the focal length and the radius of the concave mirror are

virtual than the convex mirror.

In order to have a more precise and acceptable results in performing the given task in the

experiment particularly in the first, second and fourth part of the experiment, the experiment

must be performed in a dark place where there is no light visible because even just a small

presence of light will surely affect the data since the light that comes from the object will not be

shown properly and it will be observed poorly. And in the second part of the experiment, the

angle must be precise and the images formed must be clear so that the counting of the images
formed is precise and accurate. Lastly, the group must also perform multiple trials seriously to

confirm that the data computed is accurate and precise.


The headlamp's concave mirror is open on one end, and the light bulb's filament is placed at

or near the focus. Parallel light rays, if they were coming into the headlamp from outside (say,

the driver is driving his car in the direction of the setting sun), would converge near the filament

of the light bulb. At night, the process works in reverse. Light rays which originate at the light

bulb follow the reverse paths, travelling away from the bulb, hitting the mirror, and being

reflected into approximately parallel paths. You don't want the rays to be exactly parallel, or the

headlamps will act as narrow spotlights, and you usually want to illuminate the road to the sides

and a little up and down as well. Most car headlamps have diffusers on the side to spread some

of the light around for better visibility.

The passenger-side rear view mirror on a car is convex. You may have noticed that many of

these mirrors say "Objects in mirror are closer than they appear." This is because the objects are

made smaller by the mirror, so they appear farther away! These mirrors are also used for security

in buildings near corners, enabling people to see around a corner before they actually reach it.

Source: (M. Ben, 2011)