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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LCOMM.2016.2600567, IEEE
Communications Letters


Efficient Detection of Spatial Modulation OFDM
Systems with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets
Yan Zhao, Yue Xiao, Binhong Dong, Ping Yang, Lixia Xiao, and Wei Xiang

Abstract—In this letter, an efficient detection scheme ignored. In the schemes of [8]-[9], several joint turbo equal-
is proposed to mitigate the effect of the carrier fre- ization schemes are proposed to implement equalization
quency offset (CFO) in spatial modulation orthogonal and CFO compensation jointly.
frequency division multiplexing (SM-OFDM) system-
s. Specifically, the proposed scheme employs a novel Although various aforementioned compensation and de-
symbol-by-symbol (SS) aided iterative detector to the tection schemes have been proposed for MIMO-OFDM,
SM-OFDM systems with multiple CFOs, where the ze- those schemes may not be directly applied to SM-
ro symbols are considered as constellation points. Sim- OFDM schemes owing to their specific transmission mode.
ulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme To be specific, for conventional MIMO-OFDM systems,
is capable of effectively mitigating the effect of multiple
CFOs and of providing about considerable system per- those schemes are always designed under the assumption
formance improvement compared to the conventional that the transmit signals have non-zero components and
parallel interference cancellation (PIC)-aided maxi- the channel matrix has column full-rank. However, SM-
mum likelihood (ML) detector at a moderate complex- OFDM can efficiently operate in the context of asymmet-
ity cost. ric/unbalanced MIMO channels, whose channel matrices
Index Terms—Spatial modulation (SM), orthogonal are usually column rank-deficient, which makes the design
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), carrier fre- of CFO compensation algorithms more challenging. In
quency offset (CFO).
order to increase the robustness of the SM-MIMO system
I. Introduction to multiple CFOs, recently, an iterative low-complexity
PATIAL modulation (SM) is introduced in [1]-[3] maximum likelihood (ML) detector [10] was proposed
S as a novel class of multiple-input multiple-output
(MIMO) techniques, where the antenna activation process
based on the concept of parallel interference cancellation
(PIC). However, it suffers from the problem of having the
is exploited as a means of conveying information bits. As error propagation since the eliminated interference may
a result, MIMO detection in SM systems is simplified. contain a part of the desired signal.
Furthermore, recent studies in [4]-[5] have demonstrated Against this background, the novel contribution of this
some fundamental properties of SM combined with orthog- letter is to propose a symbol-by-symbol (SS)-aided iter-
onal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology. ative detector, where the zero symbol of SM is explicitly
More specifically, the authors of [5] demonstrate that SM- taken into account as a constellation point in the detection
OFDM is able to outperform traditional MIMO-OFDM process. More specifically, in the proposed scheme, the sin-
and to enable flexible transceiver configurations for low gle antenna compensation method is performed to adjust
rate in long-term evolution (LTE) systems. the CFO of the desired transmit antenna (TA), where a
Nevertheless, similar to OFDM, SM-OFDM systems convolution method is employed in the frequency domain.
suffer from the same disadvantage of destructed orthog- Then a SS-aided iterative detector based on the Gaussian
onality among subcarriers attributable to the carrier fre- approximation (GA) is developed to further mitigate the
quency offset (CFO). In recent years, CFO compensation impact of multiple CFOs. Simulation results show that the
and detection methods have found a range of applications proposed detector brings out 3 dB performance improve-
in MIMO-OFDM uplink [6]-[9]. More specifically in [6], ment compared to the original PIC-ML detector [10].
a frequency reversal scheme is designed with the aid of II. System Model
a block-Alamouti-like structure ignoring the interference
from the conjugation of the data symbol vectors. In [7], Assume an SM system with MT transmit and MR
an optimal CFO compensation value is derived through receive antennas, where a total of B = log2 MT + log2 L
maximizing the signal-to-noise-plus-interference (SINR) bits are transmitted in each time slot, while log2 MT bits
ratio, where the residual inter-carrier interference (ICI) is are assigned to select a TA index and log2 L bits are used
to modulate a L-PSK/QAM symbol to be transmitted by
Y. Zhao, Y. Xiao, B. Dong, P. Yang, and L. Xiao are with the the activated TA. At the transmitter, the SM transmit
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Communi-
cations, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
symbol is expressed in vector form as follows
611731, Sichuan, China. (k) ˆ , 0, ...0 ]T ∈ S,
XSM = [0, ..., 0, X (1)
W. Xiang is with the College of Science, Technology and Engineer- | {z } k | {z }
ing, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia (e-mail: (c−1) MT −c
The corresponding author is Y. Xiao ( where c represents the index of the activated TA, and
The financial support of the National Science Foundation of China Xˆk ∈ ˆs denotes the transmitted L-PSK/QAM symbol
under Grant number 61401074, the open research fund of Sichuan Y- during the kth interval. S indicates the set of the transmit
outh Science and Technology (No. 2012JQ0020), and the Fundamen-
tal Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. ZYGX2015J011) SM symbols.
is gratefully acknowledged. For the SM-OFDM scheme, the block transmission of

1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See for more information.

In this section. IEEE Communications Letters IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 2 OFDM symbols from ith (i ∈ (1. N − 1. iterative detection through on the kth subcarrier from ith TA.e. geographic locations while the receive antennas (RAs) are still centralized. the information-conveying feature (2) of SM-OFDM with multiple CFOs is exploited to simplify where Xi (k) ∈ {ˆ s. · · · .2600567. Simplified Design external environment [12]. but has not been fully edited. we divide the proposed scheme into two N k=0 stages. temperature.. the A. 0} denotes the data symbol transmitted the design. MT )) TA is given as ture of SM-OFDM and applying iterative detection to the N −1 1 ∑ SM symbol vector. 1. exchanging soft information is developed to alleviate the We assume that the TAs are distributed at separate residual CFO. i.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. Due to the quality of oscillators [11]. xi (n) = √ Xi (k) ej2πnk/N . Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10. In the second stage..1109/LCOMM. et single antenna compensation is employed as a coarse al.2016. (k) . humidity. and the delay caused by electronics associated with compensation to adjust the CFO of desired TA by con- volution with the its ICI coefficient in frequency domain. In the first stage. n = 0.

the base stations of the After convolution of Yj in (4) with S−εi = Sεj . each antenna element varies [13].

a SS-aided sin π (k + εi ) jπ(1− N1 )(k+εi ) iterative detector is developed to further mitigate the Sε(k) = π e . it can be shown that the ICI ∑ N −1 coefficient in (4) can be given as (k) 1 √ −j2πnk/N Yj = N yj (n) e Sε(l−k) ≈ 0. the received baseband Then (7) can be expanded as signal with multiple CFOs on the jth (j ∈ (1. a complex Gaussian distribution of CN 0. in consideration of the special SM symbol B.e.m̸=i |l−k|≤K between the ith TA and jth RA. where αi ∈ S. In this section. · · · . σ 2 .εj =−εi (k) (k) TA sides cannot share the same frequency offset. The message obtained from Y¯ij to X(k) contains l=0. Furthermore. the output of the kth subcarrier from the jth RA TA sides are considered. εi is the normalized CFO of the ith TA. we also assume that can be written as (k) (k) (k) the channel and CFOs do not change during one OFDM Y¯ =Y ⊗S . Also. Proposed Efficient Detection output probability is based on a vector-by-vector based Iterative detection has been widely employed in MIMO SM symbol. See http://www. plexity. signal vector X(k) are computed by a vector-by-vector basis instead of a symbol-by-symbol basis and 2) the III. · · · . . the received signal in the frequency domain can The proposed soft detection [method exchanges messages ]T be formulated as (k) (k) (k) (k) ∑ N −1 between Y¯ and X(k) = X . as observed in (1) and (6). Iij represents ICI term of tween the ith TA and the jth RA. is the SM vector rather than a single PSK/QAM symbol. |l − k| > K (P = 2K + 1 ≤ N ) . where n ¯ ij = ⊗ njand S−εi . Then the received signal based on (3) in (OFDMA) system is introduced to compute (8). and ⊗ denotes circular the kth subcarrier between the ith TA and the jth RA. (6) (k) (10). since the basic unit for information conveying systems thanks to its attractive low computational com. ij j (7) −εi symbol period. probability [ (k) vector of all SM symbols ] given by p(k) = Note that. (3) = Hij Xi + Iij + n ¯ ij . Proposed SS-aided Iterative Detection Method structure. Furthermore. X ij in1 2 MT (k) (l) Y(k) = H(k) S(0) XSM + H(l) S(l−k) XSM +n(k) . Personal use is permitted. SεMT . Because the frequency domain on the kth subcarrier from the jth only P neighboring subcarriers of the ICI term are signif- RA is given by [14] icant to a certain subcarrier. p (α2 ) . i=1 (8) (k) (k) (k) (k) where hij (n) is the channel impulse response (CIR) be. X . are two main differences between the conventional MIMO- pensation than in conventional MIMO-OFDM. (5) impact of multiple CFOs. Sε2 . we derive a new soft detection Here the proposed SS-aided iterative detection method is scheme through the exploiting information-conveying fea.m̸=i l=0 (k) (k) yj (n) = (xi (n) ⊗ hij (n))ej2πnεi /N + wj (n) . (9) n=0 i ∑ MT (k) (k) (0) ∑ MT ∑ N −1 (l) (l) (l−k) (k) where P increases with the value of CFO [15]. · · · . but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. i N sin N (k + εi ) Therefore. p (α2B ) .l̸=k (k) two scalar variables. At the receiver. because OFDM detectors in [6]-[9] and the proposed SS-aided multiple CFOs need to be corrected simultaneously to iterative detector: 1) the mean and the variance of the detect the SM The message passed from X(k) to Y¯ij is a (k) (k) (k) (k) and S(k) = diag Sε1 . i=1 m=1 l=0. the characteristics p (α1 ) . nj is assumed to follow (k) (k) (k) + I¯ij + n (k) ( ) (k) = Hij Xi ¯ ij . the multiple CFOs rather than the single-CFO at the in (5).. detailed as follows: 1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. a more computationally efficient method while wj (n) represents the AWGN noise with zero mean for the orthogonal frequency division multiple access and variance σ 2 . = Hij Xi Sεi + Hmj Xm Sεm + nj . There- fore.html for more information. the mean µij and the vari- (k) where H denotes ( the channel gain on ) the kth subcarrier 2 (k) ance σij .l̸=k Substituting (9) into (8) yields (4) M∑T ∑ (k) where Hij denotes the channel gain on the kth subcarrier ¯ (k) ∆ (k) (k) Yij = Hij Xi (l) + (l) (l−k) Hmj Xm Sεm −εi + n ¯ ij (k) (k) m=1. i. There (k) (k) of the SM symbol make it more challenging for CFO com. MR )) receive ∑T N∑ M −1 antenna (RA) can be expressed as ¯ (k) Yij (k) (k) = Hij Xi + (l) (l) (l−k) Hmj Xm Sεm −εi + n ¯ ij (k) ∑ MT (k) (k) m=1. And Sεi (10) is the ICI coefficient given by [14] Then based on the simplified model in (10).

E X2 . and then repeat Step 2 to Step 5 until 1. MR = 4 and QPSK modu- and lation. (17) variance of X(k) of the kth subcarrier are computed by αi ∈S ( ) [ ( ) ( ) ( )]T IV. k = p˜(k) X(k) = αi . In our simulation results. 8. var X2 . where we have M T = 4. · · · . the mean and the X(k) = arg max p˜(k) (αi ) .··· .2600567. but has not been fully edited.2016. var XMT ∑ ( ) . reaching the predefined number of iterations. N . the detected SM symbol vector of the kth symbol. αi ∈S [10]. Content may change prior to final publication. the bit error rate (BER) ( ) [ ( ) ( ) ( )]T (k) (k) (k) performance of the ML detector with CFOs is denoted var X(k) = var X1 . IEEE Communications Letters IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 3 ( ) Step 1: Initialize the priori probabilities of all the SM Update ( the )priori probability as p(k) X(k) = αi = symbols of the kth subcarrier to p(k) (αi ) = 21B .This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. subcarrier is obtained as Based on the priori probabilities. Simulation Results (k) (k) (k) E X (k) = E X1 . Step 2: Calculate the mean and the variance of the SM Finally.E XMT In this section. Citation information: DOI 10. we compare the performance of the ∑ ( ) (11) proposed detector with the conventional PIC-ML detector = αi P X(k) = αi . · · · . 2.1109/LCOMM.

( ).

by “With CFOs” and the ML detector under the ideal |αi |2 P X(k) = αi − .

E X(k) .

For each TA. Performance Analysis (k) (k) (k) µij = E I ij + nij Figs. which shows that the BER of the sim- = Hmj Sεm −εi E Xm .3]. the normalized CFO εi is According to (11)-(12). Moreover. the proposed detectors with 2 (k) (k) (k) σij = var I ij + nij P = 15 and P = 32 exhibit good BER results. computed as ( ) A. and N = 128 interference between the ith TA and the jth RA at the kth frequency domain subchannels with a CP length of 32 subcarrier in (10). 0. the mean µij and the variance independent and random in one OFDM symbol following 2 (k) (k) (k) σij of the joint interference I ij + nij in (10) can be an uniform distribution over the interval [−0. which ∑ ∑ .3. . 2 = scenario without the existence of CFOs is denoted by “ML- αi ∈S (12) Ideal”. (k) are considered. 1 (a) and 2 (a). m=1. the modulated symbols are transmitted over the Extended Vehicular A (EVA) model channel [16] Step 3: Compute the mean and the variance of the joint with a maximum Doppler shift of 200 Hz. 1 and 2 plot the achievable BER of the proposed ∑ MT ∑ ( ) (13) (l) (l−k) (l) detection scheme. ( ) In Figs.m̸=i |l−k|≤K plified design in (10) decreases with the number of the and effective neighboring subcarriers P ≤ 128 in (9).


( ) MT .

(l) (l−k) .

2 (l) is close to that of the full-complexity scheme with P = = .

Hmj Sεm −εi .

which According to (13)-(14). However. the probability pj (k) Xq (k) q∈ also depends on the conventional ML detector. Overall. var Xm + σ 2 . (14) the “With CFOs” detector and the PIC-ML detector [10] Step 4: Compute the posteriori probability of the SM exhibit the error floor effect. the the “With CFOs” detector only operates the conventional zero symbol of the constellation is considered as a zero ML detector. 1 (a) and 2 (a). the following steps of PIC-ML detector for constructing (1. m=1. Therefore. ( ) get the reliable SM symbol from its initial steps. In this step. the PIC-ML detector of [10] is unable to be obtained from (13) and (14). respectively. in Figs. which fails to exploit the effect caused by the point in which the mean and variance of this symbol can ICI part. these algorithms subcarrier is calculated by . While. This is due to the fact that symbol by using the SS-aided detection.m̸=i |l−k|≤K N = 128. MT ) of the qth symbol of the jth RA at the kth ICI part may also be unreliable.


2 may be only effective when the value of CFO is small. It ( ) −.


Y¯ij(k) − Hij (k) q (k) .

αi − µij .

html for more information. . The results indicate that the proposed MR RAs. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. where αiq ∈ {ˆ s. the convergence rates of the proposed ( ) transmitted SM symbol p˜(k) X(k) = αi . See http://www. the proposed the TA. · · · . The probability of X(k) = αi can be combining detector can be converged in 5 Furthermore. (b) characterize the ( by ) tained jointly utilizing the MT estimated probabilities convergence performance of the proposed detector asso- (k) pj Xq (k) (q = 1. MT ) (j = 1. by MT MR estimated probabilities as   B. Complexity Comparison ( ) ∑ MT ∑ MR ( ) p˜(k) X(k) = αi = exp  Xq(k) = αiq  . is shown in Fig. 1 (a) and Fig. · · · . Figs. respectively. Personal use is permitted. MR = 4 and MT = 8. ˆ s denotes the set tio (SNR) improvement compared to the PIC-ML detector of transmitted L-PSK/QAM 2 (a) that the proposed (k) pj Xq(k) = αiq ∝ 2 (k) . MR ) from all the ciated with P = 15 and P = 32 for different SNR points. 1 (a) and 2 (a). of 8 iterations. 1 (b) and 2. MR = 4 at the BER of Then the maximum ratio combining (MRC) method is 8 × 10−2 . (k) pj In this subsection. introduced to calculate the posteriori probability of the Furthermore. 1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. The posteriori detector are investigated by setting a maximum number probability corresponding to the SM symbol X(k) is ob. (15) detector is capable of offering a better BER performance 2σij over the PIC-ML detector [10] at different configurations. the complexity of the PIC-ML [10] q=1 j=1 and the proposed detectors are evaluated in Table I (16) in terms of the number of real-valued multiplications. as shown in Figs. respectively. where the zero symbol of the constellation is detector can offer about 2 dB and 3 dB signal-to-noise ra- considered as a zero point. for MT = 4. 0} indicates the symbol transmitted at Specially.

Oct. D. no. Signals. Dao and C. Xia. P=128 [5] P.. Yao and T. 1. “Intercarrier interference self- than the PIC-ML detector of [10]. Ahn. (7) (11) (12) [11] F. (b) Convergence behavior. MR = 4 and QPSK: (a) Performance comparison at the [1] M. 2009. P=31 -1 Proposed. Jan. S. P=15. FL. 56-103. “Iterative receiver (18) design with joint doubly selective channel and CFO estimation The complexity of the proposed detector is mainly caused for coded MIMO-OFDM Transmissions. 6-26. Chi. 1071-1075. Tureli.” IEEE Trans. Li. Yao. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. and S. Shawki.4 × 107 9. B. M. 12. Vehicu- lar Technology.. pp. Wang. 1045-1055. Li. and Q. . (a) (b) [2] M. M. 2005.” IEEE pp. Rev. 5. pp. Sugiura. Sail am. nol.” CFOs in Proc. Performance comparison among various detectors and [7] K. Ganesan. IEEE Int. pp. Yang. vol. Yang. 438-442. Zhou. P=7 Proposed. 54. vol. P=31. 6dB Complexity comparison of the PIC-ML and the proposed Proposed. Li. vol. 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