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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LCOMM.2016.2600567, IEEE

Communications Letters

IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 1

**Eﬃcient Detection of Spatial Modulation OFDM
**

Systems with Multiple Carrier Frequency Oﬀsets

Yan Zhao, Yue Xiao, Binhong Dong, Ping Yang, Lixia Xiao, and Wei Xiang

**Abstract—In this letter, an eﬃcient detection scheme ignored. In the schemes of [8]-[9], several joint turbo equal-
**

is proposed to mitigate the eﬀect of the carrier fre- ization schemes are proposed to implement equalization

quency oﬀset (CFO) in spatial modulation orthogonal and CFO compensation jointly.

frequency division multiplexing (SM-OFDM) system-

s. Speciﬁcally, the proposed scheme employs a novel Although various aforementioned compensation and de-

symbol-by-symbol (SS) aided iterative detector to the tection schemes have been proposed for MIMO-OFDM,

SM-OFDM systems with multiple CFOs, where the ze- those schemes may not be directly applied to SM-

ro symbols are considered as constellation points. Sim- OFDM schemes owing to their speciﬁc transmission mode.

ulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme To be speciﬁc, for conventional MIMO-OFDM systems,

is capable of eﬀectively mitigating the eﬀect of multiple

CFOs and of providing about considerable system per- those schemes are always designed under the assumption

formance improvement compared to the conventional that the transmit signals have non-zero components and

parallel interference cancellation (PIC)-aided maxi- the channel matrix has column full-rank. However, SM-

mum likelihood (ML) detector at a moderate complex- OFDM can eﬃciently operate in the context of asymmet-

ity cost. ric/unbalanced MIMO channels, whose channel matrices

Index Terms—Spatial modulation (SM), orthogonal are usually column rank-deﬁcient, which makes the design

frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), carrier fre- of CFO compensation algorithms more challenging. In

quency oﬀset (CFO).

order to increase the robustness of the SM-MIMO system

I. Introduction to multiple CFOs, recently, an iterative low-complexity

PATIAL modulation (SM) is introduced in [1]-[3] maximum likelihood (ML) detector [10] was proposed

S as a novel class of multiple-input multiple-output

(MIMO) techniques, where the antenna activation process

based on the concept of parallel interference cancellation

(PIC). However, it suﬀers from the problem of having the

is exploited as a means of conveying information bits. As error propagation since the eliminated interference may

a result, MIMO detection in SM systems is simpliﬁed. contain a part of the desired signal.

Furthermore, recent studies in [4]-[5] have demonstrated Against this background, the novel contribution of this

some fundamental properties of SM combined with orthog- letter is to propose a symbol-by-symbol (SS)-aided iter-

onal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology. ative detector, where the zero symbol of SM is explicitly

More speciﬁcally, the authors of [5] demonstrate that SM- taken into account as a constellation point in the detection

OFDM is able to outperform traditional MIMO-OFDM process. More speciﬁcally, in the proposed scheme, the sin-

and to enable ﬂexible transceiver conﬁgurations for low gle antenna compensation method is performed to adjust

rate in long-term evolution (LTE) systems. the CFO of the desired transmit antenna (TA), where a

Nevertheless, similar to OFDM, SM-OFDM systems convolution method is employed in the frequency domain.

suﬀer from the same disadvantage of destructed orthog- Then a SS-aided iterative detector based on the Gaussian

onality among subcarriers attributable to the carrier fre- approximation (GA) is developed to further mitigate the

quency oﬀset (CFO). In recent years, CFO compensation impact of multiple CFOs. Simulation results show that the

and detection methods have found a range of applications proposed detector brings out 3 dB performance improve-

in MIMO-OFDM uplink [6]-[9]. More speciﬁcally in [6], ment compared to the original PIC-ML detector [10].

a frequency reversal scheme is designed with the aid of II. System Model

a block-Alamouti-like structure ignoring the interference

from the conjugation of the data symbol vectors. In [7], Assume an SM system with MT transmit and MR

an optimal CFO compensation value is derived through receive antennas, where a total of B = log2 MT + log2 L

maximizing the signal-to-noise-plus-interference (SINR) bits are transmitted in each time slot, while log2 MT bits

ratio, where the residual inter-carrier interference (ICI) is are assigned to select a TA index and log2 L bits are used

to modulate a L-PSK/QAM symbol to be transmitted by

Y. Zhao, Y. Xiao, B. Dong, P. Yang, and L. Xiao are with the the activated TA. At the transmitter, the SM transmit

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Communi-

cations, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

symbol is expressed in vector form as follows

611731, Sichuan, China. (k) ˆ , 0, ...0 ]T ∈ S,

XSM = [0, ..., 0, X (1)

W. Xiang is with the College of Science, Technology and Engineer- | {z } k | {z }

ing, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia (e-mail: (c−1) MT −c

wei.xiang@jcu.edu.au).

The corresponding author is Y. Xiao (xiaoyue@uestc.edu.cn). where c represents the index of the activated TA, and

The ﬁnancial support of the National Science Foundation of China Xˆk ∈ ˆs denotes the transmitted L-PSK/QAM symbol

under Grant number 61401074, the open research fund of Sichuan Y- during the kth interval. S indicates the set of the transmit

outh Science and Technology (No. 2012JQ0020), and the Fundamen-

tal Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. ZYGX2015J011) SM symbols.

is gratefully acknowledged. For the SM-OFDM scheme, the block transmission of

1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

In this section. IEEE Communications Letters IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 2 OFDM symbols from ith (i ∈ (1. N − 1. iterative detection through on the kth subcarrier from ith TA.e. geographic locations while the receive antennas (RAs) are still centralized. the information-conveying feature (2) of SM-OFDM with multiple CFOs is exploited to simplify where Xi (k) ∈ {ˆ s. · · · .2600567. Simpliﬁed Design external environment [12]. but has not been fully edited. we divide the proposed scheme into two N k=0 stages. temperature.. the A. 0} denotes the data symbol transmitted the design. MT )) TA is given as ture of SM-OFDM and applying iterative detection to the N −1 1 ∑ SM symbol vector. 1. exchanging soft information is developed to alleviate the We assume that the TAs are distributed at separate residual CFO. i.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. Due to the quality of oscillators [11]. xi (n) = √ Xi (k) ej2πnk/N . Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10. In the second stage..1109/LCOMM. et single antenna compensation is employed as a coarse al.2016. (k) . humidity. and the delay caused by electronics associated with compensation to adjust the CFO of desired TA by con- volution with the its ICI coeﬃcient in frequency domain. In the ﬁrst stage. n = 0.

the base stations of the After convolution of Yj in (4) with S−εi = Sεj . each antenna element varies [13].

a SS-aided sin π (k + εi ) jπ(1− N1 )(k+εi ) iterative detector is developed to further mitigate the Sε(k) = π e . it can be shown that the ICI ∑ N −1 coeﬃcient in (4) can be given as (k) 1 √ −j2πnk/N Yj = N yj (n) e Sε(l−k) ≈ 0. the received baseband Then (7) can be expanded as signal with multiple CFOs on the jth (j ∈ (1. a complex Gaussian distribution of CN 0. in consideration of the special SM symbol B.e.m̸=i |l−k|≤K between the ith TA and jth RA. where αi ∈ S. In this section. · · · . σ 2 .εj =−εi (k) (k) TA sides cannot share the same frequency oﬀset. The message obtained from Y¯ij to X(k) contains l=0. Furthermore. the output of the kth subcarrier from the jth RA TA sides are considered. εi is the normalized CFO of the ith TA. we also assume that can be written as (k) (k) (k) the channel and CFOs do not change during one OFDM Y¯ =Y ⊗S . Also. Proposed Efficient Detection output probability is based on a vector-by-vector based Iterative detection has been widely employed in MIMO SM symbol. See http://www. plexity. signal vector X(k) are computed by a vector-by-vector basis instead of a symbol-by-symbol basis and 2) the III. · · · . . the received signal in the frequency domain can The proposed soft detection [method exchanges messages ]T be formulated as (k) (k) (k) (k) ∑ N −1 between Y¯ and X(k) = X . as observed in (1) and (6). Iij represents ICI term of tween the ith TA and the jth RA. is the SM vector rather than a single PSK/QAM symbol. |l − k| > K (P = 2K + 1 ≤ N ) . where n ¯ ij = ⊗ njand S−εi . Then the received signal based on (3) in (OFDMA) system is introduced to compute (8). and ⊗ denotes circular the kth subcarrier between the ith TA and the jth RA. (6) (k) (10). since the basic unit for information conveying systems thanks to its attractive low computational com. ij j (7) −εi symbol period. probability [ (k) vector of all SM symbols ] given by p(k) = Note that. (3) = Hij Xi + Iij + n ¯ ij . Proposed SS-aided Iterative Detection Method structure. Furthermore. convolution.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. X ij in1 2 MT (k) (l) Y(k) = H(k) S(0) XSM + H(l) S(l−k) XSM +n(k) . Personal use is permitted. SεMT . Because the frequency domain on the kth subcarrier from the jth only P neighboring subcarriers of the ICI term are signif- RA is given by [14] icant to a certain subcarrier. p (α2 ) . i=1 (8) (k) (k) (k) (k) where hij (n) is the channel impulse response (CIR) be. X . are two main diﬀerences between the conventional MIMO- pensation than in conventional MIMO-OFDM. (5) impact of multiple CFOs. Sε2 . we derive a new soft detection Here the proposed SS-aided iterative detection method is scheme through the exploiting information-conveying fea.m̸=i l=0 (k) (k) yj (n) = (xi (n) ⊗ hij (n))ej2πnεi /N + wj (n) . (9) n=0 i ∑ MT (k) (k) (0) ∑ MT ∑ N −1 (l) (l) (l−k) (k) where P increases with the value of CFO [15]. · · · . but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. i N sin N (k + εi ) Therefore. p (α2B ) .l̸=k (k) two scalar variables. At the receiver. because OFDM detectors in [6]-[9] and the proposed SS-aided multiple CFOs need to be corrected simultaneously to iterative detector: 1) the mean and the variance of the detect the SM symbols.ieee. The message passed from X(k) to Y¯ij is a (k) (k) (k) (k) and S(k) = diag Sε1 . i=1 m=1 l=0. the characteristics p (α1 ) . nj is assumed to follow (k) (k) (k) + I¯ij + n (k) ( ) (k) = Hij Xi ¯ ij . the multiple CFOs rather than the single-CFO at the in (5).. detailed as follows: 1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. a more computationally eﬃcient method while wj (n) represents the AWGN noise with zero mean for the orthogonal frequency division multiple access and variance σ 2 . = Hij Xi Sεi + Hmj Xm Sεm + nj . There- fore.html for more information. the mean µij and the vari- (k) where H denotes ( the channel gain on ) the kth subcarrier 2 (k) ance σij .l̸=k Substituting (9) into (8) yields (4) M∑T ∑ (k) where Hij denotes the channel gain on the kth subcarrier ¯ (k) ∆ (k) (k) Yij = Hij Xi (l) + (l) (l−k) Hmj Xm Sεm −εi + n ¯ ij (k) (k) m=1. i. There (k) (k) of the SM symbol make it more challenging for CFO com. MR )) receive ∑T N∑ M −1 antenna (RA) can be expressed as ¯ (k) Yij (k) (k) = Hij Xi + (l) (l) (l−k) Hmj Xm Sεm −εi + n ¯ ij (k) ∑ MT (k) (k) m=1. And Sεi (10) is the ICI coeﬃcient given by [14] Then based on the simpliﬁed model in (10).

E X2 . and then repeat Step 2 to Step 5 until 1. MR = 4 and QPSK modu- and lation. (17) variance of X(k) of the kth subcarrier are computed by αi ∈S ( ) [ ( ) ( ) ( )]T IV. k = p˜(k) X(k) = αi . In our simulation results. 8. var X2 . where we have M T = 4. · · · . the mean and the X(k) = arg max p˜(k) (αi ) .··· .2600567. but has not been fully edited.2016. var XMT ∑ ( ) . reaching the predeﬁned number of iterations. N . the detected SM symbol vector of the kth symbol. αi ∈S [10]. Content may change prior to final publication. the bit error rate (BER) ( ) [ ( ) ( ) ( )]T (k) (k) (k) performance of the ML detector with CFOs is denoted var X(k) = var X1 . IEEE Communications Letters IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 3 ( ) Step 1: Initialize the priori probabilities of all the SM Update ( the )priori probability as p(k) X(k) = αi = symbols of the kth subcarrier to p(k) (αi ) = 21B .This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. subcarrier is obtained as Based on the priori probabilities. Simulation Results (k) (k) (k) E X (k) = E X1 . Step 2: Calculate the mean and the variance of the SM Finally.E XMT In this section. Citation information: DOI 10. we compare the performance of the ∑ ( ) (11) proposed detector with the conventional PIC-ML detector = αi P X(k) = αi . · · · . 2.1109/LCOMM.

( ).

by “With CFOs” and the ML detector under the ideal |αi |2 P X(k) = αi − .

E X(k) .

For each TA. Performance Analysis (k) (k) (k) µij = E I ij + nij Figs. which shows that the BER of the sim- = Hmj Sεm −εi E Xm .3]. the normalized CFO εi is According to (11)-(12). Moreover. the proposed detectors with 2 (k) (k) (k) σij = var I ij + nij P = 15 and P = 32 exhibit good BER results. computed as ( ) A. and N = 128 interference between the ith TA and the jth RA at the kth frequency domain subchannels with a CP length of 32 subcarrier in (10). 0. the mean µij and the variance independent and random in one OFDM symbol following 2 (k) (k) (k) σij of the joint interference I ij + nij in (10) can be an uniform distribution over the interval [−0. which ∑ ∑ .3. . 2 = scenario without the existence of CFOs is denoted by “ML- αi ∈S (12) Ideal”. (k) are considered. 1 (a) and 2 (a). m=1. the modulated symbols are transmitted over the Extended Vehicular A (EVA) model channel [16] Step 3: Compute the mean and the variance of the joint with a maximum Doppler shift of 200 Hz. 1 and 2 plot the achievable BER of the proposed ∑ MT ∑ ( ) (13) (l) (l−k) (l) detection scheme. ( ) In Figs.m̸=i |l−k|≤K pliﬁed design in (10) decreases with the number of the and eﬀective neighboring subcarriers P ≤ 128 in (9).

.

( ) MT .

(l) (l−k) .

2 (l) is close to that of the full-complexity scheme with P = = .

Hmj Sεm −εi .

which According to (13)-(14). However. the probability pj (k) Xq (k) q∈ also depends on the conventional ML detector. Overall. var Xm + σ 2 . (14) the “With CFOs” detector and the PIC-ML detector [10] Step 4: Compute the posteriori probability of the SM exhibit the error ﬂoor eﬀect. the the “With CFOs” detector only operates the conventional zero symbol of the constellation is considered as a zero ML detector. 1 (a) and 2 (a). the following steps of PIC-ML detector for constructing (1. m=1. Therefore. ( ) get the reliable SM symbol from its initial steps. In this step. the PIC-ML detector of [10] is unable to be obtained from (13) and (14). respectively. in Figs. which fails to exploit the eﬀect caused by the point in which the mean and variance of this symbol can ICI part. these algorithms subcarrier is calculated by . While. This is due to the fact that symbol by using the SS-aided detection.m̸=i |l−k|≤K N = 128. MT ) of the qth symbol of the jth RA at the kth ICI part may also be unreliable.

.

2 may be only eﬀective when the value of CFO is small. It ( ) −.

.

Y¯ij(k) − Hij (k) q (k) .

αi − µij .

html for more information. . The results indicate that the proposed MR RAs. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. where αiq ∈ {ˆ s. the convergence rates of the proposed ( ) transmitted SM symbol p˜(k) X(k) = αi . See http://www. the proposed the TA. · · · . The probability of X(k) = αi can be combining detector can be converged in 5 iterations.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. Furthermore. (b) characterize the ( by ) tained jointly utilizing the MT estimated probabilities convergence performance of the proposed detector asso- (k) pj Xq (k) (q = 1. MT ) (j = 1. by MT MR estimated probabilities as B. Complexity Comparison ( ) ∑ MT ∑ MR ( ) p˜(k) X(k) = αi = exp Xq(k) = αiq . is shown in Fig. 1 (a) and Fig. · · · . Figs. respectively. Personal use is permitted. MR = 4 and MT = 8. ˆ s denotes the set tio (SNR) improvement compared to the PIC-ML detector of transmitted L-PSK/QAM symbols.ieee. 2 (a) that the proposed (k) pj Xq(k) = αiq ∝ 2 (k) . MR ) from all the ciated with P = 15 and P = 32 for diﬀerent SNR points. 1 (a) and 2 (a). of 8 iterations. 1 (b) and 2. MR = 4 at the BER of Then the maximum ratio combining (MRC) method is 8 × 10−2 . (k) pj In this subsection. introduced to calculate the posteriori probability of the Furthermore. 1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. The posteriori detector are investigated by setting a maximum number probability corresponding to the SM symbol X(k) is ob. (15) detector is capable of oﬀering a better BER performance 2σij over the PIC-ML detector [10] at diﬀerent conﬁgurations. the complexity of the PIC-ML [10] q=1 j=1 and the proposed detectors are evaluated in Table I (16) in terms of the number of real-valued multiplications. as shown in Figs. respectively. where the zero symbol of the constellation is detector can oﬀer about 2 dB and 3 dB signal-to-noise ra- considered as a zero point. for MT = 4. 0} indicates the symbol transmitted at Specially.

Oct. D. no. Signals. Dao and C. Xia. P=128 [5] P.. Yao and T. 1. “Intercarrier interference self- than the PIC-ML detector of [10]. Ahn. (7) (11) (12) [11] F. (b) Convergence behavior. MR = 4 and QPSK: (a) Performance comparison at the [1] M. 2009. P=31 -1 Proposed. Jan. S. P=15. FL. 56-103. “Iterative receiver (18) design with joint doubly selective channel and CFO estimation The complexity of the proposed detector is mainly caused for coded MIMO-OFDM Transmissions. 6-26. Chi. 1071-1075. Tureli.” IEEE Trans. Li. Yao. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. and S. Shawki.4 × 107 9. B. M. 12. Vehicu- lar Technology.. pp. Wang. 1045-1055. Li. and Q. . (a) (b) [2] M. M. 2005.” IEEE Trans.ieee. pp. Rev. 5. pp. Sugiura. Sail am. nol.” CFOs in Proc. Performance comparison among various detectors and [7] K. Ganesan. IEEE Int. pp. Yang. vol. Yang. 438-442. Zhou. P=7 Proposed. 54. vol. P=31. 6dB Complexity comparison of the PIC-ML and the proposed Proposed. Li. vol. CN. 2006. 102. 2072-2077. Deng. Dec. “Design 10 guidelines for spatial modulation. I. X.. 4. P. [4] S.. L.. 2004. CP IC−M L = 4Nt Nr K 2 + 4Nr K 2 + Nr K2B+3 + 7Nt K. Veh. Haas. 105-120. 1. “On BER BER 10-2 the performance of spatial modulation OFDM. AI-Kamali. 8.. Mar. Comput. 2011. [9] H. pp..org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.. Tang. 4052-4057. 17. S. Xiao. Mar.1109/LCOMM. Fig. KR.2016. Wireless Commun.-G. 102-107. P=3 Proposed.” IEEE Commun. Yang. and L. 2011. vol.4 × 106 2. 15dB Conﬁguration 1 Conﬁguration 2 Designs 10-1 Proposed. MR = 4 and QPSK: (a) Performance comparison at the with distributed transmit antennas. R. 15dB [3] P.html for more information. where a symbol-by-symbol concept was employed (Released8). multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey.0.1 × 107 With CFOs 10-3 PIC-ML [10] with generalized SM systems [17] and STBC-based SM systems [18]. 18dB [6] H. an improved BER performance at a moderate complexity [13] Y. Surveys 10-1 Tuts. “Spatial modulation for fourth iteration. Ng. 1729-1738.. and S. 14. R. Aug. 2014. M. Orlando. Seoul.and multiple-RF aided non- considered in the design process. 60. Y. Y. pp.” IEEE Trans. Wireless Com- mun. Conf. 2003. vol. May 18-21. 49.4 × 107 10-2 No CFOs Proposed P = 15 2. no. M. P=15. “Distributed space-frequency CFOs codes for cooperative communication systems with multiple 10-3 10-4 0 6 12 18 24 0 2 4 6 8 carrier frequency oﬀsets. Tech- fourth iteration. IM-20.9 × 106 1. H. Sep. given by [10] B. M. Feb. A. and F. Mag. 2009.2600567..” Proceedings of the IEEE. W. 6dB tunities and implementation. 0 6 12 18 24 0 2 4 6 8 SNR/dB Iterations Fig. 40th PIC-ML [10] Asilomar Conf. 12dB Proposed. Ghrayeb. IEEE Veh. Dessouky. P=31. [16] E-UTRA Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception scheme.” IEEE Trans. See http://www. A. Personal use is permitted. Honan. Instrum. Oct. we conclude that the proposed detector provides pp. IEEE This letter proposed an eﬃcient soft iterative detection Globecom. Harbin. Le-Ngoc. F. “An iterative CFO com- pensation algorithm for distributed spatial modulation OFDM B B systems. 2011. P=31. Di Renzo. Conf.” in Proc. Yun. trends. Proposed. et al.. Sun. SNR/dB Iterations 8. Performance comparison among various detectors and References convergence behavior of the proposed detector for SM-OFDM with MT = 4. R. Y. 3. Tellambura. N. 2012. P=31. pp. vol. AIHanafy. no. (b) Convergence behavior. no. Paciﬁc Grove. P=15 Proposed. Yin. 3.3 × 106 2. work will focus on the integration of the proposed detector Surveys Tuts. Quitin. but has not been fully edited. Sugiura.9 × 106 2. ICST Conf. With Proposed. P=15.104. CA. M. Grant. Rahman. [8] F. oppor- Proposed. Oct. May 2014. pp. Syst. W. Netw. Hanzo. H. cancellation space-frequency codes for MIMO-OFDM. By taking into account both the BER versus complexity [12] J. “Correction of carrier convergence behavior of the proposed detector for SM-OFDM with frequency oﬀsets in OFDM-based spatial multiplexing MIMO MT = 8. Meas. Citation information: DOI 10. by the computations of (7) and (11)-(15). 1-4. the complexity of the PIC-ML detector equalization and carrier frequency oﬀsets compensation scheme is given by for MIMO SCFDMA systems. 18dB 4×4 8×4 PIC-ML [10] 1. vol. pp. A. 56. 12dB iteration. Haas. show that the proposed iterative detector is attractive [18] S. pp.” IEEE Trans. S. “A scalable architecture for distributed transmit beamforming | {z } | {z } | {z } with commodity radios: Design and proof of concept. “Frequency V. H. 2012. Hanzo.5. Wuhan. pp. P=15. C.. 401-420. Second Quarter. “Characterization of frequency stability. 1089-7798 (c) 2016 IEEE. U.” IEEE Trans. CP roposed = 4MT MR K + 2K2 + 4M T K + 5K2 | {z } | {z } | {z } Mobile Comput. 1825-1829. Content may change prior to final publication. P=7 Proposed. Sept. pp. and N.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. Chen. Xiao. 3GPP TSG-RAN Std. 9dB detectors with parameters K = 128 and QPSK for one Proposed. 36. and L. (19) 2013.” in Proc. 2 2 + 15MT MR P K + 8MT MR P K + (9L + 5) MT MR K . no. May 2009. Technol. “Single..7 × 107 BER BER 10-2 Proposed P = 128 Proposed P = 31 5. no. P=128 10-1 Proposed. T. and K. 10-2 Proposed. Di Renzo. IEEE Communications Letters IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 4 (a) (b) TABLE I 100 100 Proposed. 2011. S. pp. Sugiura. Cao. P=15. as well as the development of the novel carrier 10-3 10-4 frequency estimation method for SM-OFDM. Haas. vol. P=3 Proposed. vol. and the zero constellation point in SM systems has been [17] N. 2014.” IEEE (13) (14) (15) Trans. 100 100 “Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: challenges. “Joint low-complexity According to [10]. vol. 2. Cutler. S. Technol. Zhou. 182-191. “Correlation-based frequency oﬀset estima- cost and is capable of striking a better trade-oﬀ between tion in MIMO system. U. and L. Y. Wireless Commun. Mudumbai. and S. Our future chitecture for multiple-antenna aided systems. Nguyen-Le. no. 1. P=31. pp. H Tran. and P. “A universal space-time ar- for SM-OFDM systems with multiple CFOs. no. Xiao. 2. 9dB Proposed.869-873. and U. Proposed. R. B. (VTC). Our simulation results coherent generalized spatial modulation” in Proc. Barnes. Veh. “Initial performance -3 10 No evaluation of spatial modulation OFDM in LTE-based systems. Ishikawa and S. and P. Mesleh. 11. Madhow. pp. P=15 no. 12. Abd El-Samie. CN. VTC 2014- Spring. Proposed.” in Proc. Hanzo. 1418-1428. Di Renzo. vol. Conclusion synchronization for generalized OFDMA uplink. Y. the BER performance and the computational complexity [14] D. Shao. 2. Wireless Commun.” IEEE Commun. S. [15] Z. Q. E.” IEEE Commun. 1-5. May 1971.” in Proc. pp.

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