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EXERCISE 1

Independent and Dependent Clauses
Write INDEP next to the independent clauses and put a period (.) after them. Write DEP next to the
dependent clauses.
INDEP 1. Jet lag affects most long distance travellers
DEP 2. Which is simply the urge to sleep at inappropriate times
INDEP 3. During long journeys through several time zones, the body’s inner clock is
disrupted
INDEP 4. Also; changes in work schedules can cause jet lag.
DEP 5. When hospital nurses change from a day shift to a night shift, for example
DEP 6. Although there is no sure way to prevent jet lag
INDEP 7. There are some ways to minimize it
INDEP 8. Because jet lag is caused at least partially by loss of sleep, not just a change in
the time of sleep
INDEP 9. A traveller should plan to arrive at his or her destination as late as possible
INDEP 10. Upon arriving, he or she should immediately go to bed
INDEP 11. Then the traveller should start to live in the new time frame immediately

EXERCISE 2

Identifying Subjects, Verbs and Complements

Underline the subjects, verbs, and complements in the following sentences and write S, V, or C
above them. Also put parentheses () around prepositional phrases.

S V C
1. My name is Roberto Sanchez

S V C
2. I was born (on September 21, 1978) (in the city) (of San Juan, Puerto Rico)

S V C
3. I am a student at Greenhills College in Boston, Massachusetts

S V C
4. Some (of my classes) are difficult

S V C
5. Some (of the homework) is boring

S V C
6. None (of my classmates) speak Spanish

S V C
7. A lot (of my classes) are in Dante Hall

S V C
8. A lot (of my time) is spent in the student lounge

S V C
9. My father works in an office

Have 17. 1996. hesuffered serious injuries and 3) be now paralysed. Reeve 4) be unable to use his arms and legs. He cannot breathe without the aid of a respirator. Be 9. His doctor 15) call him a courageous man and a wonderful patient. My father understands English but doesn’t speak it S V C 13. Hope 19. The Bostonians. and The Remains of the Day. Reeve made a surprise appearance at the Academy Award ceremonies in Hollywood and made a speech. He 5) get around in a motorized wheelchair. but now he can. Be 2. Make 11. Show 18. and telegrams of encouragement and best wishes. Have 8. Neither (of my parents) has been to the United States. Reeve 13) be truly grateful to everyone. Be 14. S V C 10. However. He 14) be thankful for the excellent medical care he received from the medical staff at the hospital. visited him and often brought along their young son. Include 3. Wear 7.Laugh 12. Pray A Courageous Man Christopher Reeve 1) be a famous Hollywood actor. Lift 13. He was thrown off and hit his head on the ground. During his hospital stay. his horse stopped suddenly. Call 16. 1995. Reeve7) have a strong support system. My youngest brother and sister are still in high school S V C S V C 12. Tragically. None (of us) are married S V C 11. Reeve was also an experienced horseback rider. his wife.² He also 6) wear a neck support. At first. Get 6. He wasreleased from the hospital in December 1995. A lot of Americans and people around the words have sent him cards. he could not eat solid food. All of Reeve’s friends and supporters 18 hope and 19) pray for his recovery. Be 15. . EXERCISE 3 Complete the essay with the correct verb forms below. He played the role of Superman in several movies. while he was performing in a riding competition. One of his Hollywood friends 9) be comedian Robin Williams. Be 10. Reeve 16) have a strong will to live as normal a life as possible. Pictures of his smiling. Williams’s funny jokes 10) make him 11) laugh and 12 lift his spirits. Be 5. His loving family and friends 8) be there for him. 1. letters. Will. Some of his other movies 2) include Deathtrap. Dana. Be 4. In my country most (of the people) are Catholic S V C 14. on May 27. Then on March 25. handsome face 17) snow his positive attitude.

airlines. Write two simple sentences with one subject and two verbs a. 10. Write two simple sentences with two subjects and two verbs. and circle the word or words that connect the parallel structures. 2. 5. People often spend as much time worrying about the future as planning for it. EXERCISE 4. Rizky go to market and buy a shoes b. or in country where the language is spoken. 7. and comfortable chair. Example The disadvantages of using a credit card are overspending and you pay high interest rates. Rafi receive a letter while watching tv 3. Simple Sentences 1. Credit cards are accepted by department stores. a spacious desk. My new personal computer is both fast and reliable. Ann is growing older but unfortunately not wiser. 3. Before the judge announced the sentence. 6. Two or more items in each of the following sentences are written in parallel grammatical form. Badari make a orange juice after his uncle buy orange in market EXERCISE 12 Parallelism A. and some gas stations. Young people buy computers not only to do schoolwork but also to play games. 4. You know you are truly bilingual when you can calculate in your second language and when you begin to dream in it. 1. the level of CO2 in the atmosphere will continue to increase. The disadvantages of using a credit card are overspending and paying high interest rates 1. Underline the part of the sentence that is not parallel and correct it. 9. a. Rewrite the following sentences in parallel form. 8. Dedi call his friend by telephone 2. You can learn a second language in the classroom. Budi ride his bycle b. Adit play guitar when Chrismas sing a song b. Credit cards are accepted by department stores. at home. and they can be used in some gas stations. a. Write two simple sentences with one subject and one verb. B. 2. he asked the murderer if he wanted to speak either to the victim’s family or to the jury. Example An ideal environment for studying includes good lighting. You do not need to risk carrying cash or to pass up a sale. airlines. Underline the items or ideas that are parallel. . The criminal neither admitted guilt nor asked for forgiveness before he was executed. If industrial nations continue to burn fossil fuels and if developing nations continue to burn their rain forests. My old typewriter is neither fast nor reliable. You do not need to risk carrying cash or to risk to pass up a sale.

but in fact it isn’t. the fact that men are physically stronger that women. drifting west over other countries. With credit cards. . Working during the morning and attending classes during the afternoon. The best movie that I saw last year. You can charge both at restaurants. Many people want neither to pay off their balance monthly nor do they like paying interest. COMP 2. rewrite each fragment to make a complete sentence. B. For example. FRAG 11. Mark them FRAG if they are sentence fragments. When radiation monitors¹ in Sweden indicated an increase in radiation levels over Scandinavia. for example. EXERCISE 13 Rewriting Sentence Fragments A. 4. 6. To correct : For example. for example to live in peace and freedom. Many of my friends who didn’t have the opportunity to go to college. To correct : All humankind want their desire is filly. when you stay at hotels. many students have part-time jobs. COMP 12. Not making any payment or to send in only minimum payments every month is poor money management. Although people want to believe that all men are created equal. the worst nuclear accident in history. The first hint of the tragedy came two days after the accident occurred. plant in Pennsylvania. On a separate piece of paper. Read the following sentences. and causing crops and dairy products to become contaminated. Because I don’t feel that grades in college have any value. many students have part-time jobs.With credit cards. using coordinating conjunctions and. Many people carry not only credit cards but also carry cash. or COMP if they are complete sentences. You can charge both at restaurants and when you stay at hotels. COMP 4. Titanic was the most financially successful movie ever made. Although people want to believe that all men are created equal. COMP 7. COMP 14. neither…nor. _________________________________________________________________________ C. FRAG 5. 5. FRAG 10. FRAG 1. FRAG 1. for example. _________________________________________________________________________ 7. The nuclear accident that occurred in Russia in 1986. FRAG 13. COMP 9. Opponents of nuclear power plants pointing to the Chernobyl disaster and the near-disaster at a U. To correct : Although people want to believe that all men are created equal. FRAG 5. Radiation escaping into the atmosphere. FRAG 6. or stretch out your payments. you can either pay your bill with one check. 3.1 Rewrite that Correct from Fragments Sentence. or you can stretch out your payments. FRAG 6. FRAG 15. Many people carry not only credit cards but they also carry cash. The desire of all humankind to live in peace and freedom. or. Finding a suitable marriage partner is a challenging task COMP 8. For example. and but and the correlative conjunctions both…and. many students are working in their part-time jobs. The desire of all humankind to live in peace and freedom. and not only…but also one time each. either…or.S. you can either pay your bill with one check. Write seven original sentences in parallel form. Second. COMP 3.

insurance rates]. Using it as a weapon when they feel particularly aggressive. Opponents of nuclear power plants pointing to the Chernobyl disaster and the near-disaster at a U. Because I don’t feel that grades in college have any value. it seems. B. FRAG [Because of their attitude]. inattentive. and even dangerous behind the wheel. FRAG [Or using it as a status symbol]. women are safer drivers. To correct : I don’t proud because I don’t feel that grades in college have any value. To correct : The nuclear accident that occurred in Russia in 1986. Men can learn to become safe drivers. and even dangerous behind the wheel. Insurance rates for women are 20 percent lower than they are for men. FRAG 10. 4. However. FRAG 11. the goverment of Sweden should to give the warning to their people. To correct : Woman can do about male jobs. safer drivers than men. statistics prove that women are. FRAG [Like a washing machine]. the worst nuclear accident in history and we have to learn from it. 3. men regard the automobile as an extension of their egos. women drivers who regard the automobile as a convenience. insurance rates give information about drivers statistic. Men consider women drivers incompetent. For example. 2. FRAG 13. in fact. Or using it as a status symbol. . On the one hand. When radiation monitors¹ in Sweden indicated an increase in radiation levels over Scandinavia. Although women are criticized for being too cautious. FRAG 15. Women Drivers Male chauvinism extends even into the area of automobile driving. the greater percentage of accidents involving deaths caused by men. plant in Pennsylvania.S. 1. To correct : Men considered that women drivers incompetent. They are really just being safe drivers. Like a washing machine. To correct : Opponents of nuclear power plants pointing to the Chernobyl disaster and the near-disaster at a U. All in all. and even dangerous behind the wheel]. The nuclear accident that occurred in Russia in 1986. On the other hand. If they adopt the attitude that an automobile is merely a convenience.1 The Correct of Fragments Sentence. insurance rates. like a washing machine. FRAG [For example. To correct : It is using to mark a status symbol. B.S. The reasons for women drivers’ safer driving habits can perhaps be found in the differing attitudes of the sexes toward automobiles. FRAG [Men consider women drivers incompetent. Then correct all fragments on a separate piece of paper. Also. Another proof is that more accidents are caused by male drivers between the ages of 18 and 25 than by any other group. plant in Pennsylvania that should not to happen. To correct : When radiation monitors¹ in Sweden indicated an increase in radiation levels over Scandinavia. the worst nuclear accident in history. Read the following short essay. Put brackets [ ] around any sentence fragments that you find and mark them FRAG. inattentive. To correct : For example. Believing that they are far better drivers than women. inattentive.

5. To correct : Women are safer drivers because of their attitude. . 6. Because of their attitude.