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# Fins February 21, 2007

Outline
Heat Transfer with Fins • Review previous material
• What is a fin and why do we use them?
Larry Caretto • Examples of fins
Mechanical Engineering 375 • Analysis of fins
Heat Transfer • Fin effectiveness

February 21, 2007

2

Review Parallel Resistances Review Slab with Convection
Figure 3-6 from
1 1 1 A is area normal Çengel, Heat and
L
= + to heat flow Mass Transfer
T∞ = 1
• = As hconv + As hrad
Tsurr Rtotal Q& T −T
First find heat flux from h1, h2, q& = = ∞1 ∞ 2
Define total heat transfer L, k, T∞1, and T∞2 A 1 +L+ 1
coefficient, htotal h1 k h2
Figure 3-5 Once heat flux is known, find T1 and T2
from Çengel, 1
Heat and htotal = = hconv + hrad q& q&
Mass Transfer
As Rtotal T1 = T∞1 − T2 = T∞ 2 +
3 h1 h2 4

Review Composite Figure 3-26 Effect of Insulation Thickness
Cylindrical Shell from Çengel,
Heat and Mass 2500
Transfer
2000
cylinder (or sphere) can
actually increase heat transfer!
1500
Heat loss physical
1000

500 Maximum heat transfer is at rc = k/h,
T∞1 − T∞2 which may be less than physical radius
Q& =
1 1 ⎛ r ⎞ 1 ⎛r ⎞ 1 ⎛r ⎞ 1
0

+ ln⎜ 2 ⎟ + ln⎜ 3 ⎟ + ln⎜ 4 ⎟ + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
h1 2πr1L 2πk1L ⎜⎝ r1 ⎟⎠ 2πk2 L ⎜⎝ r2 ⎟⎠ 2πk3 L ⎜⎝ r3 ⎟⎠ h2 2πr4 L Radius (in)
5 6

ME 375 – Heat Transfer 1

10 Heat Transfer Figure 3-35 from Çengel. whose equation is 4 Resistance Total found from tables like Çengel Table 3-7 Resistance – Basic equation: Q& = kS(T – T ) 1 2 2 – S must have dimensions of length • Equations for S depend on parameters in the 0 0 0. Heat Transfer Analysis What is Fin Shape? • S • Conduction in x. only area and perimeter T0 = Tb • Convection from – Derivation of fin equation assumes fin surface constant cross section • Fin may be in the shape of a uniform cylinder.Fins February 21. S. where δ = D for ⎡ dT ⎤ ⎡ dT ⎤ ⎢− kAc dx ⎥ = ⎢− kAc dx ⎥ + hpΔx(T − T∞ ) circular fins.5 3 different geometries Insulation Thickness (in) 7 8 What is a Fin? Innovative Fin Designs • A fin is a extended • Important surface to application is increase area for cooling of power convection heat electronics transfer • How do we Q& = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) analyze fin • Goal is to increase effectiveness? • Automobile radiator – Start with As to increase Q & is example of fin simple 1D fin Figure 3-33 from Çengel. • Heat balance but not a cone over differential • Is fin two dimensional? volume element – Yes. but one-dimensional analysis is • F – p = perimeter accurate if hδ/k < 0.5 2 2. thickness for rectangular fins ⎣ ⎦x ⎣ ⎦ x + Δx 11 12 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 2 .5 1 1.2. 2007 Resistances for Pipe Insulation 12 Review Conduction Shape Factor 10 • Simplified analysis 8 – for multidimensional geometries with each surface at a uniform temperature Resistance Insultation 6 (hr·ft·F/Btu) Resistance Convection – Use shape factor. Heat Transfer 9 Figure 3-34 from Çengel. • Analysis does not consider shape of direction cross section.

at x = L.5 2 2.7 radiation) at x = L 0. 2007 Fin Equation and Solution Boundary Conditions for C1.2 0.4 extra length 0.9 0.1 Lc. 0.5 3 L + Ac/p. Heat Transfer ME 375 – Heat Transfer 3 . C2 • T0 = Tb = base temperature at x = 0 θ = C1e mx + C2e − mx • Define θ = T – T∞ so θb = Tb – T∞ • First condition: base temperature is Tb • The fin equation for constant k and Ac is so θ = θb = Tb – T∞ at x = 0 d 2θ hp 2 − m 2θ = 0 m2 = • Alternatives for second condition dx kAc – Infinitely long fin (requires C1= 0) • The solution to this differential equation – Negligible heat transfer from end at x = L is: θ = C1e mx + C2e − mx – Convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient for end at x = L 13 14 Infinitely Long Fin Zero Heat Transfer at x = L dθ d (T − Tb ) dT θ = C1e mx + C2e − mx θ = C1e mx + C2e −mx = = = mC1e mx − mC2e −mx dx dx dx • C1 = 0 to keep solution finite • At x = 0. dθ/dx = 0 • At x = 0.3 • Use adjusted length. will give x convection from end Figure 3-39 from 17 18 Çengel.5 1 1.Fins February 21. θ = θb.8 • For convection (+ 0. to give area Ac 0 • Modified length.6 use approximation of tanh x 0.5 0. θ = θb = requires C2 = θb • Algebraic details at end θ = θb cosh m( L − x) ⇒ T − T∞ = (Tb − T∞ )e − x hp kAc θ = θb e −mx cosh mL dθ − m sinh m( L − x) kθb m sinh m( L − x) q& = −k dT dx = −k (Tb − T∞ )e −x hp kAc (− hp kAc ) q& = − k dx = − kθb cosh mL = cosh mL kA θ m sinh mL( L − x) Q& x =0 = Ac q& x =0 = kAc (Tb − T∞ ) hp kAc = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) Q& x=0 = Ac q& x =0 = c b = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL cosh mL 15 16 Hyperbolic Tangent 1 Convection 0. Lc = 0 0.

L = 0. is ratio of heat trans.05 W – Consider two areas on original surface • Without fin available area is Ac • Area where pins occur will have increase by factor shown in fin analysis Q& no fin = Ac h(Tb − T∞ ) = 70 W m2 ⋅ K (0. a length of 5 cm.004 m. If the heat Q& x=0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mLc m = hp kAc Lc = L + Ac p transfer coefficient is 70 W/m2·K.051 m )⎤⎥ – A practical installation of small fins like this m2 ⋅ K m⋅ K ⎣ m ⎦ one would have several fins on a surface Q& fin = 1.01257 m )(0.71 m−1 = 20oC. • Infinitely long fin Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) fer with fin to heat transfer with no fin Q& fin Q& fin • Fin with end Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL ε fin = = convection Qno fin hAb (Tb − T∞ ) & Q& x =0 kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) kp ε ∞fin = = = • Ab is fin area at base. ε) fin effectiveness 21 22 Fin Effectiveness Constant Ac Fin Effectiveness • Effectiveness.05 m + 0. what is the heat Ac = πD 2 4 = π(0. Ts = 50oC. h = 70 W/m2·K.004 m )2 4 = 0.00001257 m 2 ) 200 W ⎡18.71 tanh ⎢ (0. with a surface temperature of 50oC and an air p = πD = π(0.00001257m2 (0.00001257m2 19 20 Solution II Increase of 40 times? Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mLc = (50 − 20)K • • Factor of 40 increase in heat transfer is just for area of fin 70 W (0.01257 m & with and without fin m= = = 18. εfin.01257 m temperature of 20oC. and a thermal end correction for convection conductivity of 200 W/m·K.051 m D = 0.Fins February 21. Find: Q kAc m2 ⋅ K 200 W 0.05 m.01257 m) = 0. 2007 Problem Solution • A pin (cylindrical) fin has a diameter of • Use equation for finite length fin with 4 mm. same as Ac for fin hAc (Tb − T∞ ) hAc (Tb − T∞ ) hAc with constant cross sectional area • Want fin effectiveness greater than one kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL kp ε convfin = = tanh mL to get additional heat transfer hAc (Tb − T∞ ) hAc 23 24 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 4 . ( ) Lc = L + Ac p = 0.00001257 m )(30 K ) = 0.004 m ) = 0.64 (effectiveness.0264 W 2 • Area without fins has usual flat surface result – Will consider this difference in determining • Increase by factor of 39.00001257 m 2 transfer with and without the fin? • Given: k = 200 W/m·K. T∞ hp 70 W m ⋅ K 0.

1 1 10 Qno fin ⎝ A Ratio of parameter to base value Figure 3-45 from 27 28 Çengel.03 m 80 thermal conductivity with fins.Fins February 21.004 m Q& fin and Lc = 0. p = πD and Ac = πD2/4.5 25 26 Effect of Parameters on Rectangular Fin Effectiveness 110 Base Case Overall Fin Effectiveness 100 k = 200 W/m·K 90 t = 0.08 m mL = 1.64) (pD2/4)/(0.004 m)(0.005 m. low h and high ratio • Choose a base case and vary each of p/Ac make a fin effective parameter from 0. 2007 What makes a fin effective? What makes a fin effective? II kp kp ⎛ hp ⎞ kp kp ⎛ hp ⎞ ε ∞fin = kp ε convfin = tanh mL = tanh⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ ε convfin = tanh mL = tanh ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ hAc hAc hAc ⎝ kAc ⎠ hAc hAc ⎝ kAc ⎠ • For infinite fin high k.005 m • Original area. so so that Ac = tw and p = 2(t + w) p/Ac = 4/D.05 and ε = 28.08 m at end is not clear – Base mLc = 1.03 m. Heat Transfer Fin Efficiency Fin Efficiency II • Compare actual • Relation to effectiveness heat transfer to Q& fin ε fin hAc (Tb − T∞ ) ε fin Ac ideal case where η fin = = = for uniform & Q fin.05 fin width. L = 0. Aunfin) ( ) h ε fin A fin + Aunfin (Tb − T∞ ) fin length Q& fin 50 40 = 30 Q&no fin hA(T − T ) b ∞ 20 10 Q& fin ⎛ A fin Aunfin ⎞ εtotal = & = ⎜⎜ ε fin + ⎟ A ⎟⎠ 0 0. Afin) + (area Fin Effectiveness 2 h = 70 W/m ·K fin thickness.051 m) = 0. and thickness. t.0006409 m2 Q& fin – Previously showed ε = 39.max π(0. • Effect of variables on fin with convection t = 0. w = 0. t 70 60 L = 0. Heat Transfer ME 375 – Heat Transfer 5 .64 so η = (39. small D gives better ε • Base case has k = 200 W/m·K.max hA fin (Tb − T∞ ) A fin entire fin is at cross section A fin = Lc p base temperature • Recall pin fin problem with D = 0.051 m so Afin = pLc = πDLc = η fin = & = Q fin. A = (area w = 0. w.0006409 m2) = 0. • For pin fin.777 Figure 3-39 from hA fin (Tb − T∞ ) 29 30 Çengel. h = 70 W/m2·K. w heat transfer coefficient without fins.1 to 10 times base value – Rectangular fin with width.

9oC/W) will satisfy this sinks on the previous page suitable for cooling requirement this transistor? & = 120 W.T∞)/R • See Table 3-6 in Çengel for examples with R values – First part of table shown on next chart 33 34 Problem Solution • A power transistor that dissipates Tsurf − T∞ Tsurf − T∞ 70o C − 25o C 1.2oC/W and 5oC/W) 25oC • Find: Do devices have sufficient R 35 36 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 6 . Are any of the heat (with R = 0. such that Q & = power dissipation = (Tdevice . T = 70oC. Cooling air is • Only the HS 5030 mounted vertically available at 25oC. Heat Transfer Figure 3-42 A p = Lc t from Çengel.Fins February 21. Heat Transfer Electronic Heat Sinks • Designed to protect equipment like power transistors from overheating • Characterized by thermal resistance. Heat Transfer 31 32 From Çengel. 2007 Fin Efficiency Data Fin Efficiency Data II Figure 3-43 from Çengel.125o C Q& = ⇒ R= = = 120 W has a maximum operating R Q& 40 W W temperature of 70oC. R. T = • The R values for the other heat sinks • Given: Q surf ∞ are too large (1.

dθ/dx = dT/dx= 0 convection (dT/dx = 0) at x = L dθ dT θb = C1 + C2 = = mC1e mL − mC2e −mL = 0 dx x = L dx x= L θb = C1 + C1e 2 mL C2 = C1e 2mL θb θb e 2 mL C1 = C2 = C1e 2mL = 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL 37 38 Zero Heat Transfer at x = L II Zero Heat Transfer at x = L III • Combine results from last chart • Rearrange exponential terms on last − mx θb θb e 2 mL chart and introduce hyperbolic cosine. θ = θb. at x = L.Fins February 21. 2007 Extra Charts Zero Heat Transfer at x = L dθ d (T − Tb ) dT • The following charts show the details of θ = C1e mx + C2e −mx = = = mC1e mx − mC2e − mx dx dx dx the fin equation solution for no • At x = 0. θ = C1e mx + C2e C1 = C2 = 1 + e 2 mL 1 + e 2mL cosh(x) = (ez + e-z)/2 θb θb e 2 mL θ e mx + θb e 2mL e − mx θb e − mL e mx + θb e mL e − mx e m( x− L ) + e − m( x − L ) θ= e mx + e −mx = b θ= = θb 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e −mL + e mL e −mL + e mL 2θ cosh m( L − x) θb cosh m( L − x) • Multiply fraction top and bottom by e-mL = b = 2 cosh mL cosh mL θb θb e 2mL θb e − mL e mx + θb e mL e − mx θ= e mx + e −mx = θb cosh m( L − x) 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e −mL + e mL • Final result: θ = cosh mL 39 40 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 7 .