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Fins February 21, 2007

Outline
Heat Transfer with Fins • Review previous material
• What is a fin and why do we use them?
Larry Caretto • Examples of fins
Mechanical Engineering 375 • Analysis of fins
Heat Transfer • Fin effectiveness

February 21, 2007

2

Review Parallel Resistances Review Slab with Convection
Figure 3-6 from
1 1 1 A is area normal Çengel, Heat and
L
= + to heat flow Mass Transfer
Rtotal Rconv Rrad
T∞ = 1
• = As hconv + As hrad
Tsurr Rtotal Q& T −T
First find heat flux from h1, h2, q& = = ∞1 ∞ 2
Define total heat transfer L, k, T∞1, and T∞2 A 1 +L+ 1
coefficient, htotal h1 k h2
Figure 3-5 Once heat flux is known, find T1 and T2
from Çengel, 1
Heat and htotal = = hconv + hrad q& q&
Mass Transfer
As Rtotal T1 = T∞1 − T2 = T∞ 2 +
3 h1 h2 4

Review Composite Figure 3-26 Effect of Insulation Thickness
Cylindrical Shell from Çengel,
Heat and Mass 2500
Transfer
Review: Adding insulation to a
2000
cylinder (or sphere) can
actually increase heat transfer!
1500
Heat loss physical
(Btu/hr) radius
1000

500 Maximum heat transfer is at rc = k/h,
T∞1 − T∞2 which may be less than physical radius
Q& =
1 1 ⎛ r ⎞ 1 ⎛r ⎞ 1 ⎛r ⎞ 1
0

+ ln⎜ 2 ⎟ + ln⎜ 3 ⎟ + ln⎜ 4 ⎟ + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
h1 2πr1L 2πk1L ⎜⎝ r1 ⎟⎠ 2πk2 L ⎜⎝ r2 ⎟⎠ 2πk3 L ⎜⎝ r3 ⎟⎠ h2 2πr4 L Radius (in)
5 6

ME 375 – Heat Transfer 1

10 Heat Transfer Figure 3-35 from Çengel. whose equation is 4 Resistance Total found from tables like Çengel Table 3-7 Resistance – Basic equation: Q& = kS(T – T ) 1 2 2 – S must have dimensions of length • Equations for S depend on parameters in the 0 0 0. Heat Transfer Analysis What is Fin Shape? • S • Conduction in x. only area and perimeter T0 = Tb • Convection from – Derivation of fin equation assumes fin surface constant cross section • Fin may be in the shape of a uniform cylinder.Fins February 21. S. where δ = D for ⎡ dT ⎤ ⎡ dT ⎤ ⎢− kAc dx ⎥ = ⎢− kAc dx ⎥ + hpΔx(T − T∞ ) circular fins.5 3 different geometries Insulation Thickness (in) 7 8 What is a Fin? Innovative Fin Designs • A fin is a extended • Important surface to application is increase area for cooling of power convection heat electronics transfer • How do we Q& = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) analyze fin • Goal is to increase effectiveness? • Automobile radiator – Start with As to increase Q & is example of fin simple 1D fin Figure 3-33 from Çengel. • Heat balance but not a cone over differential • Is fin two dimensional? volume element – Yes. but one-dimensional analysis is • F – p = perimeter accurate if hδ/k < 0.5 2 2. thickness for rectangular fins ⎣ ⎦x ⎣ ⎦ x + Δx 11 12 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 2 .5 1 1.2. 2007 Resistances for Pipe Insulation 12 Review Conduction Shape Factor 10 • Simplified analysis 8 – for multidimensional geometries with each surface at a uniform temperature Resistance Insultation 6 (hr·ft·F/Btu) Resistance Convection – Use shape factor. Heat Transfer 9 Figure 3-34 from Çengel. • Analysis does not consider shape of direction cross section.

at x = L.5 2 2.7 radiation) at x = L 0. 2007 Fin Equation and Solution Boundary Conditions for C1.2 0.4 extra length 0.9 0.1 Lc. 0.5 3 L + Ac/p. Heat Transfer ME 375 – Heat Transfer 3 . C2 • T0 = Tb = base temperature at x = 0 θ = C1e mx + C2e − mx • Define θ = T – T∞ so θb = Tb – T∞ • First condition: base temperature is Tb • The fin equation for constant k and Ac is so θ = θb = Tb – T∞ at x = 0 d 2θ hp 2 − m 2θ = 0 m2 = • Alternatives for second condition dx kAc – Infinitely long fin (requires C1= 0) • The solution to this differential equation – Negligible heat transfer from end at x = L is: θ = C1e mx + C2e − mx – Convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient for end at x = L 13 14 Infinitely Long Fin Zero Heat Transfer at x = L dθ d (T − Tb ) dT θ = C1e mx + C2e − mx θ = C1e mx + C2e −mx = = = mC1e mx − mC2e −mx dx dx dx • C1 = 0 to keep solution finite • At x = 0. dθ/dx = 0 • At x = 0.3 • Use adjusted length. will give x convection from end Figure 3-39 from 17 18 Çengel.5 1 1.Fins February 21. θ = θb.8 • For convection (+ 0. to give area Ac 0 • Modified length.6 use approximation of tanh x 0.5 0. θ = θb = requires C2 = θb • Algebraic details at end θ = θb cosh m( L − x) ⇒ T − T∞ = (Tb − T∞ )e − x hp kAc θ = θb e −mx cosh mL dθ − m sinh m( L − x) kθb m sinh m( L − x) q& = −k dT dx = −k (Tb − T∞ )e −x hp kAc (− hp kAc ) q& = − k dx = − kθb cosh mL = cosh mL kA θ m sinh mL( L − x) Q& x =0 = Ac q& x =0 = kAc (Tb − T∞ ) hp kAc = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) Q& x=0 = Ac q& x =0 = c b = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL cosh mL 15 16 Hyperbolic Tangent 1 Convection 0. Lc = 0 0.

L = 0. is ratio of heat trans.05 W – Consider two areas on original surface • Without fin available area is Ac • Area where pins occur will have increase by factor shown in fin analysis Q& no fin = Ac h(Tb − T∞ ) = 70 W m2 ⋅ K (0. a length of 5 cm.004 m. If the heat Q& x=0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mLc m = hp kAc Lc = L + Ac p transfer coefficient is 70 W/m2·K.051 m )⎤⎥ – A practical installation of small fins like this m2 ⋅ K m⋅ K ⎣ m ⎦ one would have several fins on a surface Q& fin = 1.01257 m )(0.71 m−1 = 20oC. • Infinitely long fin Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) fer with fin to heat transfer with no fin Q& fin Q& fin • Fin with end Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL ε fin = = convection Qno fin hAb (Tb − T∞ ) & Q& x =0 kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) kp ε ∞fin = = = • Ab is fin area at base. ε) fin effectiveness 21 22 Fin Effectiveness Constant Ac Fin Effectiveness • Effectiveness.05 m + 0. what is the heat Ac = πD 2 4 = π(0. Ts = 50oC. h = 70 W/m2·K.004 m )2 4 = 0.00001257 m 2 ) 200 W ⎡18.71 tanh ⎢ (0. with a surface temperature of 50oC and an air p = πD = π(0.00001257m2 (0.00001257m2 19 20 Solution II Increase of 40 times? Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mLc = (50 − 20)K • • Factor of 40 increase in heat transfer is just for area of fin 70 W (0.01257 m & with and without fin m= = = 18. εfin.01257 m temperature of 20oC. and a thermal end correction for convection conductivity of 200 W/m·K.051 m D = 0.Fins February 21. Find: Q kAc m2 ⋅ K 200 W 0.05 m.01257 m) = 0. 2007 Problem Solution • A pin (cylindrical) fin has a diameter of • Use equation for finite length fin with 4 mm. same as Ac for fin hAc (Tb − T∞ ) hAc (Tb − T∞ ) hAc with constant cross sectional area • Want fin effectiveness greater than one kAc hp (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL kp ε convfin = = tanh mL to get additional heat transfer hAc (Tb − T∞ ) hAc 23 24 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 4 . ( ) Lc = L + Ac p = 0.00001257 m )(30 K ) = 0.004 m ) = 0.64 (effectiveness.0264 W 2 • Area without fins has usual flat surface result – Will consider this difference in determining • Increase by factor of 39.00001257 m 2 transfer with and without the fin? • Given: k = 200 W/m·K. T∞ hp 70 W m ⋅ K 0.

1 1 10 Qno fin ⎝ A Ratio of parameter to base value Figure 3-45 from 27 28 Çengel.03 m 80 thermal conductivity with fins.Fins February 21.004 m Q& fin and Lc = 0. p = πD and Ac = πD2/4.5 25 26 Effect of Parameters on Rectangular Fin Effectiveness 110 Base Case Overall Fin Effectiveness 100 k = 200 W/m·K 90 t = 0.08 m mL = 1.64) (pD2/4)/(0.004 m)(0.005 m. low h and high ratio • Choose a base case and vary each of p/Ac make a fin effective parameter from 0. 2007 What makes a fin effective? What makes a fin effective? II kp kp ⎛ hp ⎞ kp kp ⎛ hp ⎞ ε ∞fin = kp ε convfin = tanh mL = tanh⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ ε convfin = tanh mL = tanh ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ hAc hAc hAc ⎝ kAc ⎠ hAc hAc ⎝ kAc ⎠ • For infinite fin high k.005 m • Original area. so so that Ac = tw and p = 2(t + w) p/Ac = 4/D.05 and ε = 28.08 m at end is not clear – Base mLc = 1.03 m. Heat Transfer Fin Efficiency Fin Efficiency II • Compare actual • Relation to effectiveness heat transfer to Q& fin ε fin hAc (Tb − T∞ ) ε fin Ac ideal case where η fin = = = for uniform & Q fin.05 fin width. L = 0. Aunfin) ( ) h ε fin A fin + Aunfin (Tb − T∞ ) fin length Q& fin 50 40 = 30 Q&no fin hA(T − T ) b ∞ 20 10 Q& fin ⎛ A fin Aunfin ⎞ εtotal = & = ⎜⎜ ε fin + ⎟ A ⎟⎠ 0 0. Afin) + (area Fin Effectiveness 2 h = 70 W/m ·K fin thickness.051 m) = 0. and thickness. t.0006409 m2 Q& fin – Previously showed ε = 39.max π(0. • Effect of variables on fin with convection t = 0. w = 0. t 70 60 L = 0. Heat Transfer ME 375 – Heat Transfer 5 .64 so η = (39. small D gives better ε • Base case has k = 200 W/m·K.max hA fin (Tb − T∞ ) A fin entire fin is at cross section A fin = Lc p base temperature • Recall pin fin problem with D = 0.051 m so Afin = pLc = πDLc = η fin = & = Q fin. A = (area w = 0. w.0006409 m2) = 0. • For pin fin.777 Figure 3-39 from hA fin (Tb − T∞ ) 29 30 Çengel. h = 70 W/m2·K. w heat transfer coefficient without fins.1 to 10 times base value – Rectangular fin with width.

9oC/W) will satisfy this sinks on the previous page suitable for cooling requirement this transistor? & = 120 W.T∞)/R • See Table 3-6 in Çengel for examples with R values – First part of table shown on next chart 33 34 Problem Solution • A power transistor that dissipates Tsurf − T∞ Tsurf − T∞ 70o C − 25o C 1.2oC/W and 5oC/W) 25oC • Find: Do devices have sufficient R 35 36 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 6 . Are any of the heat (with R = 0. such that Q & = power dissipation = (Tdevice . T = 70oC. Cooling air is • Only the HS 5030 mounted vertically available at 25oC. Heat Transfer Figure 3-42 A p = Lc t from Çengel.Fins February 21. Heat Transfer Electronic Heat Sinks • Designed to protect equipment like power transistors from overheating • Characterized by thermal resistance. Heat Transfer 31 32 From Çengel. 2007 Fin Efficiency Data Fin Efficiency Data II Figure 3-43 from Çengel.125o C Q& = ⇒ R= = = 120 W has a maximum operating R Q& 40 W W temperature of 70oC. R. T = • The R values for the other heat sinks • Given: Q surf ∞ are too large (1.

dθ/dx = dT/dx= 0 convection (dT/dx = 0) at x = L dθ dT θb = C1 + C2 = = mC1e mL − mC2e −mL = 0 dx x = L dx x= L θb = C1 + C1e 2 mL C2 = C1e 2mL θb θb e 2 mL C1 = C2 = C1e 2mL = 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL 37 38 Zero Heat Transfer at x = L II Zero Heat Transfer at x = L III • Combine results from last chart • Rearrange exponential terms on last − mx θb θb e 2 mL chart and introduce hyperbolic cosine. θ = θb. at x = L.Fins February 21. 2007 Extra Charts Zero Heat Transfer at x = L dθ d (T − Tb ) dT • The following charts show the details of θ = C1e mx + C2e −mx = = = mC1e mx − mC2e − mx dx dx dx the fin equation solution for no • At x = 0. θ = C1e mx + C2e C1 = C2 = 1 + e 2 mL 1 + e 2mL cosh(x) = (ez + e-z)/2 θb θb e 2 mL θ e mx + θb e 2mL e − mx θb e − mL e mx + θb e mL e − mx e m( x− L ) + e − m( x − L ) θ= e mx + e −mx = b θ= = θb 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e −mL + e mL e −mL + e mL 2θ cosh m( L − x) θb cosh m( L − x) • Multiply fraction top and bottom by e-mL = b = 2 cosh mL cosh mL θb θb e 2mL θb e − mL e mx + θb e mL e − mx θ= e mx + e −mx = θb cosh m( L − x) 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e −mL + e mL • Final result: θ = cosh mL 39 40 ME 375 – Heat Transfer 7 .