You are on page 1of 5

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)

ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2015

Mobility Based Geographic Routing With Multiple

Sinks in Mobile Sensor Networks
Priyanka Panshetty, Prof.Anil Kulkarni
vitality utilization can be more effective [15]. Additionally,
Abstract In the research center on geographic routing, and portable sensors, for example, cellular telephones or autos can
a promising routing idea in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is turn into the interface between the data focus and the portable
shifting in the direction of duty-cycled WSNs in which sensors clients; accordingly, constant data (e.g., activity data)
are sleep scheduled to decrease energy utilization.. However,
transmitted from the data focus to these portable items can be
except the connected-k neighborhood (CKN) sleep scheduling
algorithm and the geographic routing oriented sleep scheduling
given to close-by clients [16], [17].
(GSS) algorithm, nearly all research work about geographic
routing in duty-cycled WSNs has focused on the geographic In addition, every present work about geographic routing in
forwarding mechanism. Sleep scheduling is a broadly used obligation cycled WSNs [18][21] attempt to change the
approach for reduction the energy of sensor nodes and geographic sending component to manage the dynamic
prolonging the life span of a wireless sensor network (WSN). In topology brought about by a few hubs being cycled off or
this paper, we concentrate on sleep scheduling for geographic going to rest mode. For example, it is proposed in [18] to sit
routing in obligation cycled WSNs with portable sensors tight for the appearance of the normal sending successor first
furthermore, propose geographic-distance-based connected-k
and select a reinforcement node if the first system fizzles. In
neighborhood (GCKN) sleep scheduling algorithm. That is
GCKNF for first Scheduling calculation with multiple sinks.
[19], the sensor field is cut into some k-scope fields, then
The approach is evaluated through simulation. Simulation some dependably on group heads are chosen to gather the
results have confirmed the effectiveness of our new approach. information from their adjacent sensors lastly transmit all
information to the sink. Aside from the associated k
Index Terms Sleep Scheduling and routing, design and neighborhood rest planning calculation proposed in [22] and
implementation, wireless multi hop networks the geographic directing focused rest planning calculation
introduced in [23], few examination works have handled the
hub accessibility instability issue in obligation cycled WSNs
I. INTRODUCTION from the perspective of rest scheduling.
Geographic routing(e.g., [1] [2] [3]) which decides the
directing way from the source to destination by selecting the This paper illustrates the sleep scheduling issue in duty cycled
sending node as per their positions, is the most promising WSNs with portable nodes utilizing geographic directing. We
directing plan in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [4]. In propose geographic-distance-based connected-k
such a plan, it can scale better as the directing state kept up per neighborhood (GCKN) sleep scheduling algorithm. That is
node lies just on the nearby system density also, it can possess the geographic-separation based joined k-neighborhood for
better productivity as geographic routing can be done even in first path1 (GCKNF) sleep scheduling calculation, pointing at
the vicinity of unpredictable radio reaches and restriction geographic routing using just the first transmission way in
mistakes. As of late, geographic routing pays more obligation cycled versatile WSNs. By hypothetical
furthermore, more consideration regarding sensor systems investigation and execution assessments by reproductions, we
with obligation cycle, as sensors in obligation cycled systems demonstrate that when there are portable sensors, geographic
can go to rest to spare vitality utilization, which is an essential routing can accomplish much shorter normal lengths for the
outline figure viable WSN application situations [5]. first transmission ways looked in portable WSNs utilizing
Notwithstanding, with duty cycling, nodes are powerfully GCKNF sleep scheduling transmission way.
alert or sleeping in every time epoch as per some scheduling
algorithm calculation (e.g., [6] [7]) and it will make the The fundamental commitments of this paper are
network profoundly dynamic in wording of worldwide condensed as takes after. 1) This paper is a spearheading work
integration and the quantity of alert neighbors per node. proposing and examining sleep scheduling calculations for
Be that as it may, almost every one of these works disregard geographic routing in obligation cycled versatile WSNs,
one essential reality that sensors can really be versatile to which take full points of interest of both obligation cycling
increase better vitality productivity, channel limit, and so on., and sensor versatility. 2) Specifically, this paper propose
and empower a great deal of new application situations GCKN calculation, which successfully augment existing
[11][14]. Case in point, on the grounds that sensors can geographic routing calculations intended for static WSNs into
move, they can transmit their information from distinctive obligation cycled versatile WSNs by applying sleep
areas and dodge the issue that sensors close to the passage or scheduling. The GCKNF sleep scheduling calculation is
sink dependably debilitate their vitality first; accordingly, intended to investigate shorter to begin with transmission
ways for geographic routing in duty cycled versatile WSNs.
Priyanka Panshetty, Department of Computer Science Engineering, This GCKN calculation join the joined k neighborhood
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College,Bidar, Karnataka, INDIA prerequisite and geographic routing necessity to change the
Prof.Anil Kulkarni, Department of Computer Science Engineering, Guru snoozing or alert condition of sensor nodes.
Nanak Dev Engineering College, Bidar, Karnataka, INDIA

Mobility Based Geographic Routing With Multiple Sinks in Mobile Sensor Networks

II. RELATED WORK In any case, every one of these works just considers WSNs
with static nodes.
Sleep scheduling is a generally utilized system for sparing the We consider a multi-hop WSN with N sensor nodes, which
vitality of sensor nodes and delaying the lifetime of a wireless can be displayed by a correspondence chart G = (n, l), where n
sensor network (WSN). The bring down the obligation cycle = {u1, u2. . . un } is the situated of ordinary sensor nodes
is the more extended the system lifetime will be. In any case, barring the source also, the sink node and l is the situated of
rest planning conveys incredible difficulties to the outline of connections. The default show sweep of every sensor is tr and
productive circulated directing conventions for multi-hop the most extreme telecast span of every sensor is trm. The
obligation cycled WSNs. This issue has pulled in much source and sink are dependably on and both implied to have
consideration and different directing conventions have been uncertain vitality supplies. The sink or an ordinary sensor can
proposed. In this article we first outline the principal issues in move to a haphazardly chose area with an arbitrarily chose
the configuration of directing conventions for such systems, speed inside of the WSN edge and it will stop for a period
and at that point order existing conventions in view of stage after it achieves the chose spot, as per the self-assertive
distinctive configuration criteria. We then present a study of waypoint model in [34]. Ordinary sensors can rapidly change
cutting edge routing conventions here. We outline how states in the middle of snoozing and wakeful. Two sensors are
diverse conventions work and examine their benefits and neighbors As of late, numerous crafty routing conventions
inadequacies. At long last, we call attention to some future [18], [19], [30], [31]) have been proposed to broaden
headings for directing in obligation cycled remote sensor geographic routing to obligation cycled WSNs. They all
systems. We mull over a routing issue in remote sensor attempt to accomplish this objective by rapidly picking the
systems where sensors are obligation cycled. At the point sending hub taking into account the best potential node that
when sensors exchange in the middle of on and off modes, can transmit parcels. Uncommonly, these conventions
delay experienced in parcel conveyance obligation misfortune ordinarily consider such elements as connection instability to
in network can turn into a discriminating issue, and step by adjust routing in like manner. On the other hand, few of these
step instructions to accomplish delay-optimality is non-minor. works address the neighborhood least or opening issue and
Case in point, when sensors' rest calendars are ungraceful, it is almost all these works don't consider the circumstance that
not promptly clear whether a sensor with information to sensor nodes can be versatile.
transmit ought to hold up for a specific neighbor (who may be The fundamental instrument for rest booking is to
on a short course) to wind up accessible/dynamic some time choose a subset of nodes to be alert in a given age while the
recently transmission, or just transmit to an remaining nodes are in the rest express that minimizes power
accessible/dynamic neighbor to abstain from holding up. To utilization, so that the general vitality utilization can be
acquire some understanding into this issue, in this paper we lessened. Existing deals with rest booking in WSNs
figure it as an ideal stochastic directing issue, where the predominantly center on two objectives: point scope and node
haphazardness in the framework originates from irregular scope. For point scope (otherwise called spatial scope), the
obligation cycling, and in addition the vulnerability in parcel alert nodes in every age are decided to cover each purpose of
transmission because of channel varieties. Comparable the sent field. Existing point scope arranged calculations vary
structure has been utilized in earlier work which brings about in their rest planning objectives: minimizing vitality
ideal directing calculations that are test way subordinate, too utilization [7], or minimizing normal occasion recognition
alluded to as crafty at times. inactivity [8]. For node scope (additionally called system
The most punctual proposition for geographic routing is scope), conscious nodes are chosen to build a universally
in [24], which has a neighborhood least issue in that a node joined system such that each sleeping hub is a quick neighbor
may have no closer neighbor to the destination. Therefore, of no less than one conscious node [32], [33]. Be that as it
face directing [1] what's more, its variations are proposed to may, every one of these works by and large centered around
utilize geometric principles, to course around voids close to the medium access layer of static WSNs with static nodes.
the nearby least in case it happens. Be that as it may, these
calculations oblige changing over the system into a planar
chart (e.g., [25]) or uprooting the dangerous cross III. PROPOSED MODEL
connections from the system (e.g., [3]), which are not
exceptionally appropriate in reasonable conditions [26].
A. Network Model:
Additionally, there is additionally a gap issue in geographic
routing, in that a gap can be framed by an arrangement of dead We consider a multi-hop WSN with N sensor nodes, which
sensor hubs coming up short on vitality alternately being can be displayed by a correspondence chart G = (n, l), where n
harmed. To take care of this issue, some examination work = {u1, u2. . . un } is the situated of ordinary sensor nodes
(e.g., [27]) attempt to recognize the gap limit hubs first and at barring the source also, the sink node and l is the situated of
that point utilize these limits hubs to evade the gap. Others connections. The default show sweep of every sensor is tr and
(e.g., [28]) attempt to utilize geometric displaying to locate an the most extreme telecast span of every sensor is trm. The
upgraded hole by passing routing way. As of late, by utilizing source and sink are dependably on and both implied to have
a stage back and mark methodology when it can't locate the uncertain vitality supplies. The sink or an ordinary sensor can
following jump hub, a two-stage geographic sending (TPGF), move to a haphazardly chose area with an arbitrarily chose
which does not have the neighborhood least or the opening speed inside of the WSN edge and it will stop for a period
issue, is demonstrated in [29]. With a label based stage after it achieves the chose spot, as per the self-assertive
enhancement technique, TPGF can enhance the directing waypoint model in [34]. Ordinary sensors can rapidly change
ways by discovering one with the minimum number of hops. states in the middle of snoozing and wakeful. Two sensors are

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)
ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2015
neighbors on the off chance that they are inside of the telecast [38]. In the second part of GCKNF the geographic areas (e.g.,
scope of one another and a connection l (n, v) l if nodes n gn) of every node u and the sink are acquired (Step 1 of the
and v can relate with one another specifically without second piece of GCKNF) and the each hub's neighbor that is
transferring. Two sensors are two hop neighbors if l(n, v) l adjoining sink is perceived (Step 3 of the second piece of
and there exists another hub w fulfilling l(n, w) L, l(w, v) GCKNF). In the third piece of GCKNF, a subjective rank
l, or l(v, w) l, l(w, n) l. rankn of each node n is picked (Step 1 of the third piece of
GCKNF) and the division Cn of n' s right away wakeful
neighbors having rank >ranku is processed (Step 5 of the third
B. Design Factor GCKNF:
piece of GCKNF). Before n can go to rest, it needs to
guarantee that 1) each and every one nodes in Cn are related
For GCKNF, we join the associated k neighborhood by hubs with rank <rankn, 2) each of its neighbors has in any
condition and geographic steering condition in their plans. event k neighbors from Cu, and 3) it is not the neighbor node
Solely, we consider the accompanying six components for alongside the sink for some other hub (Step 6 of the third
GCKNF. piece of GCKNF).
1) A node expected to go to rest expecting that at any rate k of
its neighbors will stay alert so as to spare vitality and also
keep it k-joined. D. Pr oposed Architecture:
2) The snoozing or conscious status of nodes ought to be The proposed scheme is the multiple sinks
worthy to change among ages so that every last one node can implementation. In a large wireless sensor networks, more
have the opportunity to rest and abstain from staying number of sensors are there so only one sink is not efficient in
conscious the whole time, consequently conveying the networks to collect data. So we are going to add only two
detecting, handling, and steering errands transversely the more sinks.
system to amplify the system life compass.
3) Even if every node chooses to rest or wake up by regional
standards, the whole system ought to be all around associated
so that information transmissions can be performed.
4) Each node ought to have adequate beginning neighbors
[32], with a specific end goal to make it simpler for the node
to persuade the associated k neighborhood condition; along
these lines, it is more inclined to be sleeping after rest
booking. For GCKNF, which stresses the first show way of
geographic directing, we further consider the accompanying
component. The neighbor of every node, which is nearest to
5) Should be wakeful so that geographic steering can make
utilization of these closest neighbor nodes to make the starting
Figure 1: Multiple sinks implementation in
show way as short as could reasonably be expected. For every
node, the same number of as achievable of its neighbor hubs WSN.
that are closer to the sink ought to be conscious so that When implementing multiple sinks, the source node, finds the
geographic steering can make all correspondence ways as location of the sink node which is near to it and by geographic
short as achievable. routing forward data to it and the other nodes which are not
6) In recognize with CKN and GSS, the fourth plan element of participated in transmission goes to sleep state (i.e) only the
GCKNF is the further thought that makes it simpler for every nodes which are involved in transmission are in wakeup state.
hub to fulfill the associated k neighborhood condition amid This method is followed in two types of scenario having static
rest planning. Furthermore, the fifth configuration element for sensor nodes with mobile sink and mobile sensor nodes with
GCKNF to meet the geographic directing condition in the static sink. It has advantages over single sink such as,
event that they experience versatile sensor nodes or portable
sinks are unnoticed by the CKN.
Avoid sink failure condition.
C. GCKN Algorithm: Reduce end-to-end delay.
Improve energy conservation.
The pseudo code of GCKNF is demonstrated as follows.
Especially, in GCKNF, every hub sends test parcels to its Increase lifetime.
neighbor hubs and gets the ACK bundle from its neighbor
nodes (Step 1 of the first piece of GCKNF). With that, all IV. PERFORMANCE EVOLUTION
nodes ascertain whether it in no time fulfills the joined k
neighborhood condition or not (Step 2 of the first piece of To ascertain the presentation of the anticipated GCKN
GCKNF). In the event that it beforehand fits in with a joined k calculation when apply geographic routing into obligation
neighborhood or its telecast range is the most extreme, the cycled portable WSNs, we perform across the board
node keeps up its telecast span. Something else, the node recreations in Network topology. We utilize TPGF as our
expands its transmission range until the associated k geographic directing because of the novel alluring characters
neighborhood shows up (Step 3 of the first piece of GCKNF) of TPGF in managing the neighborhood absolute minimum or

Mobility Based Geographic Routing With Multiple Sinks in Mobile Sensor Networks

entire trouble and additionally the most limited and multipath

show successes of TPGF, which are present in Section II. We
match up to the presentation of the anticipated GCKN
calculations with CKN and GSS, since CKN and GSS are the
main other rest planning calculations concentrate on
geographic directing in obligation cycled WSNs.
We evaluate the performance of proposed model through
NS2. We design a network with a range of 1000*1000 sqm,
we configure a nodes by placing all these nodes on selected
region. Here we consider different number of nodes, we
assign different energy rate level and transmission range
level. We consider bandwidth as 1Mbps and we have
evaluated the proposed approach to evaluate results. Here we
create three different modules to organize communication.

Figure 4: Average Delay


In this research paper, we have relatively considered

distinctive convention and geographic directing in duty
cycled versatile WSNs and proposed geographic-separation
based associated k neighborhood (GCKN) rest booking
calculation for geographic directing plans to be valuable into
obligation cycled portable WSNs which can coordinate the
change of rest planning and versatility. The starting
geographic-distance based joined k-neighborhood for first
way (GCKNF) rest planning calculation minimize the length
of first transmission pathway investigated by geographic
steering in obligation cycled portable WSNs. In obligation
cycled portable WSNs, from the perspective of rest planning,
Figure 2: Energy Consumption GCKNF don't require the geographic directing to change its
unique geographic sending instrument, and they both consider
the connected k neighborhood necessity and geographic
directing condition to change the snoozing or conscious
condition of sensor nodes. Itemized configuration of GCKNF
and in addition further hypothetical study and valuation
regarding GCKNF has been indicated in this paper. They
demonstrate that GCKNF is extremely effective in shortening
the length of the correspondence way investigated by
geographic routing in obligation cycled versatile WSNs
contrast and the CKN rest planning calculation and the GSS
calculation. Our work has demonstrated that rest booking is a
significant examination bearing to adjust geographic sending
systems into obligation cycled portable WSNs and also
demonstrated that implementation of multiple sinks is good
technique and incorporate advantages such as shortening path
finding, reduction of energy consumption and delay, and
improves network lifetime.


[1] B. Karp and H. T. Kung, Gpsr: greedy perimeter stateless routing for
wireless networks, in MobiCom 00, 2000, pp. 243254.
[2] B. Leong, B. Liskov, and R. Morris, Geographic routing without
Figure 3: Rounds vs network Lifetime planarization, in NSDI 06, 2006, pp. 339352.

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)
ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2015
[3] Y.-J. Kim, R. Govindan, B. Karp, and S. Shenker, Lazy cross-link [30] M. Zorzi and R. R. Rao, Geographic random forwarding (GERAF) for
removal for geographic routing, in SenSys 06, 2006, pp. 112124. ad hoc and sensor networks: Energy and latency performance, IEEE
[4] Z. Jiang, J. Ma, W. Lou, and J. Wu, An information model for Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 349365, Oct.Dec. 2003.
geographic greedy forwarding in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks, in [31] C. Ma et al., A geographic routing algorithm in duty-cycled sensor
INFOCOM 08, 2008, pp. 825833. networks with mobile sinks, in Proc. MSN, 2011, pp. 343344.
[5] P. Dutta, M. Grimmer, A. Arora, S. Bibyk, and D. Culler, Design of a [32] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, and H. Balakrishnan, Span: An energy efficient
wireless sensor network platform for detecting rare, random, and coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless
ephemeral events, in IPSN 05, 2005, pp. 497502. networks, Wireless Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 481494, Sep. 2002.
[6] Q. Cao, T. Abdelzaher, T. He, and J. Stankovic, Towards optimal sleep [33] C. Zhua, L. T. Yang, L. Shu, T. Q. Duong, and S. Nishio, Secured
scheduling in sensor networks for rare-event detection, in IPSN 05, energy aware sleep scheduling algorithm in duty cycled sensor
2005, pp. 2027. networks, inProc. IEEE ICC, 2012, pp. 19531957.
[7] C.-F. Hsin and M. Liu, Network coverage using low duty-cycled [34] E. M. Royer, P. M. Melliar-Smith, and L. E. Moser, An analysis of the
sensors: Random & coordinated sleep algorithms, in Proc. IPSN, 2004, optimum node density for ad hoc mobile networks, in Proc. IEEE ICC,
pp. 433442. 2001, pp. 857861. Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2006, pp. 3950
[8] Q. Cao, T. Abdelzaher, T. He, and J. Stankovic, Towards optimal sleep
scheduling in sensor networks for rare-event detection, in Proc. IPSN,
2005, pp. 2027.
[9] H. Le, J. V. Eck, and M. Takizawa, An efficient hybrid medium access
control technique for digital ecosystems, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron.,vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 10701076, Mar. 2013.
[10] P. Cheng, F. Zhang, J. Chen, Y. Sun, and X. Shen, A distributed
TDMA scheduling algorithm for target tracking in ultrasonic sensor
networks, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 38363845,
Sep. 2013.
[11] K. Morioka, J.-H.Lee, and H. Hashimoto, Human-following mobile
robot in a distributed intelligent sensor network, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 229237, Feb. 2004.
[12] C. Zhu et al., A survey on communication and data management issues
in mobile sensor networks, Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput., vol.
14,no. 1, pp. 1936, Jan. 2014.
[13] R. C. Luo and O. Chen, Mobile sensor node deployment and
asynchronouspower management for wireless sensor networks, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 23772385, May 2012.
[14] H. Song, V. Shin, and M. Jeon, Mobile node localization using fusion
prediction-based interacting multiple model in cricket sensor network,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 43494359, Nov. 2012.
[15] J. Pan, L. Cai, Y. T. Hou, Y. Shi, and X. X. Shen, Optimal base-station
locations in two-tiered wireless sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Mobile
Comput., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 458473, Sep./Oct. 2005.
[16] K. Yuen, B. Liang, and B. Li, A distributed framework for correlated
data gathering in sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57,
no. 1, pp. 578593, Jan. 2008.
[17] K. Almiani, A. Viglas, and L. Libman, Energy-efficient data
gatheringwith tour length-constrained mobile elements in wireless
sensor networks, in Proc. IEEE LCN, 2010, pp. 598605.
[18] Z. Jiang, J. Wu, and R. Ito, A metric for routing in delay-sensitive
wireless sensor networks, in Proc. IEEE MASS, 2010, pp. 272281.
[19] H. M. Ammari and S. K. Das, Joint k-coverage, duty-cycling, and
geographic forwarding in wireless sensor networks, in Proc. IEEE
ISCC, 2009, pp. 487492.
[20] K.Wang, L.Wang, C. Ma, L. Shu, and J. Rodrigues, Geographic
routing in random duty-cycled wireless multimedia sensor networks, in
Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2010, pp. 230234.
[21] K. P. Naveen and A. Kumar, Tunable locally-optimal geographical
forwarding in wireless sensor networks with sleep-wake cycling nodes,
in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 19.
[22] S. Nath and P. B. Gibbons, Communicating via fireflies: Geographic
routing on duty-cycled sensors, in Proc. IPSN, 2007, pp. 440449.
[23] C. Zhu, L. T. Yang, L. Shu, J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, and T. Hara, A
geographic routing oriented sleep scheduling algorithm in duty-cycled
sensor networks, in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2012, pp. 54735477.
[24] H. Takagi and L. Kleinrock, Optimal transmission ranges for randomly
distributed packet radio networks, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.
COM-32, no. 3, pp. 246257, Mar. 1984.
[25] H. Frey and I. Stojmenovic, On delivery guarantees of face and
combined greedy-face routing in ad hoc and sensor networks, in Proc.
MobiCom, 2006, pp. 390401.
[26] K. Seada, A. Helmy, and R. Govindan, Modeling and analyzing the
correctness of geographic face routing under realistic conditions, Ad
Hoc Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 855871, Aug. 2007.
[27] Q. Fang, J. Gao, and L. J. Guibas, Locating and bypassing routing
holes in sensor networks, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004, pp.
[28] F. Yu et al., A modeling for hole problem in wireless sensor networks,
in Proc. IWCMC, 2007, pp. 370375.
[29] L. Shu et al., TPGF: Geographic routing in wireless multimedia sensor
networks, Telecomm. Syst., vol. 44, no. 1/2, pp. 7995, Jun. 2010.