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International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR

ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2015

Characterisation of Emissivity of Jacketing Materials
on Personnel Safety in insulated Steam Pipes
E. A. Osore, C. K . Ndiema, H. B. Masinde, D.S. Ndugi
 assess the performance of jacketing materials in reducing
Abstract— Emissivity is the focus of this study because it is surface temperatures, establish the relationship of emissivity
only on the surface of the pipes that, in addition to convection, of jacketing to the effectiveness of safety, and to determine
heat is emitted and dissipated to the atmosphere by radiation the optimum emissivity of the jacketing material for safety
which is subsequent to the emissivity factor of the radiant designs.
source’s surface. These thermal heat losses elevate the
temperature intensity leading to skin burns and equipment
malfunctioning, hence personnel and equipment safety hazard.
A material's surface emissivity is a measure of the energy
Therefore, any undue loss of heat can seriously affect workforce emitted from the surface. Effective emissivity is affected by
performance hence poor product quality. Insulated pipes are several variables, the most important of which are the
usually jacketed to protect the insulation from external geometric shape of the blackbody, the uniformity of the
interference and/or for aesthetic purposes. But due to a blackbody temperature, the surface emissivity and
difference in the thermal properties and characteristics of wavelength dependence (Chang-Da and Mudawar, 2002). All
jacketing materials, it was necessary to assess if they can be objects radiate infrared rays from their surfaces in all
utilized for improving the performance of insulation by reducing directions, in a straight line, until they are reflected or
the temperature intensity exposed to workers and
absorbed by another object. Traveling at the speed of light,
characterizing them in the order of their performance.
Therefore, this experiment involved measurement of surface these rays are invisible, and they have no temperature, only
temperatures of three different jacketing materials namely energy. Heating an object excites the surface molecules,
aluminium, galvanised steel and cloth each at different causing them to give off infrared radiation. When these
operating temperatures and the results analysed by ExcelTM infrared rays strike the surface of another object, they are
computer software. It was deduced that, the presence of absorbed and only then is heat produced in the object. This
jacketing materials improved the effectiveness of personnel heat spreads throughout the mass by conduction. The heated
safety by a range of 0.5% to 3.3%, depending on the emissivity object then transmits infrared rays from exposed surfaces by
of jacketing material used. High emissive cloth (ϵ = 0.90) radiation if these surfaces are exposed directly to an air space
recorded the lowest surface temperatures hence being optimum
(Innovative Insulation Inc, 2013).
for improved personnel safety and Also, as a design factor,
emissivity was found to be inversely proportional to personnel
safety by having negatively strong correlations to surface The amount of radiation emitted is a function of the emissivity
temperatures. factor of the source’s surface. Emissivity is the rate at which
radiation (emission) is given off(Holland, 2013).When
Index Terms— Surface temperatures, thermal insulation, designing an insulation system for personnel protection, the
Jacketing materials and emissivity. surface temperature becomes critical. The surface
temperature can increase both from outside solar heat gain
and from within as heat radiates outward from a hot pipe
I. INTRODUCTION (Bhatia, 2012).To consider, is the ambient conditions that will
Mechanical insulation is primarily used to limit heat gain or create the hottest surface temperature, such as summer
loss from surfaces operating at temperatures above or below weather with no wind and a metal jacketing material.
ambient temperatures (Bhatia, 2012), but it also satisfies According to Orlove (2012), if an object has a higher
personnel protection by controlling surface temperatures to temperature than its environment, then increasing its
avoid contact burns (Robert and Collins, 2007).With emissivity will certainly lower its temperature.
industrial steam pipes insulated, there is still evidence that the
pipe surfaces attains temperatures above 58°C, thus workers II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
suffer burns resulting from skin contact with surfaces of hot Experimental Design
piping and equipment(U.S Department Of Energy, 1995).
These challenges seriously affect workforce and subsequently The experiment was carried out at Mumias Sugar Company
product quality. Thus, the need to assess how emissivity of the limited in the Kakamega county of Kenya. The experiment
jacketing materials, primarily used for protecting the was a 1- factor completely randomized design with a
insulation, affects personnel safety. The research aimed to comparative objective. The jacketing materials selected
comprised of high emissive cloth (ϵ= 0.90), moderate
E. A. Osore, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
emissive galvanized steel (ϵ=0.28) and low emissive
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
C. K., Ndiema, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, aluminium (ϵ=0.04) to check for a significant change in the
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology performance of thermal insulation parameters of personnel
H. B. Masinde, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, protection for the above different emissivities. Hence, the
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology design termed as a randomized with a comparative objective.
D. S. Ndugi, Department of Industrial and Energy Engineering, Egerton


the summary of the measured and recorded Figure 1: Experimental arrangement for data collection (see outside surfaces temperatures (Tos) for the respective plate 3-10). Ti (oC) e) Vernier callipers and meter rule for measuring pipe 100 Hot imbibition water Sugar milling diameter and span length. temperature verification. 150. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The performance of insulation to provide personnel safety is indicated by the intensity of the outside surface temperatures. Process Fluid transported Location d) Mercury thermometers (0-1000C and 0-3600C) for temperature. The lower the outside surface temperatures exhibited. Characterisation of Emissivity of Jacketing Materials on Personnel Safety in insulated Steam Pipes Instruments and Maynard A. 19 www. The fibre glass had an emissivity of 0. Control experiment The same experiment was conducted without the jacketing Experimental set up materials in place. since wind speed (nuisance factor) affects T os. material wrapped interchangeably. For consistency and comparative purposes. 220.This was to ensure that the temperature readings were recorded at a particular wind The instrumentation used to make the necessary speed. plant f) Aluminium. 300. III. it was aimed at having all readings in still air. c) Infrared camera for viewing heat intensities on Table 1: Location of 100 mm outer nominal diameter pipes respective jacketing materials. The ambient temperature was measured by holding the thermocouple probe in the air at a meter distance from the insulation system surface. following process temperatures adopted by the experiment b) Surface contact and point contact type thermocouple were found in the respective locations in the company (All probes compatible with the temperature indicator. This was to enable the assessment of the performance of jacketing materials relative to when it is not installed.3 m/s. emissivities is shown in Table 1. The temperature indication. (Baldwin P.90 exchanger respectively (read from manufacturers’ tables for the 220 Steam to evaporator tanks Sugar milling material).7oC. each of Ø100mm at process 350 Steam from turbines to Co-generation temperatures of 100.D 1998). Subsequently. This temperature was measured separately against each reading of the insulation system surface temperature. the image of the surface heat intensity as depicted by the infrared camera when Surface temperatures were measured by physical contact galvanised steel and cloth jackets were installed on an between the thermocouple sensor and the surface of the insulated steam pipe with a process temperature of 350 o C is jacketing materials as shown in figure 1.erpublication. plant g) Hot water and steam pipes made of steel and insulated 300 Steam to the heater tanks Ethanol plant with glass fibre. The average of the sub readings represented the surface temperature reading over the respective span. The measurements included: following process temperatures adopted by the experiment a) NiCr-Ni alloy digital thermometer (00C – 19600C) for were found in the respective locations in the company.E.28 and 0. galvanised steel and cloth jacketing 150 Steam from heat Ethanol plant materials of emissivity 0. . For the experiment conducted. outer nominal pipe diameters are 100 mm).28) at indoor environment at wind speed of 0.95 as per the manufacturer’s recommendation. 0. the average of the six span readings represented the outside surface temperature for the respective jacketing material at that particular process condition. the measurements were taken on a chosen steam pipe over six random spans of 1 m each and in each span further sub readings were taken at intervals of 300mm.04. the better the performance of the jacketing materials and consequently the more effective it is in providing personnel safety against burns and vice versa. but only the insulating material (fibre glass).For each jacketing shown in plates 1. Plate 1: Surface heat intensity on galvanized steel(ϵ = 0. 350 and 5000C condensates plant 500 Steam from steam header Co-generation where the jacketing materials were wrapped on the to turbines plant surface interchangeably.J the process temperatures of 350 oC (Tos = 43.

9898 350 150 348.5 36. jacketing with cloth(ϵ=0.73 o C Cloth ϵ=0.28 ϵ=0.867 Also.0 84.9674 300 150 299.842 0.7 % respectively. For the three jacketings. The rate of radiation will increase then the huge The experiment was a randomised one whereby only one increase in the radiation loss will reduce the surface factor (emissivity of jacketing) was being investigated. while aluminium with the lowest emissivity (ϵ = 0.837 0.8 -0.7 38.28).4 33 31. when personnel safety is the design Galvanised criteria of the insulation. July 2015 Table 2: Location of 100 mm outer nominal diameter pipes Insulation Surface temperatures.3 34.9895 500 200 497 53.48.04 to be the best of the three.2 .8 32.73.0 lowest Tos of 35.7%.52 35. 42. corresponding performance effectiveness.9852 220 150 219.5 40. This is well illustrated by the above graph which depicts that cloth of high emissivity ϵ = 0.2 -0.5 46.6 41. aluminium.3 and 86.0 experiment recorded the highest Tos of 42.4 -0. cloth jacketing proved oC) 40. The rate of which gave a mean Tos of 42. high emissivity is the heat generation by the steam in the pipe has to be exactly optimum for personnel safety design.9 recorded low (safest) T os compared to Figure 2: Graphs of Tos vs.71 Effectiveness 0.5 34.05 43.7 .220. For galvanised steel jacket (ϵ = 0. This under investigation.9745 150 150 149.8 -0.2 47. Volume-3. Surface temperatures.7%) for Operating temperatures. There temperature to 38. the graph of Tos against Ti for each of the jacketing experiment.2 40.0 steel ϵ=0.853 0.150. Issue-7.0 =0.4 -0. the mean Toswas the highest of all with 43.48 o C which is equivalent to the Aluminium ϵ lowest efficiency of 84.90) recorded the 50. Aluminium and galvanized steel of 0. Ti for the jacketing materials.48o C. It is therefore evident that a cloth jacketing of 0.73 42. These replicates intensity are the recorded Tos at Ti = 100.04 the measured steady state temperature is 43.1 44.90 100 150 99.2%.7%. Their below.350 and 500o C.83.83. However.9 gave a mean From plate s1 and 2.4 43.7. the mean Tos for the control generated.7 %) to 3% (86.5 % (84.52 and 35.04 ϵ = 0.71o C compared to aluminium jacketing of 0.2. Therefore. 85. It is noted from Table 1 that Tos increases with an increase in The treatment levels are the three emissivities of the jacketing the operating temperature for all the jacketing materials.7oC. Analysis of variance Hence.04 respectively Discussion for all the operating temperatures. When a control experiment was 35.28 conducted.300. temperatures 55.71 oC respectively. are 83. This shows that 30.6 37. the following ANOVA is because more heat is dissipated at higher process table for a single factor at a significance level of 5% was temperatures. Tos ( Cloth with the highest emissivity (ϵ = 0.2 46.90). Hence.erpublication.28 and 0. Tos of 35.9841 Mean 269. Using ExcelTM.4oC hence low surface temperature were 6 replicates for each separate treatment.71o C equivalent to the highest efficiency of Control 86. From table 1. galvanized steel and cloth jacketing material in the above table is plotted are 43. 39.90 equivalent to the least effectiveness of 83. this ascertains that.1 51.4 34. Ti (oC) low and high emissive jacketing respectively. the heat transfer will change.9 35. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P).5 36. Tos (oC) thickness Operating Pearson’sCorrelation Galvanised (R) of ϵ with Tos temp (Ti) Cloth (t) Bare Control Aluminium steel pipe Ts experiment ϵ= 0. balanced by the rate of heat loss on the surface of the jacket. 20 www. the radiation is low due to low emissivity compared to convection higher the emissivity of the jacketing the lower the Tos and the hence high surface temperature intensity.0 the presence of jacketing contributed to personnel safety by 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 approximately 0.04) 45.8 49. calculated with Surface temperatures vs operating respect to the mean Ts of the bare pipe as .8 37.48 39.6 .7 41. the rate of better the personnel safety.

Company Ltd for the permission granted to conduct the data and Tos (All the population means for the collection exercise and their technical support they offered on various treatments are equal).05 32. Gary D. thanks to the National Council for H1: There exists a functional relationship between Science. True if Fcalc > Fcrit.18 20. [7] Federal Energy and aesthetic use. equipment and financial (scholarship grant) 7 ** 0. Appreciations to the University library fraternity for For relationship analysis. Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) for their Tos and ϵ. (2007): Statistics for Engineers: An Introduction to negatively sloped correlation curves below.2013 [10] Harold.01 15.itl.B (2009): Atmospheric Radiation (http://mysite.D (1998): A survey of wind speeds in relationship between Tos and ϵ. Source of P-valu SS df MS F F crit Variation e ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Between Groups 383.thermographic consultancy.99 1.10. When personnel safety control experiments were conducted the mean values ofT os recorded were the highest compared to the mean values Groups Count Sum Average Variance recorded when the jacketing materials were in place as shown Ti = 100 oC 3 98.10.51 9. (2012): Process Plant Insulation and Fuel Efficiency. Design. ϵ. the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. hence the better Ti = 350 oC 3 129. in hypothesis testing using F-test. Accessed on Pearson’s correlation coefficients (R) in Table 1and the 16. infrared training centre (http://irinformir.E.21 13.pdhonline. In the selection of the jacketing Ti = 220 oC 3 112. Volume 72. J. George E.nist.Selection and Installation.2012 [3] Box. New York: John Wiley & Sons. APDH hence personnel safety is inversely proportional to emissivity online Course M156 (4 PDH).S.01 etuttle/weather/atmrad. J.09 for personnel safety. and Model Building.5% through 3. let: its effort towards equipping the facility with useful and up to date online access to research and data review resource Ho: There is no linear relationship between any of materials. personnel safety is inversely proportional to the emissivity as shown by Ti = 500 oC 3 138.unm.2013 [5] Chang-Da and Issam Mudawar (2002): Experimental Investigation of Emissivity of Aluminium Alloys and Temperature Determinations using Multispectral Radiation Thermometry (MRT) Algorithms.77 5. The Annals of Occupational hygiene.11 I thank the entire staff of the Mechanical and Industrial 1 (accessed on 01.54 43. Tos and [2] Bhatia A.html) accessed on 02.3% Ti = 150 oC 3 104. Vol 42: 303-313 variance technique. Criteria of Good Research.2013 should be incorporated in the design because it improves the [14] Orlove.04 34. Therefore. S. (1958). [8] Feijt A. Thanks to the entire management of Mumias Sugar the ϵ.accessed on 01.84 5 76.2013 [9] Finley Daniel (2003) thermal radiation: blackbody radiation.10. Ho is rejected and it is concluded that at 95% REFERENCE confidence accessed on 01.97 32. the ground. 39.35 the performance in personnel safety. [4] Calvert. Characterisation of Emissivity of Jacketing Materials on Personnel Safety in insulated Steam Pipes Table 3:ANOVA: Single Factor with replications for improve the overall performance of insulation This is also illustrated by the negatively high (www.2012) [13] Optotherm: (http://www. under consideration. CONCLUSION http://www. for the Total 549. (August 1976): Economic Thickness for Industrial Insulation.erpublication. Surveys(www. a fact sheet (EES-25) published by the Florida Energy Extension Service and IFAS.blogspot.10. Conservation Paper Number 46. pp 323.10.77 2 1 Muliro University of Science and Technology. [12]NIST (2003): Engineering Statistics Handbook IV. the higher the emissivity of jacketing materials the Ti = 300 oC 3 123. Issue 3. Vol. of the comparison of two sample indoor workplaces.09 the strong negative Pearson’s correlation coefficients in Table ANOVA 1.58 0.du.html#more) 21 www. The presence of jacketing materials does echniques. (1985): Insulation. there is sufficient evidence that there exist a [1] Baldwin P.16 46. ASM International [6] Cook. Gary (2012): Thermographic measurement overall performance of insulation rather than for protection techniques-measuring emissivity.57 lower the surface temperatures experienced. (2012): Emissivity Effects on Thermal Figure 3: Correlation graphs of Tos vs.10.pdf ). Data Analysis. Phi Delta Kappan.52 materials.05 significance level support.J. [11] Holland. jacketing materials on 01.optotherm. research grant offered to facilitate the project.physics. Since Fcalc > Fcrit. and the Planck’s formulae for Spectral Radiancy (http://panda.html) access on 03.2013.03 41. Chemistry and Physics departments of Masinde Within Groups 165.08.05 knowledge.98 in Table 1 with an effectiveness range of 0.68 .J and Maynard A.htm) accessed When designing on the basis of safety.52 37.(1995):The effect of emissivity variation on surface temperature determined by infrared radiometry. Lastly. JMEPEG VOL 11:551-562. Kohsiek W.