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Estimation for OFDM & CDMA

Bhawna, Manoj Ahlawat

the same carrier and over one frequency band, each symbol

Abstract In this paper three systems are joined together in (or a group of symbols) modulates different carriers so that

order to mitigate distortion effect caused by multipath fading. the total band is divided into smaller adjacent non-interfered

Those systems are; space time block coding (STBC), code subbands. Therefore, the resultant sub-bands will be of

division multiple access (CDMA), and orthogonal frequency

smaller width than channel coherence bandwidth resulting in

division multiplexing (OFDM). The proposed STBC

OFDM-CDMA system has been simulated in the presence of

frequency nonselective (or flat) fading form.

frequency selective fast multipath fading channel which is

considered the worst form of channel fading. Therefore, system II. SYSTEM MODEL

performance depends mainly on channel equalization technique

applied at the receiver. In this paper, a comparison among three

channel equalization schemes was introduced, those schemes

are; phase equalizer (PE), maximal ratio (MR), and minimum

mean square error equalizer (MMSE). Those equalization

schemes have been compared under various system conditions

and using different modulation techniques. The main problem of

OFDM system is the relative high peakto- average power ratio

(PAR). Therefore, three techniques for reducing the PAR have

been applied into the proposed STBC OFDM-CDMA

transmitter. Channel coding is essential for any wireless

communication system especially in the presence of this bad

fading form. This is coming from its ability of error detection

and correction at the receiver. Two types of channel coding,

Hamming and convolutional coding, have been introduced into

the proposed system in order to enhance its performance.

Figures 1 and 2 show the simple model of MIMO

Index Terms Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), MC-CDMA transmitter and receiver respectively. The

Space Time Block Coding (STBC), and Peak- to- Average transmitter of MIMO MC-CDMA consists of BPSK/QPSK

Power Ratio (PAR)

modulator, Direct sequence spreader and OFDM modulator.

In these schemes the pilot sequence are very important for the

I. INTRODUCTION

performance.

Multi-path channel fading is the main enemy for any After modulating, the data stream is multiplied by a spreading

wireless communications system. Therefore, for any novel sequence. The length of this spreading code is usually

approach applied at any wireless communication system, its identical to the number of SC. The pilot signals are

efficiency is measured according to its ability of mitigating multiplexed to the data streams, after OFDM modulation the

the distortion caused by fading. The worst fading types is signals are transmitted through multiple antennas.

frequency selective fast fading type since it results in two The received signal is demodulated using Fast Fourier

forms of distortion. First it causes time dispersion to the transform (FFT). After OFDM demodulation the user data

transmitted symbols resulting in inter symbol interference symbols and pilot symbols are recovered by despreading with

(ISI). The second effect is the distortion in the spectrum of the corresponding spreading codes. The required transfer

transmitted signal. function for channel estimation and equalization is recovered

In the proposed system, two systems have been joined from pilot sequence. Finally the original data stream is

together to mitigate distortion appears in both time and recovered by dividing the received signal by channel

frequency domains. Those two systems are OFDM and response.

DS-CDMA systems. DSCDMA. mechanism can convert fast At the receiver end, the demodulator process the channel

fading into slow fading channel where, the symbol duration is equalized waveform and reduces each waveform to a scalar

divided into much smaller chip duration after spreading [5]. (or) a vector that represents an estimation of the transmitted

This chip duration will be smaller than coherence time of the data symbol. The detector, which follows the demodulator,

channel of course resulting in slow fading form. OFDM decides whether the transmitted bit is a 0 or 1.

system will convert frequency selective fading into flat

fading. Where instead of modulating all data symbols using III. OPTIMIZATION BASED APPROACHES

To increase the diversity of the system the multidimensional

Bhawna, (M.Tech ScholarDepartment of Electronics & MIMO channel can be exploited. Generally, there are three

Communication,UIET, Mdu Rohtak, India

categories of MIMO techniques. The first aims to improve the

Manoj Ahlawat, (Assistant Professor,Department of Electronics &

Communication Engineering, UIET, MDU, Rohtak, India power efficiency by maximizing spatial diversity. Such

32 www.erpublication.org

Implementation of Equalization & Channel Estimation for OFDM & CDMA

techniques include delay diversity, spacetime block codes Based on those assumptions such as perfect synchronization

(STBC) and spacetime trellis codes (STTC) [7]. and block fading, we end up with a compact and simple signal

Diversity is generally considered lower risk and a well model for both the single antenna OFDM and MIMO-OFDM

knownexample is space time codes [8] [9].Space time coding systems. In training based channel estimation algorithms,

is a promising technique to improve the efficiency and good training symbols or pilot tones that are known to the receiver,

performance of MIMO-OFDM system. Orthogonal Space are multiplexed along with the data stream for channel

Time Block Code (O-STBC) is an important class of space estimation. The idea behind these methods is to exploit

time codes due to its ability to provide optimal transmit knowledge of transmitted pilot symbols at the receiver to

diversity by requiring only simple linear processing at the estimate the channel. For a block fading channel, where the

receiver.But to achieve full rate transmission while retaining channel is constant over a few OFDM symbols, the pilots are

much of the orthogonallybenefits .QO-STBC has been transmitted on all subcarriers in periodic intervals of OFDM

proposed, and also QO-STBC can achieve higher code rates blocks. This type of pilot arrangement, depicted in Fig. 3(a),

than O-STBC. Using space time coding, for OFDM system is called the block type arrangement. For a fast fading

with transmit diversity; two or more different signals are channel, where the channel changes between adjacent OFDM

transmitted from different antennas simultaneously. On the symbols, the pilots are transmitted at all times but with an

other hand, spatial multiplexing divides the incoming data even spacing on the subcarriers, representing a comb type

into multiple sub-streams and transmits each on a different pilot placement, Fig. 3(b)

antenna. Spatial multiplexing is thus more exciting than

spatial diversity from a high data rate point of view, but there 1) The channel estimates from the pilot subcarriers are

is a fundamental tradeoff between them [10]. It can easily interpolated to estimate the channel at the data

adapt to severe channel conditions without the need for subcarriers.

complex channel equalization algorithms being employed. The work to be done in later stages is to perform the Channel

With OFDM, we can easily mitigate the ISI because low data estimation based on comb-type pilot arrangement is achieved

rates are carried by each carrier. OFDM involves the by giving the channel estimation methods at the pilot

transmission of data on multiple frequencies for the duration frequencies and the interpolation of the channel at data

of a symbol. By using multiple carriers, communication is frequencies. This study can also be used to efficiently estimate

maintained should one or more carriers be affected by either the channel in both OFDM systems given certain knowledge

narrow-band or multi-path interference. A key aspect of about the channel statistics in future. Also,the MMSE

OFDM is that the individual carriers overlap to improve estimator assumes a priori knowledge of noise variance and

spectral efficiency. Normally, overlapping signals would channel covariance and discussed Space Time Block coding

interfere with each other. However, through special signal and maximum likelihood decoding in the MIMO OFDM

processing, the carriers in an OFDM waveform are spaced in system to enhance its performance further. Wecan also

such a manner that they do not interfere with one another observe the advantage of diversity in MIMO systemresults

i.e., they are orthogonal to each other so that there is no less BER than SISO system. It can also compares the

cross-interference and hence no signal loss. The key benefits performance of MMSE with LS, and is observed that the

of OFDM include increased spectral efficiency and high former is more resistant to the noise in terms of the channel

resistance to multi-path interference and frequency selective estimation

fading. Using OFDM and coding across the frequency band

can mitigate narrow-band interference. Indeed, coding and V. SIMULATION RESULT

OFDM exhibit a spreading gain similar to spread-spectrum

techniques. The vectors X1 and X2 are modulated using the inverse fast

Fourier transform (IFFT) and after adding a cyclic prefix as a

IV. APPROACH TOWARDS EQUALIZATION guard time interval, two modulated blocks Xg1 and Xg2are

In mobile communications systems, data transmission at high generated and are then transmitted by the first and second

bit rates is essential for many services such as video, high transmit antennas respectively. Assuming that the guard time

quality audio and mobile integrated service digital network. interval is more than the expected largest delay spread of a

When the data is transmitted at high bit rates, over mobile multipath channel. The received signal will be the convolution

radio channels, the channel impulse response can extend over of the channel and the transmitted signal. Assuming that the

many symbol periods, which leads to Inter-symbol channel is static during an OFDM block, at the receiver side

interference (ISI). Orthogonal Frequency Division after removing the cyclic prefix, the FFT output as the

Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the promising technology to demodulated received signal can be expressed as in the above

mitigate the ISI. In an OFDM signal the bandwidth is divided equation [W1, W2WNT] denotes AWGN and Hm,n is

into many narrow sub-channels which are transmitted in the (single-input single-output) channel gain between the mth

parallel. Each sub-channel is typically chosen narrow enough receive and nth transmit antenna pair. The nth column of H is

to eliminate the effect of delay spread. By combining OFDM often referred to as the spatial signature of the nth transmit

with CDMA dispersive fading limitations of the cellular antenna across the receive antenna array.Knowing the channel

mobile radio environment can be overcome and the effects of information at the receiver, Maximum Likelihood (ML)

co-channel interference can be reduced. In this paper, the detection can be used for decoding of received signals for two

performances of equalization techniques by considering 2 antenna transmission system, which can be drawn as

transmit 2 receive antenna case (resulting in a 22 MIMO

channel). Assume that the channel is a flat fading Rayleigh

multipath channel and the modulation is BPSK.

33 www.erpublication.org

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)

ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2015

SIR db vs. Ps

VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESULTS

4

In my work, I have compared channel estimation based on

both block-type pilot and comb-type arrangements in both

2

SISO and MIMO OFDM based systems

The work to be done in later stages is to perform the Channel

0 estimation based on comb-type pilot arrangement is achieved

by giving the channel estimation methods at the pilot

frequencies and the interpolation of the channel at data

-2 frequencies. This study can also be used to efficiently

SIR db

-4

knowledge about the channel statistics in future. Also,the

MMSE estimator assumes a priori knowledge of noise

variance and channel covariance and discussed Space Time

-6 Block coding and maximum likelihood decoding in the

MIMO OFDM system to enhance its performance further.

Wecan also observe the advantage of diversity in MIMO

-8 systemresults less BER than SISO system. It can also

compares the performance of MMSE with LS, and is

-10

observed that the former is more resistant to the noise in terms

-75 -70 -65 -60 -55 -50 -45 -40 -35 of the channel estimation

Signal Power Ps

REFERENCES

Here we can see that the plot is in between the signal power

(Ps) vs. signal to interference ratio (SIR). If we increase the [1] Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for wireless communications systems Artech

House, Inc. Publications.

signal power (Ps) then signal to interference ratio (SIR db)

[2] Ezio Biglieri, Robert Calderbank, Robert Calderbank, Anthony

will be increase. We found the curve for alpha = 0.8 and Constantinides, Andrea Goldsmith, Arogyaswami Paulraj, H. Vincent

consider 10 number of user. Poor, MIMO wireless communications Cambridge Press.

[3] A. Petropulu, R. Zhang, and R. Lin, Blind OFDM Channel Estimation

Through Simple Linear Pre-Coding" IEEE Transactions on Wireless

SIR db vs. Ps (with value j = 10,20,30,40) Communications, vol. 3, no.2, March 2004, pp. 647-655.

4 [4] Osvaldo Simeone, Yeheskel Bar-Ness, Umberto Spagnolini,

data1 Pilot-Based Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems by Tracking the

2 data2 Delay-Subspace,

data3 [5] R. Corvaja and A. Garca Armada, Effect of multipath and antenna

data4 diversity in MIMOOFDM systems with imperfect channel estimation

0 and phase noise compensation,Elsevier Physical Commun., Vol. 1, No.

4, Dec. 2008, pp. 288-297.

[6] S. Bittner, E. Zimmermann and G. Fettweis, Iterative phase noise

-2 mitigation in MIMOOFDM systems with pilot aided channel

Estimation, in Proc. IEEE VTC 2007 Fall, Sep. 2007, pp. 1087-1091.

SIR db

-4

for MIMO WLANs with spatially correlated and imperfectly estimated

channels, IEEE Commun. Lett., Vol. 10, No. 3, Mar. 2006, pp. 141-143

-6 [8] Xianhua Dai, Han Zhang and Dong Li, Linearly time-Varying Channel

Estimation for MIMO/OFDM Systems Using Superimposed Training,

IEEE Trans. on Commun., Vol. 58, No. 2, Feb. 2010, pp. 681-693.

-8 [9] Benjamin R. Hamilton, Xiaoli Ma, John E. Kleider and Robert J. Baxley,

OFDM Pilot Design for Channel Estimation with Null Edge

Subcarriers, IEEE Trans. on wireless commun., Vol. 10, No. 10, Oct.

-10 2011, pp. 3145-3150.

[10] Francesco Montorsi and Giorgio Matteo Vitetta, On the Performance

-12 Limits of Pilot-Based Estimation of Band limited Frequency-Selective

-75 -70 -65 -60 -55 -50 -45 -40 -35 Communication Channels, IEEE Trans. On Commun., Vol. 59, No. 11,

Signal Power (Ps) pp. 2964-2969, Nov. 2011.

[11] Barbara M. Masini and Andrea Conti, Combined Partial Equalization

for MCCDMA Wireless Systems, IEEE Commun. Lett., Vol. 13, No.

Fig.4 SIR db vs. Ps ( with value j ) 12, Nov. 2011, pp. 884-886.

[12] Flavio Zabini, Barbara M. Masini and Andrea Conti, Partial

Here we can see that the plot between signal power (Ps) vs. equalization for MCCDMA systems in non-ideally estimated correlated

fading, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol, Vol. 59, No. 8, Oct. 2010, pp.

signal to interference ratio in db (SIR db). If we increase the 3818-3830.

signal power (Ps) then SIR db will be increase. Here alpha is

fixed at 0.8. For different sets of number of user (j) we have

got different curves. j = 10, 20, 30, 40.

34 www.erpublication.org

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