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International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR

ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2015

Development of Communication Interface for SSR
System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553
T.Pavani , SK. M. Subhani

Abstract— Secondary surveillance radar (SSR) is
a radar system used in air traffic control (ATC), that not only
detects and measures the position of aircraft i.e. range and
bearing, but also requests additional information from the
aircraft itself such as its identity and altitude. This military
application is called as Identification of Friend or Foe(IFF).
CIT is a system comprises of both interrogator and
transponder. For both transmitting and receiving Combined
Interrogator Transponder(CIT) is used. In order to provide
communication between CIT, user control and display unit data
transfer protocols are used. ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553
are the two protocols that are used in this project for the
development of communication among the systems.

Index Terms— Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR), Fig1.1: Secondary Surveillance RADAR
Identification of Friend or Foe (IFF), ARINC 429,
MIL-STD-1553. The Principle of Secondary radar is:
The secondary surveillance radar (SSR), with the exception of
I. INTRODUCTION barometric altitude, is independent because is the ground unit
that calculates the distance and azimuth of the plane. The
secondary radar system is capable of detecting the presence of
A. SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR (SSR) aircraft that are equipped with a special unit called
Secondary surveillance radar (SSR) is a radar system used
in air traffic control (ATC), that not only detects and
measures the position of aircraft i.e. range and bearing, but B. IDENTIFICATION OF FRIEND OR FOE(IFF)
also requests additional information from the aircraft itself It is the military application of SSR. Identification Friend
such as its identity and altitude. Unlike primary radar systems or Foe (IFF) is a communication based radar system used to
that measure only the range and bearing of targets by identify friendly aircrafts from enemy aircrafts with the help
detecting reflected radio signals, SSR relies on targets of unique identifier codes. It enables military and national
equipped with a radar transponder, that replies to each (civilian air traffic control) interrogation systems
interrogation signal by transmitting a response containing to identify aircraft, vehicles or forces as friendly and to
encoded data. The secondary radar (SSR) is cooperative determine their bearing and range from the interrogator. The
because it requires the transponder on board the aircraft. IFF system consists of ground or airborne interrogator and
airborne transponders fitted in aircrafts. The airborne
The secondary radar gives three coordinates of the plane: interrogator transmits pulsed signal with suitable spacing as
per the desired mode of interrogation in a specified direction.
1. Distance from the sensor Aircraft fitted with compatible transponder replies to the
interrogation in the form of another coded signal. These
2. Azimuth with respect to a reference direction coded replies are received by the interrogator and processed
for identification. The pulsed communication between
3. Information obtained from a dedicated altimeter interrogator and transponder enables the continuous
measurement of range and azimuth of the target. This system
when used for civilian Air Traffic Control (ATC) application
is called Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR). As the
air-space management needs to be uniform across the world
the operation of SSR system is as per the regulation laid down
Thota Pavani , student, Department of ECE, Bapatla
by International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and
Engineering College, Bapatla,India.Mobile No:8008745182 STAndard NATO AGreement (STANAG) 4193.
Mahaboob Subhani Shaik, Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, The system was initially intended to distinguish
Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla, India. between enemy and friend but has evolved such that the term


2 www. it is 21 microseconds.096. it is five microseconds. to provide positive control of all aircraft flying 1. the pressure altitude is adjusted. 64 reply codes. requests Pilots may obtain the local air pressure information from air the "tail number" that identifies a particular aircraft.The code ships to track aircraft and other ships. the aircraft passes Fig 1. it is eight microseconds. At this time. which report the aircraft pressure altitude. The reply codes are entered by means of four code wheels on the transponder control unit.) In Mode 1. signal sent by the interrogator system consists of two pulses  Mode 2 is used by aircraft to make carrier controlled spaced at a precisely defined interval. where many aircraft are flying civil and foreign aircraft use. When interrogated in Mode C. Mode 1.3: IFF Block diagram through dozens of such zones until it is handed over to the 1. The reply pulses generated by the transponder are decoded by the interrogating system and are typically displayed as needed on the primary radar scope near the blip that represents the aircraft that has been challenged. there are 12 information pulses that are digitally coded as "ones" and "zeros. General aviation aircraft flying under visual flight rules are not under constant positive control. the transponder automatically replies with the aircraft altitude. the assigned code number is manually entered into the transponder control unit by the pilot or a crew member. the aircraft soon leaves the departure zone. the pilot is instructed via radio to contact a specific enroute controller on a specific radio frequency.2: Modes of IFF Most SSR systems rely on Mode C transponders. including In dense terminal areas. pilots use a similar procedure. is used in military air traffic control to Inside the aircraft. (A third pulse that has approaches to ships during inclement weather. and such aircraft use a common Mode 3/A code of 1200. altitude and position at all times.2. that is. Specific Mode 3/A code are reserved to  Mode 1 is a non-secure low cost method used by signify aircraft emergencies and radio failures. the interval aircraft to relay their position to ground controllers between the first and last pulse is 3 microseconds. The enroute controller provides additional flight instructions and may assign a new Mode 3/A code in the event of conflicts in his control zone. If the transponder is faulty. The transponder replies are also in the form of a pulse. There are four major modes of in a small area. in Mode 2. Development of Communication Interface for SSR System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553 "IFF" commonly refers to all modes of . by adjusting determine what type of aircraft is answering or what type of their altimeter settings with respect to the local air pressure.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF IFF SYSTEM under instrument flight rules. mission it is on. Altitude information is provided to the transponder by the aircraft's air data computer in increments of 100 feet. is 4. based on local air from the aircraft that is being challenged. in Mode 3/A. the aircraft controller can monitor the track of each aircraft through his zone and know its identity. Such aircraft are assigned unique mode 3/A codes by the airport departure controller. throughout the world for air traffic control (ATC). though in this case. also only for military use. it may report the standard air traffic control mode.1 INTERROGATOR approach controller at its destination. which has pressure readings.1. shows up as a unique display and helps pinpoint the aircraft's exact position. On a transcontinental flight. Fig 1. In either case. to calculate the true altitude of the aircraft. On Each mode of operation elicits a specific type of information the ground. The airborne of determining friend or foe) transponder contains circuitry that discriminates between  Mode "C" is the altitude encoder. in wrong pressure altitude for the aircraft. It is used internationally. Thus. nothing to do with the coding of the query is actually used for  Mode 3 is the standard system also used by commercial interference suppression reasons. Mode 3/A is the Service (ATIS). FAA ground interrogators normally interlace modes by alternately sending Mode 3/A and Mode C challenges thus receiving continuous identity and altitude data from the controlled aircraft." The total number of reply code combinations therefore." The operation currently in use by military aircraft plus one sub pilot then presses the I/P switch on the transponder which mode.2. in Mode C. conjunction with the automatic altitude reporting mode (Mode C). Mode 2.  Mode 4 is secure encrypted IFF (the only true method and. the pilot may be asked to "Squawk I/P. There are traffic control or from the Automatic Terminal Information 4096 possible reply codes in this mode.erpublication.After takeoff. these various timings and automatically sends back the desired reply.

and four video outputs like ANT 1 . at 1090 MHz. namely Champ-AV-IV Quad processor board with Rad2 The BITE oscillator is an oscillator. It also monitors the health techniques are used to develop communication of the transmitter and the receiver and generates an output among the Avionics. the medium power The DACU comprises of 10 Beam Controller Unit (BCU). the signals on L and H can coexist on port S without interfering 1) (a)Electronically Scanned Antenna Array with each other. the Diversity Reception.5 kW.9m Integrated PR-SSR Antenna through one of the two antennas. and isolator is to be used for protection against the provides a peak power of not less than 2. a control signal is generated to switch the transmission lower portion of 7.285m occupying the signal. Scanned Antenna Array. However the pass filter connecting ports H and S. The transmitter shall have protection against transmitter and receiver as well as interface between the over pulse width. we can verify whether the correct communication has been developed or not. higher duty cycle.2. a customized power supply 6) (b) Transponder Receiver shall be used to cater for the different input power supply Transponder Receiver is a dual channel receiver. & data interface.2 Diplexer sub-systems: A diplexer is a passive device that implements (a)Electronically scanned antenna array frequency domain multiplexing.04m x 0.1. July 2015 The SSR Interrogator system consists of the following major 1.2. The 4) 1. A customized reflected power if not catered for at the output stage of the 800 Tx-Rx Controller Card shall be used to monitor the health of Watt transmitter. The analog signals This project requires the following tasks to achieve the main received from the Tx-Rx Unit are digitized and used for objective: providing target report. It receives the • Distributed Antenna Control Unit (DACU) interrogation signal from both the antenna and compares the The planar antenna array is a 50 x 2 cavity backed slotted signal strength. It generates Interrogate and occupy a higher frequency band.g.3 Project Objective electronically scanning the antenna beam. For Transponder. have the scanning capability of 60 off antenna bore sight to achieve 120˚ azimuth coverage by each antenna. In return direction.04m x 0. The ESAA power on port L is transferred to the S port and vice versa. the signal on port L will occupy a The Electronically Scanned Antenna Array (ESAA) will have single low frequency band and the signal on port H will two transmit/receive ports. connector for RF out and one 9pin D-type connector for The signal processor generates various modes of power supply and data interface. giving the health status of the system to be OK or not OK. The signal processor also generates the beam pointing angle command for Beam Controller for 1. a 9 pin D connector for power supply and comprises of the 10-way monopulse comparator and two TTL control for switching the signals. Issue-7. Module and AAAU Controller Unit.2.  After Programming in the software by different formats. The Monopulse Module Receiver inputs). S). The solid state transmitter shall be capable of 2) (b) Tx-Rx Unit Pulse Amplitude Modulation and provide peak power of The Tx-Rx Unit comprises of a Dual channel transmitter that 800Watt. Ideally. This functionality is called Array of AEW&C system. hijack or communication failure. ARINC 429 and their word format Replies Unsynchronous In Time).3. 3 www. ANT 2 video. Tx-Rx unit and DACU of electronically a status bit for its performance monitoring. RF SPDT Switch is used for switching in between ANT 1 and Mode S Electronics & Receiver Unit (MSRU). The BCU provides the the received signal routed to the receiver with two SPST RF progressive phase shift to the individual radiating elements Switch paths. It has the capability to decode special  The main objective of this project is to develop signals like emergency. Monopulse ANT 2 for antenna switching operation.. Volume-3. The 5) (a) Transponder Transmitter necessary control signal to the BCU and MSRU is received Transmitter shall be used to generate RF reply pulses from the AAAU Controller Unit. Two ports (e. two nearby targets and also eliminating the FRUIT (False  MIL-STD-1553.1. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P). It is having one SMA ADC PMC and a customized VME form factor DIO board. ANT 3) (c) Signal Processor Unit 1 BIT stream or ANT 2 BIT stream (BPSK demodulated) The Signal Processor hardware comprises of the following which is one higher signal strength with 30 pin DIN connector hardware VME based COTS board from M/s Curtiss –Wright for power supply. It required by various modules. Depending up on the direction of larger array with a dimension of 7. the diplexer Control Pattern at 1030 MHz in transmit mode while sum and consists of a lowpass filter connecting ports L and S and high difference pattern at 1090 MHz in receive mode. VSWR faults and provide signal processor unit.g.Typically. The detailed description of the is having two RF input (ANT 1 RF input and ANT 2 RF input) Tx-Rx unit is provided in subsequent sections. In that situation. Consequently. It‟s having Five RF connector (one for RF input required for scanning as well as facilitate switching between two connector for RF output and other two connectors for the dorsal mounted antenna. L and H) (b)Transmitter-Receiver (Tx-Rx) Unit are multiplexed onto a third port (e. Antenna Switching Unit Electronically Scanned Antenna Array (ESAA) consists of The airborne targets are generally installed following modules with two Omni-directional antenna for better Coverage on • Planar Antenna Array both upper and lower portion of the target. all the signal control pattern shall be same as difference beam. it also has the capability of distinguishing between VxWorks Software.1. interrogation.. cavity diplexer. The signals on ports (c)Signal Processor(IFF_SP) and Crypto Unit L and H occupy disjoint frequency bands.4 TRANSPONDER configure the antenna array for mode S operation. The MSRU houses the Dual Channel Monopulse Receiver as well as the electronics required to 1. Also.erpublication. In communication interface for SSR systems by using addition.

Emergency and Hijack. books were referred to get clear idea about the Signal Processing in RADARs.2.I describe the overview of Vxworks Software. Operation in modules.4 Literature survey comprises of VME based Champ –AV-IV Quad processor To fulfill the objectives of the thesis. Aircraft fitted with compatible transponder receives the interrogation signal and The Signal Processor of SSR system is being replies back in the form of another coded signal. To get Knowledge in VxWorks. The block diagram of the processor board is shown The receiver has been designed using direct detection.erpublication. McGraw-Hill Publications standard and housed in a single ATR chassis. 4 and S (level-2). I discussed the SSR. The commercial grade).2. All fundamentals of RADARs and having Knowledge in C these boards are COTS items from M/s. it compact and light weight. range and azimuth and target status like PCI-X as its backbone for onboard data movement and has communication Failure. The PMC-X Pn4 connector pins (64 system also consists of a Dual Frequency Dual Channel pins) are routed to the P0/P2 connectors. understanding the board with Rad2 and MIL-1553 PMC board as modules.1 VME based Champ-AV-IV Quad Processor interrogation in a specified direction. “Fundamentals of Radar Signal All these modules/components are designed as per ICAO Processing “ by Mark A.I describe the word formats and bit description for MIL 1553 and ARINC 429. I describe Combined Interrogator Transponder. making below.Richards. In chapter 5. C. This The SSR-Signal Processor is implemented using VME information is very vital in the wartime scenario and is also get an overview about implementing my project. The block is studied to get an overview on RADARs. 3/A. These coded implemented using COTS board which is a standard 6U replies are received by the interrogator and processed for VME64x board having 4x MPC 7447A with high onboard identification. The replay provides additional target details bandwidth and off board I/O capabilities.2. Mk XII 2. The various modes of operation of  MIL-STD-1553 PMC board the IFF Mk XII (S) are 1. Development of Communication Interface for SSR System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553 1. STANAG 4193 interface. Experimental Results. airborne. I describe the conclusion of my paper. 1. Several standard diagram of the IFF CIT is shown below. Overview of IFF System and various parts of IFF System. The board has such as height. The Signal Processor hardware 4 www.1 Sub System Description The IFF CIT is a long range. card. These are the Monopulse receiver with sensitivity up to -93 dBm which onboard I/Os and off board I/Os are provided on the VME meets the link margin for long range airborne applications. In order to understand the standards 2. Mode 4 is an two PMC-X sites. It  VME based Champ-AV-IV Quad processor board operates as per the recommendations of Annexere-10 of  Rad2 ADC PMC International Civil Aviation organization (ICAO) and  Customized VME form factor DIO board. language is essential.1 CIT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 2. In chapter6. Curtiss Wright Inc. In chapter 2. I read Reference papers of IEEE Publications. In chapter 4 .2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE IFF CIT of MIL 1553 and ARINC 429. The power PC board has four RS232 ports each Mode „S‟ (level 2) gives capability of selective addressing connected to each processor and has an onboard Gb-Ethernet and data link capability which are very critical in dense air switch connecting all the four Processors and two ports traffic. thorough the VME P0/P2 connectors (One RS232 and one The system generates an out power of 4KW Gb-Ethernet will be in face plate of the VME card for and 1KW for Interrogator and Transponder respectively. Internet material is also utilized for better understanding. Many technical papers which are added in my References section and books were referred to understand the previous technologies . I took the help of Vxworks image processing toolbox . The Signal Processor hardware is consists of useful to form database during peace time surveillance. This has Motorola Power PC (7447) based encrypted mode of operation that enhances its capability to be SBC with Ethernet port and has provision for two PMC secured.1: Block Diagram of IFF CIT 2.2 Signal Processor (IFF_SP) compatible system having capability to operate to facilitate Interrogator function and Transponder function. 2. in an efficient. In chapter 3. The interrogator transmits pulsed signal in a particular mode of 2.5 Organization of thesis In the chapter 1. jam resistant and resistant of spoofing. II. COMBINED INTERROGATOR TRANSPONDER (CIT) Fig .2.

sixteen ARINC 429 receive data bus that is application-specific for commercial and channels and six ARINC 429 transmit channels. ARINC the IO through the rear PN4 connector. The detailed block buses. The devices. It performance and flexibility for systems interfacing to a defines the physical and electrical interfaces of a MIL-STD-1553 or ARINC 429 data bus. MT.4: Photograph of champ VME Board III. Data can be I/O channels. Volume-3. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P). almost point-to-point wiring.1 ARINC 429 ARINC (Aeronautical Radio. Issue-7.3: Block diagram of MIL-1553 board 5 . self-synchronizing data bus protocol (Tx and Card (PMC) with multiple configuration options. It uses a The BU-67107M is a “Multi-IO” PCI Mezzanine self-clocking. two RS-422/485 Serial receivers _ or sinks _ on one twisted wire pair. "Digital Information Transfer System (DITS). The Rx are on separate ports). The transmitted in one direction only simplex communication – combination of multiple I/O on one card saves valuable PMC with bi-directional transmission requiring two channels or sites on host computers and systems. Hardware consists adjustment.2 : Block Diagram of the Processor Board 3. Each LRU may contain multiple transmitters and receivers communicating on different buses. The (M) version routes twisted pairs carrying balanced differential signaling. are most diagram of the Mil-1553 card is shown below commonly configured in a star or bus-drop topology.ARINC 429 defines both the hardware and operate in high/low speed with automatic slew rate data formats required for bus transmission. which transport aircraft.erpublication. an of a single transmitter – or source – connected to from 1-20 IRIG-B time synchronization input. 429. point-to-point RT. COMMUNICATION USING ARINC 429AND MIL-STD-1553 Fig 2. line replaceable units or LRUs. The card also contains six digital discrete I/Os. The physical connection wires are BU-67107M utilizes a PCI interface. or RT/MT modes. and two RS-232 Serial I/O Channels.2. July 2015 Fig 2. Incorporated ) 429 is a 2.2 MIL-STD-1553 PMC board data transfer standard for aircraft avionics. It is a two-wire.2. This simple architecture. avionics local area network. provides a highly reliable transfer of data. There are up to four two-wire data bus and a data protocol to support an aircraft's dual redundant MIL-STD-1553 channels operating in BC. Star Topology Fig 2." is the technical standard for the predominant avionics data bus used The BU-67107M provides new levels of on most higher-end commercial and transport aircraft.

Sequential words are separated by at least 4 bit times of null or zero voltage. or report source equipment operating status have no address assigned through ARINC 429. By utilizing this null gap between words. When the Functional Test code is received back from the sink.2 Word Formats ARINC 429 protocol uses a point-to-point format. 5. Sign/Status Matrix Bits 31-30 are assigned as the Sign/Status Matrix field or SSM.erpublication.) This field can be used to indicate sign or direction information.  Label – 8 bits 6 www. LRUs of the words data. ARINC uses odd parity as an error check to insure accurate data reception. direction of the data contained in the ARINC word.  Data – 19 bits When the Label indicates Binary data – BNR – bits  Source/Destination Identifier (SDI) – 2 31-30 are used to indicate source equipment operating status bits as shown here.1: ARINC 429 32 bit Word Format The only two fields definitively required are the Label and the Parity bit. which indicates which type of data is being transmitted. but rather and is dependent on the data type. transmitting data from a single source on the bus to up to 20 receivers. with bit 32 being set or cleared to obtain the odd count. 3. Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) or alphanumeric data encoded using ISO Alphabet No. The number of Logic 1s transmitted in each word is an odd number.5 kHz – or a high speed – 100kHz. Transmission rates may be at either a low speed – . The transmitter is always transmitting. Most ARINC messages contain only one data word consisting of either Binary (BNR). which facilitates system used to indicate the sign or management and file transfers. Parity ARINC 429 defines the Most Significant Bit (MSB) of the data word as the Parity bit.1. ARINC 429 specifies no means of error correction. Any unused bits are padded with zeros. Depending on the words Label. and an 8 bit label describing the data itself. Many non-standard word formats have been adopted by various manufacturers of avionics equipment. Development of Communication Interface for SSR System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553 Bus-Drop Topology Table 3. either data words or the NULL state. only error detection. Even with the variations included. system that is not able to produce reliable data. a separate clock signal is unnecessary. File data transfers that send more thanThe No Computed Data code (01) is used to identify a source one word are also allowed. The ARINC 429 data words are 32 bit words made up of five Functional Test code (10) is transmitted with an instruction primary fields: command to perform a functional test on the receiving unit. leaving up to 23 bits available for higher resolution data representation. have Equipment ID numbers which allow grouping For Binary Coded Decimal data – BCD – the SSM can be equipment into systems. all ARINC data Multiple Bus Design is transmitted in 32 bit words.  Parity – 1 bit it identifies the data content of the word as containing the  Sign/Status Matrix (SSM) – 2 bits results of the test. the SSM field can provide Transmission from the source LRU is comprised of 32 bit different information. (See page 15 for more information on words containing a 24 bit data portion containing the actual data types.

The No Binary. Since ARINC 429 only provides for one-way simplex transmission. July 2015 Table 3. Issue-7. in reverse order to rest of the ARINC word –a compensation for compatibility with legacy systems. is very .3: ARINC 429 Word Transfer Order The Label is always transmitted first. bits 31-30 value of 7).The Functional the data‟s Most Significant Bit (MSB). Bit transmission order looks like this: two-way communication between source and sink. Pass/Fail. value of Bit 28 or ¼ of the scale factor. Source/Destination Identifier The Source/Destination Identifier – SDI – utilizes bits Table 3. the entire ARINC 429 word. West. bits are utilized to report source equipment status using the 27-29 are padded with zeros and the second subfield becomes encoding shown here. Activated/Non-Activated and True/False Data conditions relating to system or subsystem operational ARINC 429 defines bits 11-29 as those containing the activity can be represented by setting or clearing predefined word‟s data information. LSB first. Bit 28 is then indicated by using the Failure Warning code). Volume-3. Formatting of the data bits. MSB first.erpublication. If the Most Significant digit is greater than 7. Data Types The Failure Warning code (00) indicates a source system BNR Data failure that could produce an unreliable data output. Table 3. Left.5: ARINC 429 BCD Word Format Discrete Data Discrete data can be made up of BNR and/or BCD data. Bit 26 is ½ the value of The use of the Sign function is optional with BNR data and if Bit 27 or 1 /8 the scale factor and so on. Table 3. the Most Significant digit allowing 4 binary values instead of 5 to be represented.4: ARINC 429 BNR Word Format BCD Data Binary Coded Decimal. From or Below. or BCD format uses 4 data field bits to represent each decimal digit. the Label Maintenance Data and Acknowledgement is transmitted first. or BNR. Bit Computed Data code (01) indicates unreliable data output 29 is utilized as the sign bit with a 1 indicating a negative caused by a condition other than a system failure (which is number – or South.2: ARINC 429 32 bit Word Format 9-10 and is optional under the ARINC 429 7 www. with the Most Significant subfield containing only 3 data field bits (for a maximum binary When the Label indicates Discrete Data words. The SSM field is used to provide the sign of the value. or as individual bits representing specific equipment conditions. The receiving LRU is responsible for data translation and regrouping of bits into proper order. two ARINC channels are required for an LRU to send and receive data. Up to 5 subfields can be utilized to provide 5 binary values. Bit 27 is ½ the results of the functional test. or ½ of the maximum Test code (10) is used to indicate the word‟s data contains the value of the defined parameters scale factor. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P). is represented by bit 29. encoding stores data as a binary number. indeed bits in the word data field. When transmitting data words on the ARINC bus. used. followed by the rest of the bit Maintenance Data and Acknowledgement implies duplex or field.

status(master) The Label is used to identify the word‟s data type (BNR. It specifications. More than one condition may be true at the same time. Bits 11-13. Discrete. a (differential) network interface. All communication on the bus is under the For higher resolution data.. and up to 31 remote terminals (devices).97 us. Note that sub-addresses 0 and 31 are reserved for Equipment IDs are expressed in hexadecimal values.7: Status Word Bit Usage of Defense that defines the mechanical. followed by the rest of the ARINC word. half-duplex command/response source is transmitting the data or by multiple receivers protocol. The SDI can be used to identify which division multiplexing. Remote Terminal address Single bit condition codes Fig 3. Labels are transmitted MSB first.command(terminal) → with receivers programmed to accept up to 255 Labels. Message Error and Service Request are examples. The rest of the word is single bit condition codes.erpublication. Label Bit Structure master. transfer of data from the BC to a terminal is Label master. Altitude. (1–30). and functional characteristics of a serial data bus. The Command Word is built as follows.status(master) Label‟s Most Significant Bit resides in the ARINC word‟s and for terminal to terminal communication is Least Significant Bit location.status(master) → master. When used as an Identifier.2 MIL-STD-1553 MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard published by the United States Department Table 3. Labels may be further refined by for Receive or 1 for Transmit. electrical. The last 5 bits indicate the number of words to expect (1–32). It was originally Also as explained above.command(terminal_2) → terminal_2. The Label is always sent first in an ARINC transmission and is a required field. etc) and can contain instructions or data bits are the Remote Terminal address (0–31). Some bits are reserved.command(terminal_1) → terminal_1. to identify which receiver the data is meant for. devices have to start transmitting designed as an avionic data bus for use with military avionics. Mode Codes.6: Command word Bit Usage The Status Word decodes as .1: Waveforms indicating the ARINC word format 1 2 3 4 5 6-16 3. All zero bits indicate 32 words. therefore within data handling (OBDH) subsystems.command(terminal_2) → terminal_2. the Response Time is 8. but has also become commonly used in spacecraft on-board In the example. BNR Label 102 is Selected Mode Code. the DFS System (Equipment ID 020Hex) or the FCC Controller (Equipment ID 0A1 Hex). Development of Communication Interface for SSR System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553 Specification. The Label is expressed as a 3 digit octal number master.command(terminal) → Bits 1-8 contain the ARINC label known as the Information terminal. time 8. bits 9-10 may be used instead of control of the bus controller using commands from the BC to using them as an SDI field. these bits indicate the Mode Code number (e. In the case of a For example. as is the Parity bit. The amplitude of the query is lower than the 8 www.command(terminal_1) → terminal_1. Table 3. The sequence of words for SDI is interpreted as an extension to the word Label. The next 5 bits indicate the utilizing the first 3 bits of the data field. both military and civil. The first 5 BCD. transmitted LSB first. This means that the Remote Terminal (RT) features multiple (commonly dual) redundant balanced number 3 has responded to the Bus Controller query after line physical layers. A 'one' state indicates condition is → master. The first 5 bits are the address of the Remote Terminal that is responding. The sixth bit is 0 reporting information. the the RTs to receive or transmit.status(master) → master. The terminal.status(master) → master.g.97 us. Management Computer (Equipment ID 002 Hex). as an location (sub-address) to hold or get data on the Terminal Equipment Identifier to identify the bus transmission source. This data can be received from the Flight Initiate Self Test and Transmit BIT Word).data(terminal) → Identifier. their response to a valid command within 4–12 microseconds.

SBS The main difference between codes is their rate. A correct Transfer exhibits the same RT address in the Command Word as in the Status Word. E. data handling systems. Serial formatted time codes are used to efficiently Binary-coded decimal day of year. These digital codes are typically amplitude that counts from 0 to 86399. ground defined by IRIG tracking networks. BCD. July 2015 amplitude of the response because the signal is probed at a location closer to the Remote Terminal.  Year number (00–99. 100 kHz (10 µs resolution) for transferring timing information. BCD 3. BCD_Year. the Standards ARINC 429 and MIL 1553 makes use of the Optional components are: IRIG time codes. CF. spacecraft and missile projects. hours. Both some formats) seconds and fractions are always included. but was replaced by H. G. BCD. Issue-7. 100 Hz (10 ms resolution) 3. which varies The recognized signal identification numbers for each format between one pulse per second and 10. Volume-3. BCD. B. 8.8: IRIG Timecode Modulation type 1. and international cooperative  "Straight binary seconds". In the Status Word. (DCLS) Direct Current Level Shift (width coded) 2. CF. BCD. Modern day electronic 6. SBS The different time codes defined in the Standard have alphabetic designations. CF standards currently defined by 200-04. BCD. 10 kHz (100 µs resolution) commonly known as IRIG time codes. The use of the IRIG standard is to provide a standard protocol for serial time codes that are 2. minutes. 1 kHz (1 ms resolution) Inter-range instrumentation group time codes. No carrier (DCLS) 3. and H are the 6. modulated on an audio sine wave carrier or transmitted as fast 1. Sine wave carrier (amplitude modulated) 3.3: Waveforms indicating the bit format Carrier frequency . data reduction facilities. A. 4. Manchester modulated Fig 3. are standard formats 5. 3. BCD. Table 3. BCD_Year. 1 MHz (1 µs resolution) systems such as communication systems. SBS rise-time TTL signals.3 IRIG Timecode 2. D.3. and missile and spacecraft tracking systems require time-of-day and year information for correlation of data with Coded expressions time. 7. century is not coded) Standardization of time codes is necessary to ensure  User-defined "control functions" occupying bits not system compatibility among the various ranges. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P). and (for interface the timing system output with the user system.erpublication. in this case 0x3.000 pulses per second.1 Time Codes 4. a 17-bit binary counter projects. the first 5 bits are the address of the Remote Terminal that is responding. CF generated for correlation of data with time. according to the standard 200-04 consist of: 9 www. BCD_Year. BCD_Year C was in the original specification. BCD. SBS 5.

which are transmitted as binary 0 if they have no other assigned purpose. and 100 bits of information are transmitted every second. and the derived from IRIG H. and bits 25–26 encode tens of hours (0–23)  Bits 30-33 encode day of year. meaning that (everything below hours. IRIG B122: IRIG B122 transmits one hundred pulses per second on an amplitude modulated 1 kHz sine Not all formats include all fields. to encode a binary 1  After 0. known as position identifiers P1.9: Permissible Code Formats  Bits 45–48 encode tenths of seconds (0–9) Thus the complete signal identification number consists of  Bits 50–53 encode years. formats. hours. P2.1: Block diagram of test setup 10 www. a device can synchronize its time very accurately with the transmitting device by using a phase locked loop to synchronize to the Unassigned 9-bit fields between consecutive marker bits are carrier. within 1 microsecond using IRIG B timecodes. 35-38 encode tens of . encoding information in BCD. . This means that with 60-bit frames omit the straight binary seconds fields. two marker bits in a row (P0 followed by Pr) marks the beginning of a frame. at one of three times during the bit interval:  After 0. Sine wave (amplitude modulated). Generally. The digits representing divisions less than one frame time time frame for the IRIG B standard is 1 second.. 1 kHz carrier. IV. to encode a marker bit Bit 0 is the frame marker bit Pr. Development of Communication Interface for SSR System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553 All other bits are data bits.5 of a bit time. The bits are numbered from 0 through 59 or 99. groups of 4 bits are used to encode BCD digits. in the case of IRIG D) are always one data frame of time information is transmitted every transmitted as 0. and bits 55–58 encode tens one letter and three digits.3. bits 50–53 encode hundredths of seconds. Typical commercial devices will synchronize to available for user-defined "control functions".  Bits 80–88 and 90–97 encode "straight binary seconds" since 00:00 on the current day (0–86399.erpublication. and bits 40–41 encode hundreds of days (1–366) Table 3.. or transmits Manchester 1 bits). the signal designated as B122 of years (0–99) is deciphered as follows: Format B. Every 10th bit starting with bit 9. This data frame contains information about the day of the year (1–366). Year numbers No parity or check bits are included. to encode a binary 0  After 0. The signal is disabled (carrier attenuated at least 3×. second. 99 is also a marker bit. information is transmitted only once per second. Thus. and bits 6–8 encode tens of seconds (0–59)  Bits 10–13 encode minutes. P9. then BCD) IRIG A.8 of a bit time. Fig 4.At the start of each bit time. Leap achieved by comparing consecutive frames to see if they second announcements are not provided. . Obviously those formats wave carrier. Although encode consecutive timestamps. and seconds. The frame encodes the time of the leading edge of the frame marker bit. DC signal level lowered. and bits 15–17 encode tens of minutes (0–59)  Bits 20–23 encode hours. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 3. so the time code repeats annually. Time code formats directly In IRIG G.For example. 19. or Manchester 0 bits transmitted). the IRIG time code enables a signal (sends a carrier.. raises the DC signal level. then probably IRIG G.g.2 of a bit time. and Coded expressions . one of the most common years are encoded in bits 60–68. 29. not The most commonly used of the standards is IRIG B..  Bits 1–4 encode seconds..1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TEST SET UP IRIG time code is made up of repeating frames.2 Time Code Structure 4. Error detection can be are not included. minutes. P0. E. each containing 60 or 100 bits. Bits are assigned little-endian within fields.

Depending upon boards the status of the bits either they are set or clear a particular format is selected.2: Photograph of the Test Setup 4.5: Output for the Label(101) If M0=1then it selects Mode 1 If M1=1then it selects Mode 2 If M2=1then it selects Mode 3/A If M3=1then it selects Mode 4 If M4=1then it selects Mode C If M5=1then it selects Mode S 3. during the transmission of the Fig 4. Volume-3.erpublication. July 2015 Mode of M3 M2 M1 Operation 0 0 0 No Mode 0 0 1 Mode 1 0 1 0 Mode 2 0 1 1 Mode 3/A Table 4. Format for selection of Reply mode Fig 4. Reply code Selection Fig 4. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P). As discussed in the chapter 3. BIT Commands operation(Label 222) 4.3: Output indicating the communication between ARINC word Label will be transmitted first.2 RESULTS In this chapter. experimental findings using the hardware discussed in Chapter 2 and using the specific methods described in Chapters 3 and 4 are presented.2: Selection of reply code The output can be observed on the target console: Fig 4. Format for selection of Reply mode(Label 101) 3.6: Output indicating IRIG Time tag 11 www. The worked out Labels are as follows: . Altitude data(Label 375) The information transmitted or received to/from the module is identified through the Label which consists of the particular Equipment ID. Issue-7.4: Output for the Label(202) 1. Some of the descriptions of the labels are as follows: Fig 4. Format for selection of operating mode using rotary switch(Label 202) 2.Format for selection of operating mode using rotary switch 2.

Michael Garis.http:/www.M. Mark A. India. [3].radartutorial.Richards. Department of ECE.China. Lu Minyan. 12 www.CAUC. Assistant Professor. Yang Shunkun.Mobile No:8008745182 Mahaboob Subhani Shaik. REFERENCES [1]. Department of student. “Model-based robustness testing for avionics-embedded software”. Communication under various test condition were evaluated.en. [6]. IEEE Publications. College of Aviation Automatic.ssr/Sr15. “IRIG Serial time code formats”. Bapatla Engineering College.Stevens. YunlinLuo. “Fundamentals of Radar Signal Processing “ McGraw-Hill Publications.2013. The software coding was done in „C‟ language using Real time operating system VxWorks. [4]. Edward Sanchez.India.2004.erpublication. Artech House Publications. [5].Tianjin 300300. published by Telecommunication and Timing Group. “using open networking standards over mil-std-1553 networks”. Development of Communication Interface for SSR System Using ARINC 429 and MIL-STD-1553 V. Ben Chinese Journal of Aeronautics. [7]. Bapatla.Bapatla Engineering College. Wang Shihai. “Design and Research of an ARINC 429 Bus testing system”. Xiaoqingzhao. Michael C. [2]. R. Liu . “Secondary Surveillance Radar”. CONCLUSION Communication interface has been developed using ARINC 429 protocol and MIL-STD-1553B protocol. Bapatla. The communication between control and display unit and processor of the Combined Interrogator Transponder (CIT) were successfully established.html Thota Pavani . Range Commanders Council.