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PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM

A 2010-10-01 First Issue CBjn/ERtr PNcl PNcl

Rev. Date Description Performed Checked Approved
Client: Title:

ICEPRONAV SA
DRAUGHTING MANUAL

Size: Project No: Rev:
19–21 Circular Road, Douglas, Phone: +44-(0)-1624-623-190
A4 PES A
Isle of Man, IM11AF British Isles Fax: +44-(0)-1624-628-297 Document No: Sheet:
Additional contact information: Phone:+40-(0)-236-415-965
Web: www.icedesign.info Fax: +40-(0)-236-417-836 PES-MD-G003 1 of 111
The information and data contained herein are proprietary to International Contract Engineering Ltd and are not to be copied, reproduced,
duplicated or disclosed to others, in whole or in part, without prior written consent of International Contract Engineering Ltd.
© 2010, ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010
File name: PES-MD-G003_A - Draughting Manual.doc

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet
Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 2 of 111
Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A

REVISION HISTORY

REVISION REVISED CHAPTERS REVISION DESCRIPTION REASON FOR REVISION

© 2010, ICEPRONAV
Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010

File name: PES-MD-G003_A - Draughting Manual.doc

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet
Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 3 of 111
Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE....................................................................................................................................... 5

1 TECHNICAL DESIGN STANDARDS .................................................................................... 6

1.1 LINEWORK ..................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 LETTERING .................................................................................................................... 7
1.3 SCALES ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.4 TECHNICAL DRAWING FORMATS ...................................................................................... 8

2 RULES FOR VIEWS AND SECTIONS REPRESENTATION AND NOTATION .................... 9

2.1 GENERAL RULES FOR THE VIEWS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS REPRESENTATION .................... 9
2.2 SPECIAL RULES FOR VIEWS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS REPRESENTATION .......................... 10
2.3 VIEWS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS NOTATION ..................................................................... 13

3 DIMENSIONING PRINCIPLES ............................................................................................ 14

3.1 DIMENSIONING OF FEATURES NOT DRAWN TO SCALE ...................................................... 17
3.2 CHAIN DIMENSIONING AND AUXILIARY DIMENSIONING ...................................................... 17
3.3 PARALLEL DIMENSIONING ............................................................................................. 17
3.4 RUNNING DIMENSIONING ............................................................................................... 18
3.5 DIMENSIONING CIRCLES ................................................................................................ 18
3.6 DIMENSIONING RADII ..................................................................................................... 19
3.7 DIMENSIONING CURVES ................................................................................................ 20
3.8 ANGULAR DIMENSIONS ................................................................................................. 22
3.9 TAPERS ....................................................................................................................... 22
3.10 DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS ............................................................................................ 25
3.11 DIMENSIONING HOLES................................................................................................... 25
3.12 DIMENSIONING COUNTERBORES .................................................................................... 25
3.13 DIMENSIONING COUNTERSUNK HOLES ........................................................................... 27
3.14 DIMENSIONING SPOTFACES ........................................................................................... 27
3.15 DIMENSIONING FOR MANUFACTURE ............................................................................... 28
3.16 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS TO INDICATE SURFACE TEXTURE .................................................. 30
3.17 MANDATORY POSITIONS FOR COMPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS ..................................... 31

4 GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES ......................................................................................... 34

4.1 APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................. 34
4.2 ADVANTAGES............................................................................................................... 34
4.3 GENERAL RULES .......................................................................................................... 34
4.4 THEORETICALLY EXACT DIMENSIONS ............................................................................. 36
4.5 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................ 37

© 2010, ICEPRONAV
Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010

File name: PES-MD-G003_A - Draughting Manual.doc

.................. 41 4................................................13 DEFINITIONS ..........................................................................................................................4 CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF SHIP STRUCTURES ....................................................... 65 6.............................................................................................. 39 4........................... 81 7..............1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES ..................8 LIMITS AND FITS ............... 65 6...................................doc ...........2 COORDINATES SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 4.............. 77 7......12 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING NON-RIGID PARTS ......................................................................Draughting Manual........................................ 40 4.. 55 5...............7 METHODS OF APPLYING THE TOLERANCE FRAME TO THE TOLERANCED FEATURE ..................................................................................................... 38 4..... ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev...... 71 6..................... 51 5... 48 5............................................................ 74 7 HULL DRAUGHTING ........................... 39 4..............................4 COORDINATION DRAWING (COMPOSITE DRAWING) ................... 96 REFERENCES ................15 TRUE-POSITION (THEORETICAL EXACT) DIMENSIONING.9 THE APPLICATION OF TOLERANCES TO A RESTRICTED LENGTH OF A FEATURE..................6 LIST OF MAIN HULL DOCUMENTS FOR BASIC DESIGN AND DETAIL DESIGN ................................................................................. 42 4........1 .........................4 DIMENSION RULES ................... Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 4 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 4............ 75 7.............................................................................................................. 41 4.................................................3 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM .................................................. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .........................11 PROJECTED TOLERANCED ZONE.......................................................5 ITEMS TABLE .............................................. 41 4... 39 4....................... 88 7............................ 52 5................ 65 6................. 52 5..... 99 APPENDIX A.............................................................................5 ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS ...................................... 59 6 SPECIFIC DRAWINGS FOR PIPING IN SHIPBUILDING .....................................................................................7 SCREWED ASSEMBLIES ...3 LINES PLANE AND OFFSET TABLE .................. 43 5 ASSEMBLY DRAWING ............................... 48 5............ 78 7............................................................................................................16 TYPICAL PRODUCT REQUIREMENT ................... 48 5............ 75 7........................................................ 52 5................................................TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION .....................2 PIPING ASSEMBLY DRAWING SYMBOLS ......................2 REPRESENTING RULES ..........................6 METHOD OF INDICATING GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES ON DRAWINGS ....8 PROCEDURE FOR POSITIONING REMARKS WHICH ARE RELATED TO TOLERANCE ..................6 WELDING SYMBOLS USED IN TECHNICAL DRAWINGS ....................................... 100 © 2010..................................1 SHIP DIMENSIONS AND DEFINITIONS ............. 71 6.......................................1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES ............3 POSITIONING RULES ....................10 TOLERANCE ZONES ..........14 POSITIONAL TOLERANCING .......................5 HULL SAMPLE DRAWINGS ........................

ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Theoretical knowledge covers the principles. in accordance with the theoretical basis of technical Drawing. and be of value to students engaged on project work. This work is addressed to specialists in the engineering industry and appropriate fields and it is trying to correlate the graphical representations with the standards already existing when it was elaborated. methods and conventions practiced in technical drawing. The contents of document are basically a graded course of work. followed by exercises which allow the reader to practice what has been learned in each chapter. Practice is invaluable. not only as a means of understanding principles. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual. Imagination is a must to develop the visualization capabilities for better understanding. consisting of chapters giving explanations and examples of construction methods. Geometrical constructions are a necessary part of engineering design and analysis and examples of two and three-dimensional geometry are provided. also to appreciate the necessity for the insertion and meaning of every line. Readers are invited to redraw a selection of the examples given for experience.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 5 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A PREFACE The text which follows covers the basic aspects of engineering drawing practice required by professional drawing office personnel. It is sometimes forgotten that not only does a draughtsman produce original drawings but is also required to read and absorb the content of drawings he receives without ambiguity. further study. Applications show how regularly used standards should be applied and interpreted. but in developing the ability to visualize shape and form in three dimensions with a high degree of fluency. The section on engineering diagrams is included to stimulate and broaden technological interest. © 2010.doc .

dense and contrasting lines.1 Example Description Represe Application ntation A Continuous wide line Visible edges and outlines 1 Dimension.25. presented to be viewed with the longest side of the sheet horizontal.doc . 1. Long dashed dotted G 2 Lines of symmetry narrow line 3 Pitch circle for gears © 2010.1 LINEWORK 1. 0. 1. Line thicknesses of 0.1.Draughting Manual. A wide line and a narrow line in the ratio of 2:1. presented to be viewed with the longest side of the sheet vertical. shows applications for different line types which are designed to obtain a good professional finish to a drawing.0. inking pens for manual use.4 and 2.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 6 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 1 TECHNICAL DESIGN STANDARDS 1. black.2 Lines and linework Two thicknesses of line are recommended for manual and CAD drawings.35 are generally used and will give good quality.5.0. and those for CAD plotters are all available in the following millimetre sizes: 0. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.7 and 0. (b) Portrait. 1.1.35. 0.1.7. 0. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . extension and projection lines 2 Hatching lines for cross sections 3 Leader and reference lines 4 Outlines of revolved sections B Continuous narrow line 5 Imaginary lines of intersection 6 Short centre lines 7 Diagonals indicating flat surfaces 8 Bending lines 9 Indication of repetitive features Continuous narrow Limits of partial views or sections C irregular line provided the line is not an axis Limits of partial or interrupted views.1 Presentation Drawing sheets and other documents should be presented in one of the following formats: (a) Landscape. Standard lead holders. Continuous straight D Suitable for CAD drawings provided the narrow line with zig zags line is not an axis Two or more hidden outlines and edges E Dashed wide line wich are overlaped Dashed narrow line F Hidden outlines and edges 1 Centre lines. Table 1. Table 1.

The nominal writing dimension is the capital letters and cipher height h.3 SCALES The reason for the application of scales is in order to realistically represent the physical item in a user-friendly sized drawing. .Lettering should not be underlined since this impairs legibility. 10. 1.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 7 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 4 Pitch circle for holes Long dashed dotted At ends and at changes to indicate H narrow line with wide line cutting planes Long dashed dotted wide Surfaces which have to meet special I line requirements 1 Preformed outlines 2 Adjacent parts Long dashed double 3 Extreme positions of moveable parts K dotted narrow line 4 Initial outlines prior to forming 5 Outline of finished parts 6 Projected tolerance zones Various combinations of line thickness and type are shown on the mechanism in Fig.2 LETTERING It has previously been mentioned that technical drawings are prepared using only two line thicknesses and if reasonable care is taken a pleasing result can easily be obtained. If more than one scale is used on a drawing sheet then the major scale should be stated within the © 2010.1) 1. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. . k. . The scale used must be stated within the title block. 2.Draughting Manual.The company standard for font type is Arial. 1. The following notes will assist the draughtsman‘s technique of lettering: .Use single stroke characters devoid of serifs and embellishments.Capital letters are preferred to lower case letters since they are easier to read on reduced size copies of drawings.Lettering may be vertical or slanted.8. and is chose from standard heights: 1. . where n= 1.5. …. 5. . however that there may be a contract specific change to another type(s).doc .On parts lists or where information is tabulated. Lower case letters are generally used only where they are parts of standard symbols. . 7. or the height resulted from n this standard heights amplified with 10 . The aim is to produce clear and unambiguous letters. mm.5. numbers and symbols. . 3.The spacing round each character is important to ensure that ‗filling in‘ will not occur during reproduction. codes or abbreviations. . 2. measured in mm.1(Circled numbers relate to the line types in Table 1. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . according to the style which is customarily used by the draughtsman.All drawing notes and dimensions should remain legible on reduced size copies (A3). the letters or numerals should not be allowed to touch the spacing lines.All strokes should be of consistent density.

Symbol axb (mm) A0 841x1189 A1 594x841 A2 420x594 A3 297x420 A4 210x297 Whenever an extra-standard format is necessary it can be used with project management approval and should be chosen from special lengthened or exceptional lengthened formats. Special lengthened formats are obtained by a dimension dilation of A series formats. Symbol axb (mm) A3x3 420x891 A3x4 420x1189 A4x3 297x630 A4x4 297x841 A4x5 297x1051 Exceptional lengthened formats can be obtained by a dimension dilation of A series formats. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .4 TECHNICAL DRAWING FORMATS Technical drawing formats. 1. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Symbol axb (mm) Symbol axb (mm) A0x2 1189x1682 A3x5 420x1486 A0x3 1189x2523 A3x6 420x1783 A1x3 841x1783 A3x7 420x2080 A1x4 841x2378 A4x6 297x1261 A2x3 594x1261 A4x7 297x1471 A2x4 594x1682 A4x8 297x1682 A2x5 594x2102 A4x9 297x1892 © 2010.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 8 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A title block and the other scales should be stated in the views title. borders and margin sizes are to be as per the company standard and are chosen from main A series. and lengthened format b dimension must be integral multiple of the basic format a dimension.doc . and lengthened format b dimension must be integral multiple of the basic format a dimension.Draughting Manual.

The prismatic bossage on the exterior cylindrical surface of the piece from Fig. .10a-c.10 and Fig. A. A.2 Fictive edges representation. The fictive edges don‘t intersects contour lines or real visible lines. placed at a very small distance between them.1. Fig. The axis lines exceed the projections contour with 2-3mm.3 The representation of elements placed in front of the sectioning plane. .doc . 2. A.special rules for representation.1.rules for views and sections representation and notation. A.1. . .terminology and classification.Draughting Manual. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. The recommended dimension of segment is 6…8mm and the distance between the segment and point is 2…3mm. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . . SECTIONS AND DETAILS REPRESENTATION 2.12the fictive edges intersect break lines and the symmetry axis and so don‘t need to break them. but represented is just the one with the part thickness smaller. In Fig.1. A.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 9 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 2 RULES FOR VIEWS AND SECTIONS REPRESENTATION AND NOTATION These rules are: .12 the fictive edge corresponds to intersection between imaginary extensions of conical surface with level planes of conical bases. The geometric shapes contours of a piece placed in front of the sectioning plane can be represented on that section using long dashed double dotted narrow line. When two parallel fictive edges must be represented on a piece view.1.1.1. for left view and section A-A is applied the rule that refers to marking out the axis lines of the projections with continuous line.1. The fictive edges accentuate is necessary for the piece dimensioning. . The fictive edges are represented with continuous narrow line (type B) (Fig.4c) .12). namely the one that corresponds to that smallest thickness of the piece. (Fig. In Fig.12).1. .1. A. (Fig.1 The representation of the symmetry axis lines and axis of revolution.1 GENERAL RULES FOR THE VIEWS. When the projection containing it has the dimensions smaller or equal with 10mm.1.10a-c.4c.1.1.1. In Fig. and in that way are generated two fictive edges. In Fig. A. Fig. A. These projection components are marked out with long dashed dotted narrow line (type C) and complies with the following rules: . Fig. A. it couldn‘t be represented in a regular way on section A-A because it can be found on the piece © 2010. . Terminology and classification for views and sections are referred in Appendix 1.general rules for representation. 2. A. 2. The intersection of this kind of lines is realized at the segments level. A.11.10 the cornier parts have a leaning face with a 5% bent. just one fictive line will be represented.1. a continuous narrow line is used for the axis mark-out. breaking at 2-3mm from these.13a. A.

Three projections: top view. A. The break points of the route (the intersection points of the converse perpendicular planes track) are accentuated with continuous wide line segments. Fig.Two projections: top view and step-up section A-A (Fig. A.On the step-up sections the hatches are shifted to accentuate the pass through an another area of the sectioning surface.15b.The sectioning surface is formed from an odd number of converse perpendicular planes.1. . The symmetric objects are the one characterized by the symmetry of the outside and inside geometric shapes towards one or more planes. its contour can be represented and the necessary dimensions can be inscribed on section.Three projections: top view.13c and Fig. . Fig. Other representation solutions for this piece are presented in Fig. A.1.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 10 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A part that is removed imaginary.1. A. The representation of the broken section complies with the following rules: . The step-up sections representation complies with following rules: . no matter the chose position for representation.1.14a.The sectioning surface has two semi planes which form between them a 90 o angle. A. . . the most efficient representation is the one with step-up section.15a and b shows an example of the practical rule application. to save space format.4 Broken section representation The broken sections are used for relieving the inside shapes of a piece when avoiding leaning sections is intended.1 Symmetric objects representation. In this situation the following rules shall apply: © 2010. A. A. For the support from Fig.14b shows the spin of the section contours (the vertical segment 1) in the position notated 1 1 and the projection on the vertical plane of the spun contour (1‘ 1 ). 2. A.13d.The apparent lack of correspondence between the obtained section and the rest of piece projections shall not be considered representation error. This kind of object projections can be represented just half or quarter. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.1. 2.1.1. Obvious. . section S1-S1 and section S4-S4.2 SPECIAL RULES FOR VIEWS. inside shapes that can‘t be got through with the same sectioning plane.1.5 Step-up section representation The step-up section is used for accentuate with one section only. The auxiliary graphic constructions from Fig.Draughting Manual. SECTIONS AND DETAILS REPRESENTATION 2. two sections are necessary. 2. For the relieving of the inside bares of the plate the following representation solution can be used: . section S1-S1 and section S2-S2. .1.2. In this way is avoided the representation of more sections.Three projections: top view.The real contours resulted by sectioning the piece with the leaning semi plane are rotating until will get to appertain to the rest of the section plane. Appling this rule.1.15b). The hatches shift is accentuated in Fig. section S1-S1 and combined projection generated by the route S3-S3 (½ view from left and ½ section). A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .14b don‘t have to appear on the drawing paper. one of the section being leaning.doc .

The other details position is indicated with axis lines and dimensioning. 2.18).16).17. Fig. In Fig.2 the slits position with 5mm diameter is indicated just on their centers. Using the symmetry in ratio with a plane. In Fig. . on vertical plane and the lateral part placed in the left of symmetry vertical axis (Fig.Draughting Manual. used to represent the top view 50% and to use on lateral plane a combined projection ½ view from left and ½ view from right.1.1 the represented transition surface has just one symmetry plane. 2. The avoidance of the representation of some shape details that are repeating regularly is permitted. 2. A.1. the views obtained after opposite directions can be grouped.2 2. specifying just the first and the last element on view. are written on symmetry axis of the partial represented projection .1.17 the collar has six symmetry planes. 2. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 11 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A . A. In Fig. The symmetric view representations recommended as follows: on horizontal plane the part placed under the symmetry axis (Fig.1 Fig. 2. © 2010.2. The symmetry symbols ( two continuous narrow parallel line segments).doc .1. and only two of them are used. A.16 the represented lid has four symmetry planes but the top view can be only 50% represented because the break sections A-A doesn‘t result symmetrically.2 Repetition elements representation. Fig. In Fig.

In Fig.3 Plane surface representation.2. representing the intersection curve of two cylindrical surfaces. 2. can be a simplified representation by segments that get through the extreme points of the curve.4 Simplified representation of the surfaces intersection curves. The polyhedral surfaces sides can be accentuated by marking-out the diagonals with continuous narrow line if the representation understanding is easier in this way.3 2. 2.2. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .4 the regular prism sides that represent an ax extremity are accentuated by diagonals and the characteristic dimension is inscribed on a local view.5 © 2010. The real edge resulted from processing. 2.3 the splay extremity of a bar is accentuated on the front view with diagonals help and a local view is used for dimensioning.4 Fig. Fig. and the intersection curve of the inside surfaces is represented by segment 1‘. 2.doc . Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual. The planes surfaces resulted by processing on cylindrical-conic surfaces or rotary surfaces are accentuated on the representation in the view marking-out the contour diagonals with continuous narrow line. 2.5 schematically represent a T transition surface. 2. In Fig. Fig. The intersection of the outside surfaces projection on the vertical plan is accentuated by a fictive edge.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 12 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 2.

The projection numbers are with capital letters. 2.The detail is notated with the allocated letter and the increased scale used on its representation.1. sections and details notation precise rules are necessary because the used projections for a piece representation or assembly can be numerous and placed on more formats. The normal displacement of the projections must not be notated. Fig.1.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 13 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 2. 2. . with the letter nominal height of 5mm.A letter can be used just one time for a view. 2.The detail is represented in view or section as it is extracted from a view or section.6c.15.The detail is identified with a capital letter. section or detail label.This rule is applied in Fig.Examples in Fig. is indicated with the same letter. .The detail is bounded by the necessary contours or by a break line. .doc . for combined projections ½ view and ½ section on the vertical and lateral planes. 2.6 – the canal representation of an inside fillet rake: . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . A. © 2010.5 Detail representation. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A.The sections are notated with capital letters where the sectioning routes are indicated.On the increased scale representation those dimensions that can‘t be placed on the source projection are marked. . The direction after the view is obtained. The letters are used in alphabetic order and complying with the projection development order.3 VIEWS. .For the combined projection case of the symmetric piece is allowed to don‘t notate the section rout and the projection. A-A appear on every drawing because for each of them that section is the first section.5 this rule is applied.6 2. Fig. d. placed in frame inside.Draughting Manual. . .The views obtained after the projection normal direction but placed in other position then the standard ones are notated with a capital letter. .The part that will be represented to an increase scale is bounded by a frame (square.2. The rules that are applied are the following and are exemplified in Fig. rectangle. Fig. SECTIONS AND DETAILS NOTATION For views.13.1. . . where the view from right (direction B) is placed in the position for the view from left. . A. . . .In Fig.1. .The views obtained after the projection normal direction and placed as per recommendations. The detail representation on an increase scale has the purpose to ensure the necessary space for dimensioning. circle) marked out with continuous narrow line.The details are notated with a letter and the representation scale.

Dimension and projection lines are narrow continuous 0. also the sizes and positions of the various features. then adequate space must be left between rows of dimensions and a spacing of about 12 mm is recommended. .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 14 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 3 DIMENSIONING PRINCIPLES A drawing should provide a complete specification of the component to ensure that the design intent can be met at all production stages.doc . must be of uniform size and shape and in every case touch the dimension line to which they refer. surface finishes. Dimensioning a component is the means of specifying the design intent in the manufacture and verification of the finished part. The drawing outline will then be clearly defined and in contrast with the dimensioning system. parts of cones. etc. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . . location. countrebores. .1 can be considered as a cylinder through the plate. . the number of parts required and any further comments which result from a consideration of the use to which the completed component will be put. Arrowheads should be approximately triangular. etc. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.35 mm thick lines. limits and fits. Arrowheads drawn by machine need not be filled in.Draughting Manual. should be undertaken with a view to defining the shape or form and overall size of the component carefully. It should not be necessary for the craftsman either to scale the drawing or to deduce dimensions by the subtraction or addition of other dimensions. 3. the part could be used in sub-assembly and notes would then make reference to associated drawings or general assemblies. A solid block with a circular hole in it is shown in Fig. prisms. The axis of the hole is shown at the intersection of two centre lines positioned from the left hand side and the bottom of the block and these two surfaces have been taken as facts. Dimensioning therefore. from the necessary given planes or axes. tolerances of size.. if possible. such as holes. For example. height and thickness. Arrowheads drawn manually should be filled in. The circular hole in Fig. also the diameter and depth of the hole and its position in relation to the surface of the block. cylinders. As previously mentioned. geometric control and surface texture must be defined and appear on the drawing only once. Double dimensioning is also not acceptable. © 2010. clearly placed outside the outline of the drawing. the drawing outline is depicted with wide 0. about 2 to 3 mm.1 and to establish the exact shape of the item we require to know the dimensions which govern its length. The projection lines should then continue for the same distance past the dimension line. position. Bearing in mind the size of the actual dimensions and the fact that there may be two numbers together where limits of size are quoted.7 mm thick lines. Theoretically any component can be analyzed and divided into a number of standard common geometrical shapes such as cubes. depending on the size of the drawing. tapings. The projection lines should not touch the drawing but a small gap should be left. The completed engineering drawing should also include sufficient information for the manufacture of the part and this involves the addition of notes regarding the materials used. Dimensions specifying features of size. The length and height have also been measured from these surfaces separately and this is a very important point as errors may become cumulative and this is discussed later in the chapter. 3.

ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 15 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. when used in the role of projection lines. They can be extended. .0. and obviously this varies with the size and degree of complexity of the subject. The leader line to the hole is directed towards the centre point but terminates at the circumference in an arrow.doc . Dimensions are quoted in millimetres to the minimum number of significant Figs. . Leader lines are used to indicate where specific indications apply. a choice often exists where to place the dimensions and the following general rules will give assistance. for example. Fig. In the case of a decimal dimension. position the shortest dimension nearest to the component and this will avoid dimension lines crossing. Start by dimensioning the view which gives the clearest understanding of the profile or shape of the component. . To enable dimensions to be read clearly. Where several dimensions are placed on the same side of the drawing. . We write 0. A leader line for a part number terminates in a dot within the outline of the component.2 shows a partly completed drawing of a gauge to illustrate the above aspects of dimensioning. Centre lines must never be used as dimension lines but must be left clear and distinct. It should be stated here that on metric drawings the decimal marker is a comma positioned on the base line between the Figs. For example. The gauge plate here is assumed to be part number six of a set of inspection gauges. If space permits. . or by turning the drawing in a clockwise direction. so that they can be read from the right hand side.Draughting Manual. 3. Try to ensure that similar spacing are made between dimension lines as this gives a neat appearance on the completed drawing. Figs are placed so that they can be read from the bottom of the drawing. 5. 3. however.2 but never 5·2 with a decimal point midway. . © 2010.4 and not 4. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . place the dimensions outside the profile of the component as first choice. . which might not be noticed on a drawing print that has poor line definition.1 . When components are drawn in orthographic projection. always use a naught before the decimal marker. 19 and not 19.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 16 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A . Therefore always check over your drawing. Careless and untidy dimensioning can spoil an otherwise sound drawing and it should be stated that many marks are lost in examinations due to poor quality work. is it a measurable distance? Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. in other words. Remember. view it and question yourself. can the inspector verify the Fig. 3. . that drawings are the media to communicate the design intent used to the manufacturing and verification units. 3.. Is the information complete? Ask yourself whether or not the machinist or fitter can use or work to the dimension you have quoted to make the item.3 © 2010. Also. Fig. 3.Draughting Manual.3 shows a component which has been partly dimensioned to illustrate some of the involved principles.2 Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Overall dimensions which are given for surfaces that can be seen in two projected views are generally best positioned between these two views.doc .

Note that the overall length is not an auxiliary dimension. © 2010. which results from small errors in each of the six separate dimensions in the chain.5 to illustrate chain dimensioning.doc . Note the considerable variation in length.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 17 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 3. This dimension is not one which is worked to in practice but is given purely for reference purposes. but as a dimensional length in its own right. 3. Imagine the effect of marking out say twenty holes for rivets in each of two plates. You will now appreciate that it will depend on the accuracy with which each of the pitches in the chain is marked out.Draughting Manual.3 PARALLEL DIMENSIONING Improved positional accuracy is obtainable by dimensioning more than one feature from a common datum.6. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. start at the left hand side and mark out the dimensions shown in turn. on your drawing and check with the auxiliary dimension given. how many holes would eventually line up? The overall length is shown in parentheses (157) and is known as an auxiliary dimension. Fig. 3.4 This practice is very useful where the dimensional change does not impair the understanding of the drawing.4 3. A plan view of a twist drill stand is given in Fig. 3.2 CHAIN DIMENSIONING AND AUXILIARY DIMENSIONING Chains of dimensions should only be used where the possible accumulation of tolerances does not endanger the function of the part. Fig. 3.5 3. and this method is shown in Fig. As a test of drawing accuracy. Now each of the dimensions in the chain would be subject to a manufacturing tolerance since it is not possible to mark out and drill each of the centre distances exactly. 3. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . The selected datum is the left hand side of the stand. Measure the overall Fig.1 DIMENSIONING OF FEATURES NOT DRAWN TO SCALE This method of indication is by underlining a particular dimension with a wide line as indicated in Fig. which clearly accumulate.

8 and Fig. 3. Fig.5 DIMENSIONING CIRCLES The symbol Ø preceding the figure is used for specifying diameters and it should be written as large as the Figs which establish the size. Fig. 3. 3.9. 3.g.doc . e. Alternative methods of dimensioning diameters are given below. Ø65. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.7 Staggered dimensions For greater clarity a number of parallel dimensions may be indicated as shown in Fig.Draughting Manual. 3.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 18 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.6 3. 3.8 © 2010.4 RUNNING DIMENSIONING Is a simplified method of parallel dimensioning having the advantage that the indication requires less space. The size of hole and space available on the drawing generally dictates which method the draughtsman chooses. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . The common origin is indicated as shown (Fig. 3.7) with a narrow continuous circle and the dimensions placed near the respective arrowheads.

doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 19 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Note that the dimension line is drawn through the arc centre or lies in a line with it in the case of short distances and the arrowhead touches the arc.6 DIMENSIONING RADII Alternative methods are shown where the position of the centre of the arc need not be located. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual.11 © 2010. 3. 3.9 Fig.10 3. 3. Fig.

12 3.14). A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . To illustrate the use of ordinates. Ordinates are then positioned on the drawing and the outline passes through each of the chosen fixed points.doc .Draughting Manual. a section through the hull of a boat is shown (Fig.7 DIMENSIONING CURVES A curve formed by the blending of several radii must have the radii with their centres of curvature clearly marked. © 2010. The outline is also extended slightly beyond the centre line to indicate that the shape is to be continued. 3. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Dimensioning irregular curves Irregular curves may be dimensioned by the use of ordinates. 3.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 20 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Dimensioning spherical radii and diameters Fig. Since the hull is symmetrical about the vertical centre line it is not necessary to draw both halves in full and if the curve is presented in this manner then two short thick parallel lines are drawn at each end of the profile at right angles to the centre line.

3. 3. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 21 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. 3.15 © 2010. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.14 Fig.doc .13 Fig.

3. Fig.8 ANGULAR DIMENSIONS Angular dimensions on engineering drawings are expressed as follows: .18 the difference in magnitude between dimensions X and Y (whether diameters or widths) divided by the length between them defines a ratio known as a taper. minutes and seconds e. e.g.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 22 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.17 Fig.g. 3.doc . 3. e. 3. .9 TAPERS In Fig.16 3.g. 3.Degrees.g. In the case of an angle less than one degree it should be preceded by 0°. Fig. 30° 40′ 20″.Draughting Manual. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . 0° 25′. 3. 30°. 30° 40′. . For clarity a full space is left between the degree symbol and the minute figure also between the minute symbol and the second figure.Degrees and minutes.18 © 2010.17 shows various methods of dimensioning angles.Degrees. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. e.

the diameter or width at the larger end.g.the locating dimension from the datum to the cross-section referred to above. or the included angle. © 2010.the diameter or width at a particular cross-section. form. If reference dimensions are given to improve communications.e.the diameter or width at the smaller end.19: 20  10 10 Taper    0. and this symbol can be shown on drawings accompanying the rate of taper. . i.20 gives four examples of the methods used to specify the size.25:1 The arrow indicates the direction of taper. .the length of the tapered feature.the rate of taper. 3. . The ISO recommended symbol for taper is  . and position of a tapered feature can be defined by calling for a suitable combination of the following: . 3. the conical taper in Fig. it is enclosed in a box as follows: Fig. Fig.doc . then they must be shown in brackets. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .25:1 on diameter. 3. which may lie within or outside the feature concerned. (1:5 taper). e. When a taper is required as a datum.25 40 40 and may be expressed as rate of taper 0.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 23 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A X Y  Taper   2 tan length 2 For example.Draughting Manual. .19 Dimensioning tapers The size. form. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. .  0. and position of tapered features. Care must be taken to ensure that no more dimensions are quoted on the drawing than are necessary.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 24 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. Fig.21 © 2010.‗TO FIT GAUGE (PART NO.20 Dimensioning two mating tapers When the fit to a mating part or gauge is necessary. 3. For more accurate repeatability of location. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . YYY‘. .Draughting Manual. . GG)‘. this implies that a ‗standard rubbing gauge‘ will give an acceptable even marking when ‗blued‘. The functional requirement whether the end-wise location is important or not. will determine the method and choice of dimensioning. 3.21.doc . 3. An example of dimensioning two mating tapers when end-wise location is important is shown in Fig. When note 2 is added to the drawing.‗To FIT PART NO. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. the use of Geometric Tolerance and a specific datum is recommended. a tried and successful method used in manufacturing units is to add the following information to the feature(s).

and the depth of the enlarged hole is controlled by a stop on the drilling machine.11 DIMENSIONING HOLES The depth of drilled holes.12 DIMENSIONING COUNTERBORES A drilling machine is used for this operation. 3. Holes in flanges or bosses are generally positioned around a pitch circle (PCD) and may be spaced on the main centre lines of the component (on centres) or as shown below equally spaced off centres. If no other indication is given they are assumed to go through the material.22.22 Fig.24 3.24). The part of a spindle which carries the chain wheel of a cycle. 3. 3. © 2010.23 shows a square machined on the end of a shaft so that it can be turned by means of a spanner. when stated in note form. The operation involves enlarging existing holes. 3. and a typical counterboring tool is shown in Fig. Holes are usually drilled off centres to provide for maximum access to fixing bolts in the case of valves and pipeline fittings.26. Special flanges need to have each hole positioned individually and an example is given with three tapped holes (see Fig. 3. 3.23 The narrow diagonal lines are added to indicate the flat surface. secured by a cotter pin. Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 25 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 3.25). 3. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Fig. refers to the depth of the cylindrical portion and not to the point left by the drill.doc . 3.Draughting Manual. 3. Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. illustrates a flat surface which is not at the end of the shaft (Fig.10 DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS Alternative methods of dimensioning internal and external chamfers are shown in Fig.

A typical use for a counterbored hole is to provide a recess for the head of a screw.25 Fig.28 could also be obtained by spotfacing. 3. 3. Fig. Note that. 3. 3. it is necessary to specify the size of counterbore required.Draughting Manual. The flat surface in Fig. in every case.doc .28. 3. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .29 shows methods of dimensioning counterbores.27 or a flat surface for an exposed nut or bolt. 3.27 © 2010. since obviously the head of the screw will fit into any counterbore which is larger than the head. Fig. Fig. 3.26 Fig. as in Fig. It is not sufficient to state ‗COUNTERBORE FOR M10 RD HD SCREW‘.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 26 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A The location of the counterbored hole is assisted by a pilot at the tip of the tool which is a clearance fit in the previously drilled hole. as shown in Fig.

A spotfacing tool is shown in Fig.14 DIMENSIONING SPOTFACES Spotfacing is a similar operation to counterboring.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 27 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.30b Fig.Draughting Manual.28 Fig. 3.32. 3.30 © 2010. and the pilot at the tip of the spotfacing tool assists in location. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Fig.30a Fig. to accommodate the heads of screws and rivets to provide a flush finish. but in this case the metal removed by the tool is much less. where a loose cutter is used. the depth of spotface is just sufficient to remove the rough surface of the casting over the 40 mm diameter area.30 shows typical tools. 3. The length of cutter controls the diameter of the spotface. the hole must be previously drilled. Note. As in the counterboring operation. Included angles of 60° and 90° are commonly machined. 3.doc . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Note that. 3. 3. 3.33 shows the method of dimensioning.29 3. Fig. and Fig. in both cases. Refer to manufacturers‘ catalogues for dimensions of suitable rivets and screws. 3.13 DIMENSIONING COUNTERSUNK HOLES Countersinking is also carried out on a drilling machine. 3. The process is regularly used on the surface of castings. to provide a flat seating for fixing bolts.

3. 3. all other surfaces having a rough finish. © 2010. 3. 3.32 Fig.34 shows a suitable drawing for the casting patternmaker.doc . Allowances are made for machining and also for the fact that the casting will shrink when it cools. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. one to show the dimensions of the finished casting and the other to show the dimensions which are applicable to the actual machining operation.31 Fig. It is sometimes preferable to produce two separate drawings. Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .35 two different production processes are involved in its manufacture: namely casting and machining of the component.15 DIMENSIONING FOR MANUFACTURE It should be emphasized that dimensioning must be performed with the user of the drawing very much in mind.33 3. The machinist will take the rough casting and remove metal to produce the finished component. 3.Draughting Manual. In the case of the finished bearing housing shown in Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 28 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.

3. 3.Draughting Manual.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 29 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.35 shows the required dimensions for machining. Fig. 3. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .35 © 2010.34 Fig. Note that the bore of the casting is required to be finished between the two sizes quoted for functional purposes.doc .

38 Complete graphical symbols Note.40. The centre line between the lines of unequal length is positioned square to the considered surface. 3. 3. The basic graphical symbol is shown in Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 30 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 3.41 © 2010. 3. Material shall not be removed. then a line is added to the longer arm of the symbols.37 shows the symbol indicating that removal of material is required. 3. Material shall be removed. function and wear of a component. Fig.16 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS TO INDICATE SURFACE TEXTURE The quality and type of surface texture has a direct connection with the manufacturing cost. Individual surface texture values and text may be added to the symbols. Fig.41. Fig. in Fig. 3. 3. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.36. Fig. It may.Draughting Manual. If complementary requirements for surface texture characteristics are required. Each of the symbols shown below has their own special interpretation. Any manufacturing process permitted.doc .36 Expanded graphical symbols Fig. as shown below.38 shows the symbol indicating that removal of material is not permitted. however be used for collective indication.39.37 Fig. 3. 3.40 Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . in Fig. without complementary information.39 Fig. 3. The symbol should not be indicated alone. in Fig. 3. 3. 3.

3.17 MANDATORY POSITIONS FOR COMPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS Fig. The R profile series relates to roughness parameters. Positions ‗a‘ and ‗b‘ indicate two or more surface texture requirements. Three principal groups of surface texture parameters have been standardized in connection with the complete symbol and are defined as R. Fig. W and P profiles. The W profile series relates to waviness parameters. sampling length and surface lay. 3. Position ‗e‘ shows machining allowance.47 is a typical application in connection with features of size of mating parts. If ambiguity is considered likely.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 31 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A All surfaces around a work piece graphical symbol When the same surface texture is required on every surface around a work piece. 3.42. Position ‗a‘ indicates one single surface texture requirement. Fig. then each surface may have its own independent symbol. 3. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. (a) The lay is parallel to the plane of projection of the view where the symbol is drawn. The ‗equals‘ symbol is added to the graphical symbol in the position shown. i. 3. Fig. The P profile series relates to structure parameters. (b) The lay is perpendicular to the plane of projection and the symbol drawn is an inverted letter ‗T‘. then a small circle is added to the symbol as shown in Fig. it may also be necessary to add additional requirements to the surface texture symbol and its numerical value. 3. Position ‗c‘ indicates manufacturing method. 3.Draughting Manual. Fig.doc . 3. 3.42 Composition of complete graphical symbols for surface texture To avoid ambiguity. © 2010. Note that the general rule when reading drawings is to read from the bottom or the right hand side of the drawing. manufacturing process. 3. Fig. The Ra value is the most commonly specified value throughout the world and examples follow in this chapter. 3. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . treatment. machining allowances.43 shows mandatory positions of associated surface texture requirements. The texture applies to all eight sides. An arrow is indicated on the work piece for clarification. Fig. Position ―d‖ indicates surface lay. The examples in Fig.49 show examples of typical tolerance frames for geometrical tolerance applications.44 illustrates an application with a single Ra requirement.45 shows an application with an upper and lower call out requirement.50 show methods of indicating four typical examples of surface lay.46 shows examples of position and orientation on various surfaces.48 and Fig.e. coating or other process. (c) The lay crosses the work piece in two oblique directions indicated by the letter ‗X‘.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 32 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A (d) The lay consists of concentric circles and the symbol used is the letter ‗C‘.46 © 2010.43 Fig.doc . Fig. 3. 3. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual. 3. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .44 Fig.45 Fig. 3.

49 Fig. 3. 3.doc . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 3. 3.50 © 2010. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual.48 Fig.47 Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 33 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.

Caution. denoted by the symbol M describes a part. 4. they ensure that communications between the drawing office and the workshop are complete and incapable of miss-interpretation. the minimum size hole or the maximum size shaft. Tolerances should be as wide as possible. the desired qualities would have been obtained by adding to drawings such expressions as ‗surfaces to be true with one another‘.Maximum material condition. It must be emphasized that geometrical tolerances should be applied only when real advantages result. © 2010.2 ADVANTAGES Geometrical tolerances are used to convey in a brief and precise manner complete geometrical requirements on engineering drawings. parallelism. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. The use of geometrical tolerances does not involve or imply any particular method of manufacture or inspection.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 34 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 4 GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES The object of this section is to illustrate and interpret in simple terms the advantages of calling for geometrical tolerances on engineering drawings. 4. ‗surfaces to be square with one another‘. as the satisfactory design function permits. 4.Draughting Manual.1 APPLICATIONS Geometrical tolerances are applied over and above normal dimensional tolerances when it is necessary to control more precisely the form or shape of some feature of a manufactured part. Geometrical tolerances shown in this book. perpendicularity. Indiscriminate use of geometrical tolerances could increase costs in manufacture and inspection.e. etc. and angularity tolerances can control flatness. in keeping with international conventions. ‗surfaces to be flat and parallel‘. and also to show that. especially when close tolerances are applied to the features concerned. – used to describe the geometrical characteristics shows that one type of geometrical tolerance can control another form of geometrical error. straightness.1A. 4. when normal methods of dimensioning are considered inadequate to ensure that the design function is kept.3 GENERAL RULES The symbols relating to geometrical characteristics are shown in Fig. and leaving it to workshop tradition to provide a satisfactory interpretation of the requirements. when correctly used.5. which contains the maximum amount of material. a positional tolerance can control perpendicularity and straightness. i. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . must be met regardless of feature size unless modified by one of the following conditions: .1 with additional symbols used in tolerancing in Fig.. For example. concentricity. Examination of the various terms – flatness. because of the particular duty that the part has to perform.doc . regardless of any language barrier. etc. especially where repeatability must be guaranteed. They should always be considered for surfaces which come into contact with other parts. In the past.

doc . denoted by the symbol L describes a part.e.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 35 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A -Least material condition. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.1 © 2010.Draughting Manual. which contains the minimum amount of material. Symbols for geometrical characteristics Fig. i. 4. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . the maximum size hole or the minimum size shaft.

4 THEORETICALLY EXACT DIMENSIONS These dimensions are identified by enclosure in a rectangular box.1A 4. Fig.g.2).Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 36 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Note: If two or more groups of features are shown on the same axis. Boxed dimensions are never individually toleranced but are always accompanied by a positional or zone tolerance specified within the tolerance frame referring to the feature. They define the true position of a hole.5. 4.Draughting Manual. e. slot.doc . they shall be considered to be a single pattern when are not related to a datum. etc. 50 EQUI-SPACED 60° Ø30 and are commonly known as ‗Boxed dimensions‘ (Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. © 2010. boss profile.

2 4.5 DEFINITIONS Limits The maximum and minimum dimensions for a given feature are known as the ‗limits‘.Draughting Manual. . . 20 ± 0. Geometrical tolerance These tolerances specify the maximum error of a component‘s geometrical characteristic.the space within a cylinder. Tolerance zone A tolerance zone is the space in which any deviation of the feature must be contained.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 37 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.the space between two equidistant lines or two .9 mm respectively. . For example. .the space between two coaxial cylinders. Nominal dimension Limits and tolerances are based on ‗nominal dimensions‘ which are target dimensions. . Defining a zone in which the feature may lie does this. 4. The tolerance is the amount of variation permitted. In practice there is no such thing as a nominal dimension. The limits referred to above can be set in two ways: . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. . – the space within a circle. The tolerance applies to the whole extent of the considered feature unless otherwise specified. over its whole dimensioned length or surface.the space between two equidistant surfaces or . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Tolerance The algebraic difference between the upper and lower limit of size is known as the ‗tolerance‘.bilateral limits – limits set partly above and partly below the nominal size.2 mm.the space between two concentric circles. © 2010.e. The upper and lower limits of size are 20.g.two parallel planes.doc . .parallel straight lines.1.1 mm and 19. the tolerance is 0. .the space within a sphere. since no part can be manufactured to a theoretical exact size.unilateral limits – limits set wholly above or below the nominal size. In the example above.

Fig. . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . 4.7 © 2010.the tolerance value: (i) preceded by Ø if the zone is circular or cylindrical. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.4 Fig.4 and Fig.5 illustrate alternative methods of referring the tolerance to the surface or the plane itself. . . 4.6 Fig. 4. 4.the characteristic symbol. for single or related features.5 the dimension line and frame leader line are offset. 4.6 METHOD OF INDICATING GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES ON DRAWINGS Geometrical tolerances are indicated by stating the following details in compartments in a rectangular frame.Letter or letters identifying the datum or datum systems.6 refers to the axis or median plane only of the dimensioned feature. Fig. 4. Note that in Fig. The tolerance frame as shown in Fig.doc . Note that the dimension line and frame leader line are drawn in line. 4. 4.3 4. 4.3 shows examples.5 Fig.Draughting Manual.7 illustrates the method of referring the tolerance to the axis or median plane. (ii) preceded by SØ if the zone is spherical. 4. Fig. Fig.7 METHODS OF APPLYING THE TOLERANCE FRAME TO THE TOLERANCED FEATURE Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 38 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 4. 4.

In this case. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .9 Fig. 4.14 shows the method used to apply a tolerance over a given length. 4. 4. Fig. then they are considered to be perpendicular to each other. ‗2 surfaces‘ or ‗6x‘ should be written above the frame. on a shorter length.13 Fig. then the total permitted tolerance would accumulate to 0. The tolerance frame in Fig. the tolerance specification should be given in tolerance frames positioned one under the other as shown. Fig. In this case. it allows the tolerance to accumulate over a longer length.15c gives an example where a single tolerance zone is applied to several separate features. 4. similar in type but smaller in magnitude.8 Fig. Fig. straightness tolerance of 0.12 shows the method of applying a tolerance to only a particular part of a feature. the surface must be within 0. 4. 4.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 39 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 4. 4.02 is applicable over a length of 100 mm.05. unless otherwise stated.9 THE APPLICATION OF TOLERANCES TO A RESTRICTED LENGTH OF A FEATURE Fig.doc .11 4. Fig.15a. If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature. 4.15b shows an example.8 PROCEDURE FOR POSITIONING REMARKS WHICH ARE RELATED TO TOLERANCE Remarks related to the tolerance for example ‗4 holes‘. If the total length of the feature was 800 mm. An example is given in Fig. © 2010.16. the whole flat surface must lie between parallel planes 0. 4. 4.14 4.10 TOLERANCE ZONES The width of the tolerance zone is in the direction of the leader line arrow joining the symbol frame to the toleranced feature unless the tolerance zone is preceded by the symbol Ø.12 Fig. Fig. 4. If two tolerances are given.10 Fig.13 shows the method of applying another tolerance. 4. in any direction. Indications qualifying the feature within the tolerance zone should be written near the tolerance frame and may be connected by a leader line. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. but over any length of 180 mm. 4.Draughting Manual.2 apart.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 40 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A In the tolerance frame the symbol ‗CZ‘ is added.15c Fig. The enlargement shows a possible position for the axis through one hole. 4. Fig.16 © 2010. Fig.Draughting Manual.15d Fig. Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . The method used is to apply a tolerance to a projected zone.15a Fig. Projected tolerance zones are indicated by the symbol .15d gives an example where individual tolerance zones of the same valve are applied to several separate features. 4. 4.15b Fig. 4. 4. Note.11 PROJECTED TOLERANCED ZONE Fig. 4. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. CZ is the standard abbreviation for ‗Common Zone‘. 4.doc . 4.15 4. Each hole axis must lie somewhere within a projected cylinder of Ø 0.16 shows a part section through a flange where it is required to limit the variation in perpendicularity of each hole axis.02 and 30 deep.

g. The tolerance zone is symmetrically disposed about its theoretically exact location. Utilizing these primary constituents ensures positional tolerances do not accumulate when dimensions are arranged in a chain. as would be the case if the feature pattern location were to be specified by coordinate tolerances. Free-state relates to the condition of a part when subjected only to the force of gravity. In its restrained condition.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 41 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Note that the zone is projected from the specified datum. © 2010. it is essential that the primary constituents. at assembly and verification. axes. Other geometrical tolerances apply in its assembled situation. 4. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .17 shows a typical application of a buffer detail drawing.14 POSITIONAL TOLERANCING The essential requirement is to be able to define the limits for location of actual features. 4.doc . and datums are utilized.12 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING NON-RIGID PARTS The basic consideration is that distortion of a non-rigid part must not exceed that which permits the part to be brought within the specified tolerances for positioning. . tolerance zones. e. Note that the shaded tolerance area represents an increase of more than 57%. theoretically exact dimensions. 4. 4. by applying pressure or forces not exceeding those which may be expected under normal assembly conditions. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.13 DEFINITIONS . datum‘s A and B position the buffer. A non-rigid part relates to the condition of that part which deforms in its free state to an extent beyond the dimensional and geometrical tolerances on the drawing. Fig. 4. points. To accurately achieve this aim. For example. Fig. The symbol used is .17 4. . Fig.18 illustrates the advantage of specifying a circular tolerance zone to a feature located by positional tolerancing.Draughting Manual. median surfaces and nominally plane surfaces. relative to each other or in relation to one or more datum. Interpretation: the geometrical tolerance followed by symbol is maintained in its free state.

True-position dimensions are always shown ‗boxed‘ on engineering drawings. etc.Draughting Manual. keyways.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 42 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. 4. and also differentiates between ‗ideal‘ and other toleranced dimensions.20 © 2010. and must always be accompanied by a positional or zone tolerance for the feature to which they are applied. circular.15 TRUE-POSITION (THEORETICAL EXACT) DIMENSIONING True-position dimensioning defines the exact location on a component of features such as holes. etc.19 Fig. 4. rectangular. for example. 4. slots. The positional-tolerance zone defines the region which contains the extreme limits of position and can be.18 4.doc . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. they are never individually toleranced. The positional tolerance is the permitted deviation of a feature from a true position. cylindrical. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .. Fig.

and could have been indicated with the position symbol equally as well.24). the hole axis must lie within the cylindrical tolerance zone fixed by the true-position dimensions. Some advantages of using this method are: . The axes of the four fixing holes must be contained within rectangular tolerance zones 0.it can ensure interchangeability without resorting to small position tolerances. . .22). 4.19 and Fig.there are no cumulative tolerances. since true boxed dimensions fix the exact positions of details. Case 2 (Fig.it permits the use of functional gauges to match the mating part.the tolerancing of complicated components is simplified.22 © 2010.positional-tolerance zones can control squareness and parallelism. the perpendicularity and co-axial symbols shown. The following examples show some typical cases where positional tolerances are applied to engineering drawings.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 43 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 4. 4. required by the coordinate tolerancing system.Draughting Manual.16 TYPICAL PRODUCT REQUIREMENT In the example shown in Fig.21 and Fig. In cases 3 and 4. 4. 4. .02. . 4. are constituents of the position characteristic.03 diameter. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 4. Case 1 (Fig. 4.interpretation is easier. Fig. . 4. The axes of the four fixing holes must be contained within cylindrical tolerance zones 0.21 Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .04 × 0.23 and Fig.doc .20.

26.25 shows a component where the outside diameter at the upper end is required to be square and coaxial within a combined tolerance zone with face A and diameter B as the primary and secondary datums.doc . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 44 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.24 Case 3 Fig. 4.26 © 2010. 4. the three dimensioned features are required to be perfectly square to the datum face A. Fig.Draughting Manual.23 Fig.25 Case 4 In the component illustrated in Fig. 4. and also truly coaxial with each other in the maximum material condition. 4. 4. Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 4.

4.27 and Fig. 4.00.28 Fig.27 must have their centres positioned within six tolerance zones of Ø0. 4. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .28). is also required to be positioned with respect to the datum spigot and the face of the flange.29 and Fig. minimum limit of size).30 that the four holes and the spigot are dimensioned at the maximum material condition.05. This method also limits in all directions the relative displacement of each of the features to each other. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.doc . 4. The group of holes in Fig. dimensioned with a positional tolerance. 4. it will have the effect of increasing the positional tolerance for that hole. Case 6 (Fig. 4. then the positional tolerance for the four holes as a group will also increase. 4. The six bolt holes on the flange in Fig. It follows that. if any hole is larger than 12.29. 4.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 45 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Case 5 (Fig. Fig. 4. Note in Fig.27 Fig.Draughting Manual. Note in Fig. 4.25 when the bolt holes are at their maximum material condition(i.30).28 that all the features in the group have the same positional tolerance in relation to each other.e.29 © 2010. If the spigot is machined to less than 50. 4.

33 shows that the axis of each of the four holes is required to lie within a cylindrical tolerance of Ø0. 4.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 46 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. The product requirement in Fig. 4.31 Case 8 Fig. © 2010. the axis of each of the four holes must lie within the cylindrical tolerance zone of Ø0. Fig.34. The positional tolerance zones are located in their theoretically exact positions to each other and perpendicular to datum A. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .doc . 4. 4.01. Fig.32 shows a drawing instruction where a pattern of features is located by positional tolerancing. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 4.31 shows a drawing instruction where the group of equally spaced holes is required to be positioned relative to a coaxial datum bore.Draughting Manual.2 and the cylindrical tolerance must lie perpendicular to datum A and also located in their theoretical exact positions to each other and to datums B and C. Each specific requirement is met independently. 4.30 Case 7 Fig.

34. simulated datums A. 4. B and C are numbered 1. 4. Fig. 4.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 47 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.Draughting Manual.32 Note that in product requirement drawings. 4.34 © 2010.33 Fig.doc . 4.33 and Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .2 and 3. Fig.

5. 5. If a section view doesn‘t contain some elements like screws. pins which should exist on the view we will represent them with thin dash double dot line (Fig. and a drawing which shows the complete product with all its components in their correct physical relationship is known as an assembly drawing. Assembly drawing must be accomplished with the minimum number of views but enough to accentuate all the components and their relative positions. In case of the assembling between two parts without clearance the contact surface is represented by a single contour line.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 48 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 5 ASSEMBLY DRAWING 5. The amount of information given on an assembly drawing will vary considerably with the product and its size and complexity.1). weights required for shipping purposes. nuts.1 Fig. . including overall dimensions of size. and also.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES Machines and mechanisms consist of numerous parts. .2 .2 REPRESENTING RULES . 5.2). 5. Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . operating details and instructions. with all their necessary dimensions.Draughting Manual. details of bolt sizes and centers where fixings are necessary. perhaps. In case of the assembling between two parts with clearance resulted from their different sizes the contour lines are distinctly represented for each piece (Fig.doc . . Parts which execute motions during assembly working could be represented on the same projection with extreme (or intermediate) movement position with thin dash © 2010. common for both pieces (Fig. 5. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 5. some data regarding the design characteristics.3). The assembly drawing may also give other information.

without hatching parts surfaces.3 © 2010. without hatching these surfaces even if they are represented in the section view (Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 49 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A double dot line. . etc). Screwed parts or with sealed assembling are represented fully screwed (Fig. 5. except when it hide an important area of the element containing them or roves with different bore than the cylindrical one (square hole. 5. 5. 5.3). . even if the section plan contain them (Fig. . but we must put a note about those removed elements. hexagonal. Nuts and hexagonal-cap screws are represented with 3 visible sides - Fig.Draughting Manual. For a more clear representation of some hidden elements.3).3). and to simplify the projection. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. we can consider those elements removed.doc . . which make the link with the assembly from our drawing could be represented with thin dash double dot line. Nuts and roves are represented only on view. . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Parts from other near assembly.

5 © 2010. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .doc .4 Fig. 5. 5.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 50 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual.

-could be broken only one time. . Indication lines will be: -with continuous thin line. Solid parts like shafts or screws are represented without being splatted even if the section plan contains their axis. . . . On each projection item numbers will be inscribed in ascending order. excepting tap fitting.Draughting Manual. and the other extremity of the indication line will be represented by an arrow on the part‘s contour. to the extremity of a single indication line. The elements for fluids circulation control like valves are represented in closed position. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. © 2010.6 . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . in a single trigonometric direction for all drawing projections. . -mustn‘t intersect dimension lines or others indication lines. The item number must be placed at the extremity of an indication line.3 POSITIONING RULES . separated by lines.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 51 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. -mustn‘t be parallel between them or with edge margins. If 2 or more components are coaxial. sealing gland and coupling nut is represented with the sealing gland inserted 2-3 mm in the sealing box. Each component of assembly must receive a distinct item number which will correspond with the item from the items list of the drawing. If an element is represented in multiple assembly projections the item number will appear only in one projection (where the element is more visible). the coupling nut fully screwed. . .doc . 5. their item numbers could be inserted by group. which are represented in open position. Item numbers are normally numeric with nominal writing height equal with the double of nominal dimensions used in the drawing. The sealing group with gasket. in contact with the sealing gland. 5. Assembly parts will receive a number in a logical order (assembling or dismounting order if possible). . . or by a point on the part‘s surface.

shafts extremities).nominal dimensions and tolerance zones for all elements which creates adjustments.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 52 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 5. Note that the symbol is representative of the shape of the weld.5 ITEMS TABLE An items list (sometimes referred to as a parts list or component list) is a table listing all of the component parts. limit of measuring errors or limiting dimensions. A welding symbol is applied to a drawing by using a reference line and an arrow line as shown in Fig. It may be necessary to specify the shape of the weld surface on the drawing as flat. which are missing in the shop drawing.7 5. is then added to the elementary symbol. . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .4 DIMENSION RULES Assembly drawings contain few dimensions since these will already have been included within the respective shop drawings. demounting and transport requirements we need the following types of dimensions: .1. An example of each type of weld surface application is given in Table 5. . .overall dimensions.6 WELDING SYMBOLS USED IN TECHNICAL DRAWINGS Each type of weld is characterized by a symbol given in Table 5. The last example in Table 5.other necessary dimensions for assembling operation.Draughting Manual. These details would be provided on a welding procedure schedule for the particular job. . DIN standard). fillets.3.dimensions checked at the assembling process. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. mounting. shown in Table 5. 5. In order to understand the principles of working with assemblies.dimensions to understand assembly running.g. The reference line should be drawn parallel to the bottom edge of the drawing sheet and the arrow line forms an angle with the reference line. . Form for the item table are established by ISO 7573 standard (see Fig. 5. some of which may be described by standards (e. The welding symbol should be positioned on the reference line as indicated in Table 5.dimensions which make the link with other near assembly or components (flanges.3 shows a single-V butt weld with a backing run where both surfaces are required to have a flat finish.2.4.7). convex or concave and a supplementary symbol. or the edge preparation. but does not indicate any particular welding process and does not specify either the number of runs to be deposited or whether or not a root gap or backing material is to be used. 5. A joint may also be made with one type of weld on a particular surface and another type of weld on the back and in this case elementary symbols representing each type of weld used are added together. maximum tolerable clearance.doc . Fig. The side of the joint nearer the arrow head is known as the ‗arrow side‘ and the remote side as the ‗other side‘. 5.8. Sketch (a) shows the symbol for a single-V butt weld below the reference line because the external surface of the weld is on the arrow side of the joint. © 2010.

9.8 Fig. The positioning of the symbol is the same for drawings in first or third angle projection. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. The leg length of welds is often the weld dimension preferred by shipyards as opposed to throat thickness measurement.doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 53 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Sketch (b) shows the same symbol above the reference line because the external surface of the weld is on the other side of the joint.Draughting Manual. 5. 5. Sketch (d) shows fillet welds on a cruciform joint where the top weld is on the arrow side and the bottom weld is on the other side. 5. Additional symbols can be added to the reference line as shown in Fig.9 © 2010. Sketch (c) shows the symbol applied to a double-V butt weld. Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .

ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.1 © 2010.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 54 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Table 5.doc .Draughting Manual. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .

5. A site weld is indicated by a flag.7 SCREWED ASSEMBLIES The most common application of the helix is in a screw thread which follows the path of the helix.3 Table 5. Notice the slope of the thread and the position of the index finger on each hand. root diameter or core diameter is the smallest diameter of the thread measured at right angles to the thread axis.4 Welding can be done in the factory or on site when plant is erected. The root lies at the bottom of the groove between two adjacent threads.doc .2 Table 5. 5. internal or external. The flank of the thread is the straight side of the thread between the crest and root. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Measurements must be taken parallel to the thread axis.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 55 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Table 5. © 2010. The following terms are associated with screw threads: The thread pitch is the distance between corresponding points on adjacent threads.Draughting Manual. The crest is the most prominent part of the thread. measured at right angles to the thread axis. The left hand thread is used for special applications and the right hand thread is the one normally used on nuts and bolts.10. The major diameter or outside diameter is the diameter over the crests of the thread. Screw threads may be either left or right hand and these are shown pictorially in Fig. The minor diameter. The effective diameter is measured at right angles to the thread axis and is the diameter on which the width of the spaces is equal to the width of the threads.

. Fig. Screw threads and threaded parts.ISO general purpose metric screw threads. dimensioning rules.10 Fig.11 Standards for screw execution: . .Technical drawings. 5. 3. Nominal diameters and pitches.STAS 139-79 – Screw notation.12 shows us the assembly between a screw and a nut. 4.STAS 1450 / 1. 5. 5.doc .SR ISO 6410-1:1995 . Part 1: General conventions Fig.11. 5 – Threaded fasteners.STAS 981 – 74 . Terminology. constructive elements. 5. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . The terms are illustrated in Fig. © 2010. .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 56 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A The lead of a thread is the axial movement of the screw in one revolution.

d) .13 Fig.14.12 Fig. . 5. 5. Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 5.Interior diameter (D1.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 57 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Screw geometric elements: . 5. 5.Pitch of screw – the distance between 2 consecutive points on longitudinal direction.14 © 2010. Fig.Screw profile . . .the angle between spire broadsides (for metric size screw angle is 60º). d1). A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . .13 is for triangular screw (metric screw and pipes screw ).doc .Medium diameter.Screw angle .contour‘s spire vary depending of screw type.Draughting Manual. .Other screw types we can see in Fig.Exterior diameter (D.

Isosceles trapeze (Fig. 5. .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 58 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Screw classification (according to the transversal shape of the rib): .16 we have an interior screw with output. 5.18 we have a metric conical screw.For screws with limited used outlet we must take into account a real edge (drown with continuous thick line when is visible. .Top surface of screw must be drown with continuous thick line. 5.16 Fig. 5. .16 and Fig.Bottom surface of screw must be drown with continuous thin line. 5.Semicircle (Fig. and with thin broken line when is invisible). In Fig. 5.Circles from chamfer of screw extremities aren‘t represented in the drawing (because the continuous thick line is covering the thin line of screw bottom surface).14c).14a). exterior.18 © 2010.doc . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . In Fig. 5.Isosceles triangle (Fig. In Fig. . 5.17 Fig. .14d). 5. Fig.15 Fig.17 we have a screw with recess. Representation rules: . 5. 5. .Draughting Manual.Equilateral triangle .General trapeze (Fig. 5.14b). with output.14e).15 we have an exterior screw with output. 5. 5.Square (Fig. . In Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.

and one of the problems facing the designer is to decide the upper and lower limits of size which are acceptable for each of the dimensions used to define shape and form and which will ensure satisfactory operation in service. . The present system of manufacture of interchangeable parts was brought about by the advent of and the needs of mass production. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. This rule is applied in Fig.The sense of the screw is indicated only if is to the left.02 mm.02 means that a part will be acceptable if manufactured anywhere between the limits of size of 9. and has the following advantages: .maximum diameter of the screw must be specified .The nominal diameter must be in millimetres. © 2010. 5.Nominal diameter for standard conic screws is placed at the middle of the length of screw Notation rules for screw .Draughting Manual. .Ribs number of screw is indicated only if this number is different than 1. Dimension rules for screw .Instead of ‗fitting‘ components together. a dimension of 10 ± 0.effective length of the screw must be specified. no component can be manufactured to an exact size. the length of the recess is also included in case of screw with recess . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . . .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 59 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. 5. .If a screw has multiple ribs the pitch is equal with rib pitch X total number of ribs.19 Fig. .20 where. 5. its component parts must fit together in a predictable manner.The pitch could be in millimetres or inch.98 mm and 10.the complete notation for the screws must be done. . which requires some adjustment of size and a high degree of skill. 5.Screw symbol must be inscribed with capital letter. in the left view is the bolt screw and in the longitudinal section the bolt screw cover the nut screw on the area where the parts are joined. they can be ‗assembled‘.8 LIMITS AND FITS To ensure that an assembly will function correctly.20 In view or section view is threaded only the outer surface of the screw (as if her spires is covering surface‘s spires with the exterior screw). in practice. Now. For example.doc .

as the degree of accuracy required for each dimension increases. the cost of production to maintain this accuracy increases at a sharper rate. Parts can be produced in large quantities.23 shows the approximate relationship between cost and tolerance.22a). and Fig.21 show typical methods in common use.22b). Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. and gauges: but the final cost of each component will be far less than if made separately by a skilled craftsman.a transition fit (Fig. tools.a clearance fit (Fig. 5. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . in which the shaft is always smaller than the hole into which it fits. . the manufacturing tolerance should be the largest possible which permits satisfactory operation.22c). 5. 5.Draughting Manual. Fig.21 Engineering fits between two mating parts can be divided into three types: . Invariably this requires the use of special-purpose machines. in which the shaft may be either bigger or smaller than the hole into which it fits—it will therefore be possible to get interference or clearance fits in one group of assemblies. It will be appreciated that.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 60 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A . For all applications. 5.an interference fit (Fig. .doc . in which the shaft is always bigger than the hole into which it fits. 5. in some cases with less demand on the skill of the operator. 5. fixtures. A designer should ensure that the drawing conveys clear instructions regarding the upper and lower limits of size for each dimension. © 2010. An assembly can be serviced by replacing defective parts with components manufactured to within the same range of dimensions. . jigs.

and will be the same for both the male and female parts of the fit. 60 mm thread.24): Nominal size is the size by which a component is referred to as a matter of convenience. Limits of size These are the maximum and minimum permissible sizes acceptable for a specific dimension. 5. 5. and is the difference between the high limit of size of the shaft and the low limit of size of its mating hole. Basic size is the size in relation to which all limits of size are fixed. An allowance may be positive or negative.doc . © 2010.e. 25 mm. and is the difference between the upper and lower acceptable dimensions. Tolerance This is the total permissible variation in the size of a dimension. 50mm.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 61 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. Actual size is the measured size. i.23 Elements of interchangeable systems (Fig. 5. Allowance concerns mating parts. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.22 Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual.

for example. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .24 © 2010.Draughting Manual. 5. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Maximum metal condition (MMC) This is the maximum limit of an external feature. minimum.doc . or actual size of a shaft or hole and the basic size.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 62 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Grade This is an indication of the tolerance magnitude: the lower the grade. for example. It is also the minimum limit on an internal feature. Deviation This is the difference between the maximum. a component which has a hole bored in it to its lower limit of size would have had the minimum of metal removed and remain in its maximum metal condition. the finer will be the tolerance. Fig. a shaft manufactured to its high limits would contain the maximum amount of metal.

5. changes in the magnitude of the tolerance affect only the size of the other gauge dimension. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.25 shows an example of unilateral limits. where the limits are disposed above and below the basic size.25 Fig.26 Bases of fits: .25): Fig. the basic diameter of the hole is constant while the shaft size varies according to the type of fit. the NOT GO gauge size. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Fig. 5. 5. This system is preferred since the basic size is used for the GO limit gauge. as a single drill or reamer size can be used to produce a variety of fits by © 2010.Hole basis (Fig.doc .26 shows an example of bilateral limits. 5. 5. 5. This system leads to greater economy of production.Draughting Manual. Fig.27) In this system. where the maximum and minimum limits of size are disposed on the same side of the basic size.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 63 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Unilateral and bilateral limits (Fig.

The shaft can be accurately produced to size by turning and grinding.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 64 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A merely altering the shaft limits. Shaft basis (Fig. It has been found. the current standard on limits and fits. 5. Obviously. Generally it is usual to recommend hole-base fits. . by using only a selected range of fits. 5. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Fig.Draughting Manual. This BSI data sheet 4500A gives a selection of ISO fits on the hole basis. however.doc . except where temperature may have a detrimental effect on large sizes. that in the manufacture of many standard engineering components a limited selection of tolerances is adequate.28) Here the hole size is varied to produce the required class of fit with a basic size shaft. economic advantages are obtained from the reduced tooling and gauging facilities involved. be necessary to use it where different fits are required along a long shaft. These are provided on the data sheets referred to above. therefore it tends to be costly. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . 5.27 Fig. and data sheet 4500B gives a selection of shaft-basis fits extracted from BS 45000. The ISO system contained in BS 4500 gives an extensive selection of hole and shaft tolerances to cover a wide range of applications.28 © 2010. however. It may. A series of drills and reamers is required for this system.

Following preparation of the P&ID it is necessary to define the pipeline classification (e. .doc .end connection. .nominal bore. From these drawings pipe dimensions and appropriate standards are applied to each component in accordance with Class requirements. 3. . This system is applied on engineering drawings and its use. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.flanges.valves. Following approval prepare Piping General Assembly drawings. Piping specification according to Class Society rules is a list describing the different types of piping components that are to be used for a particular service and for a particular range of operating conditions. Produce isometric drawings and associated material list.fittings: . when several pipes are represented on the same drawing. . The following figures show. in addition to the drawing of the individual components. © 2010.2 PIPING ASSEMBLY DRAWING SYMBOLS The figures shown in the following pages indicate the symbols used at present for the simplified representation of major piping components.butt welding fittings. Class I pipe). (or of a set of pieces).pipes. 6.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES The piping components may be grouped up into four large ―families‖: . . as it occurs very often. in addition to save time when draughting. The typical nomenclature of every pipe is: .Draughting Manual. . These may typically be as follows: 1. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .wall thickness.external diameter. .material and type of production. There are several stages in piping design. Obtain Class approval. orthographic views as well as isometric views. 4. 2.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 65 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 6 SPECIFIC DRAWINGS FOR PIPING IN SHIPBUILDING 6. In case of steel pipes the fittings can be subdivided into two classes: .socket welding and threaded fittings and threaded fittings. is to make the drawing more clear.g. and of an easier interpretation than it would result if the piping would be drafted with double line and.

ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 66 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A © 2010.Draughting Manual. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .

A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .doc .Draughting Manual. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 67 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A © 2010.

A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 68 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A © 2010.doc .

A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 69 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Different branch types for pipes: © 2010.

doc . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 70 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A © 2010.

Miscellaneous items . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Ventilation screens (if any) General symbols used for the coordination drawing: . increasers. .1) Fig.doc .Flow directions . 6.3 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is a diagram showing flow processes as well as installed equipment and instrumentation. © 2010. longitudinal position numbers. The coordination drawing may also contain: . List of P&ID items: .All valves and their identifications . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . sampling lines. permanent start-up and flushing lines .3. special fittings.Instrumentation and description . dimensions will be taken from the nearest suitable hull element. in Fig.Ship‘s ruler (frame numbers.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 71 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 6. vertical exchange level of the pipe should be like in Fig. ducting and cable tray arrangements.Mechanical equipment with names and tag numbers . CL.1 .Extract from general arrangement .Control inputs and outputs.2. reducers. 6. interlocks .2.4 COORDINATION DRAWING (COMPOSITE DRAWING) It is a drawing which contains piping. and ―pipe down‖ symbol for the pipes going down (Fig. BL) .must be used ‖pipe up‖ symbol for the pipe going up.Hull model (structures) . 6. 6.Interfaces for class pipe changes . . drains.Piping. in Fig.vents.Interconnections references . dimensions for circular and rectangular HVAC ducts will be as below. If the hull element has an inclination the dimension will be placed as below.Identification of components and subsystems delivered by subcontractors/suppliers 6. 6. sizes and tag numbers .Draughting Manual.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 72 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. 6. 6. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual.2 Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.doc .3 © 2010.

A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.5 .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 73 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. 6. 6.Draughting Manual.4 Fig.Example of Coordination drawing (Composite drawing) © 2010.doc .

A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .6 © 2010.doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 74 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 6. Draughting can be performed completely by computer. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Usually the Isometric is made only for the lines of a diameter equal to or larger than DN25.5 ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS The main purpose of the draughting of isometric drawings is to furnish the site with a drawing suitable for carrying out the shop fabrication of the piping. Example of Isometric drawing: Fig. 6. if the pipe is too long and complicated may be represented in two or more sketches. otherwise partly by hand (for the material part). Each isometric represents one section of pipe line.Draughting Manual.

Rule Length (L): Used for the scantlings it is the distance between perpendiculars but should be not less than 96 per cent and need not to be taken more than 97 per cent of the summer water length. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .doc . Length between Perpendiculars (LBP): The length between the forward and aft perpendiculars. © 2010. Moulded Beam (B): Measured at the midship section. Where no rudder post is fitted it is taken as the centre line of the rudder stock. Baseline (BL): A horizontal line drawn at the top of the keel plate. All vertical moulded dimensions are measured relative to this line. Moulded Draft (T): Measured from the base line to the summer load line at the midship section. Moulded dimensions are taken to the inside of the plating on a metal ship.1 SHIP DIMENSIONS AND DEFINITIONS The hullform of a ship may be defined by a number of dimensions and terms that are important to be properly understood in order to have a common language and a correct representation of them. Half Breadth: Since the ship‘s hull is usually symmetrical about the longitudinal centreline. Amidships: A point midway between the after and forward perpendiculars. Moulded Depth (D): Measured from the base line to the heel of the upper deck beam at the ship‘s side amidships. Extreme Beam: The maximum beam taken over all extremities. is the maximum moulded breadth of the ship. often only the half beam or half breadth at any section is given. Length Overall (LOA): The length of the vessel taken over all extremities. Extreme Draft: Taken from the lowest point of the keel to the summer load line. Fore Perpendicular (FP): A perpendicular drawn to the waterline at the point where the foreside of the stem meets the summer load line. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual. Extreme Depth: Depth measured at amidships from the point of intersection of the top of the upper deck with the ship’s side to the lowest point of keel. Aft Perpendicular (AP): A perpendicular drawn to the waterline at the point where the aft side of the rudder post meets the summer load line.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 75 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7 HULL DRAUGHTING 7.

7. This is a useful dimension when dry-docking. Tween deck Height: vertical distance between adjacent decks measured from the tops of deck beams at ship side.1 © 2010. Tumblehome: The inward curvature of the side shell above the water line. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 76 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Sheer: Curvature of decks in longitudinal direction. Measured as the height of deck at centre above the height of deck at side. Note that nowadays a straight line camber is commonly used.Draughting Manual. Camber (or Round of Beam): Curvature of decks in transverse direction. It promotes dryness and is therefore associated with the fore end of the ship. Flare: The outward curvature of the side shell above the water line. Keel Rake: Inclination of the keel line from the horizontal. Measured as the height of deck at side at any point above the height of deck at side amidships. Stem Rake: Inclination of the stem line from the vertical. Fig. Half Siding of Keel: The horizontal flat portion of the bottom shell measured to port or starboard of the ship‘s longitudinal centreline.doc .

The main ships representations are the ship projections on the main ship planes.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 77 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. In order to represent this complex shape on paper. also called Elevation) and .Draughting Manual. one has an impressive amount of design information. . This can be obtained by the use of a lines plane. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . displacement and line-coefficients are known. and the principal projection will be the Profile (longitudinal section in CL). Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.2 COORDINATES SYSTEM When the principal dimensions.2 That coordinate system is a right handed rectangular Cartesian system. The shape of a ship can vary in height. The ship is considered with Fore on the right and Aft on the left.doc . the transverse axis Y positive in portside direction and the vertical axis Z positive in upward direction. Base Plane (a horizontal plan. © 2010. 7. Plane of Symmetry of the ship (a longitudinal plane. situated at the intersection of the main planes and having the longitudinal axis X positive in forward direction. length and breadth of the ship‘s hull. also called Section). each one perpendicular to the others. The main planes are: . Midship Plane (a transverse plane at approx. L/2. cross-sections of the hull are combined with three sets of parallel planes. but not yet a clear image of the exact geometrical shape of the ship. also called Plan View).

that is a list of half breadths. Preliminary body plans are drawn initially to give the correct displacement. and forward half sections are drawn to the right of the centreline with aft half sections to the left.. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . to a suitable scale.3 The ship’s Lines Plan is defined as the totality of moulded lines which materialized the ship‘s surface form toward representation plans adopted. of the moulded lines of the vessel in plan. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. When the final faired body plan is available the full lines plane is completed showing also the profile or sheer plan of the vessel and the plan of the water-line shapes at different heights above the base.doc . at each of the drawn stations.. Usually. 7. capacity etc. profile. These ―offsets‖ and the lines plan were then converted to full size or 10 to 1 scale fairing. Traverse sections of the vessel at equally spaced stations between the after and forward perpendiculars are drawn to form what is known as the body plan.Draughting Manual. Since the original lines plan was of necessity to a small scale which varied with the size of ship. It was subsequently refined during the preliminary design stage and following any tank testing or other method of assessing the hulls propulsive and seakeeping characteristics. Fig. displacement and propulsive characteristics. heights of decks and stringer etc. and section. A lines plan is illustrated in Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 78 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. prepared at the time of the conceptual design to give the required capacity. in effect. the offset tabulated from widely spaced stations and the fairing were not satisfactory for building purposes. When the lines plan was completed manually the draughtsmen would compile a ―table of offset‖. The lines plane is a drawing. © 2010. trim. and must be laid off in plan and elevation to ensure fairness of the hull form. 7. ten equally spaced sections are selected with half ordinates at the ends where a greater change of shape occurs.3 LINES PLANE AND OFFSET TABLE Lines Plane A preliminary version of this was. The lines of the lateral sections in the sheer plan as indicated are referred to as ―bow lines‖ forward and ―buttock lines‖ aft.3. Bilge diagonals would be drawn with ―offset‖ taken along the bilge diagonal to check fairness. The offsets used for building the ship would subsequently be lifted from the full size or 10 to 1 scale lines for each frame. A half transverse section only is drawn since the vessel is symmetrical about the centreline.

The line of stem . obtained by the intersection of diametral plan with the ship‘s theoretical surface. © 2010. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .4 Characteristic lines of Lines Plane (see figure above) The longitudinal section‘s contour. The keel has a greater thickness than the adjacent plates.doc . 7. The Line of Keel (LK) – the diametral plan intersecting the keel‘s upper face . Fig. . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. is made of: .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 79 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A The ship’s Surface is the surface placed inside of external shell (metallic ships).the diametral plan intersecting the shell‘s inside face of the deck. The Keel . The Moulded Lines which defined the hull shape are obtained by intersection of the ship‘s moulded surface with a series of equidistant plans which are parallel with the adopted representation plans.Draughting Manual. . or the external surface at the external shell (non-metallic ships).the diametral plan intersecting the plates‘ inside face of the stem. The line of deck in diametral plan or the deck’s longitudinal sheer .is the principal element of framing of a ship which is situated in the shell‘s longitudinal central side of ship‘s bottom.

single or double curvature.midship section plan intersecting the bottom‘s inside face of the ship. . The line of sternframe .is the structure element of the shell which closes the aft extremity of the ship.Draughting Manual. . The transversal section’s contour – is obtained from the intersection of the ship‘s surface with a transverse plane amidships (Midship Plan). . the volume and stability of the ship. The Base Line – the base plan intersecting the midship section plan. . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 80 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A . The stem – is the structure element of the shell which closes the plates fore‘s extremity. Table of Offsets When the lines plan was completed manually the draughtsmen would compile a ―table of offset‖. The transversal section’s symmetry axis . . The offsets used for building the ship would subsequently be lifted from the full size or 10 to 1 scale lines for each frame. Nowadays the lines plans are being made with the aid of computer-programs that have the possibility to transform the shape of the vessel automatically when modifications in the ship‘s design require this. The knuckle’s line (edges) – are the intersection lines of two adjacent surfaces which define the theoretical shell of hull. . at each of the drawn stations. The ―offsets‖ and the lines plan were then converted to full size or 10 to 1 scale fairing. The line of deck in the transversal plan (the deck‘s transversal curve) . . the offsets tabulated from widely spaced stations and the fairing were not satisfactory for building purposes. among other things. The board’s line – midship section plan intersecting the board shell‘s inside face of the ship. that is a list of half breadths. The sternframe . When the lines plan is ready. . the programs may be used to calculate.. © 2010. The deck’s border line – intersecting the traverse‘s outside deck with the plates‘ inside face of the board. . The bottom line .is obtained from the intersection of midship section plan with the deck‘s inside face. is considered the line which results from intersection of above-ground border line‘s extension previous defined. heights of decks and stringer etc.midship section plan intersecting the diametral plan. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . For the ships which have the plates and the sheerstrake rounded.doc . The lines can be bending lines or welded lines. Represents the ships line of side from that point located at the upper turn of bilge to the underside of the upper deck amidships. Since the original lines plan was of necessity to a small scale which varied with the size of ship. .the diametral plan intersecting the plates‘ inside face of the sternframe.

Suitable for CAD drawings provided the line is not an axis. 9. Interrupted middle line Stiffeners are invisible (situated on the other side of the view).Draughting Manual. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . deck. deck girders. reference line and imaginary lines of Intersection 8. 4.4. hatching lines. Continuous thin line Dimension. 6. 10. platform on this side). stringers. Interrupted thick (wide) line Non tight floors or bulkheads on the other side. 3. Continuous thin irregular line Limits of partial views or sections. Railway Watertight longitudinal and transversal bulkhead on the other side. side. Continuous middle line Stiffeners are visible (situated on this side of the view). Thin point line Centre lines and lines of symmetry. Thick (wide) point line Web beams.4 CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF SHIP STRUCTURES 7. © 2010.doc . bulkhead. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Butt weldings. 7.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 81 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. Continuous thick (wide) line Visible edges and outlines (intersected plates of bottom. Continuous straight thin line with zig zags Limits of partial or interrupted views. web frames. 5. web stiffeners.tweendecks -platforms on the other side.1 Types of line 1. 2.

2 Symbols used for conventional (simplified) representation of the hull structure. © 2010. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Draughting Manual.4.doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 82 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 83 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A © 2010.Draughting Manual.doc . A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.

decks and platforms plates are placed with theoretical line on their face contact with adjacent framing system. assimilating corrugations with structural elements. Web horizontal stringers on side. Closed profiles are considered with theoretical line on the axis of symmetry of the profile. .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 84 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. longitudinal or sloped bulkheads are placed to have a straight face in connection with stiffeners. Web transversals are placed to the midship section. Plates of transversal. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . General rules (best practice): . 7. shell plating (single or double).4. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. . Fig. Corrugated bulkheads are considered as having theoretical lines the same with the planar walls.Draughting Manual. Web transversals which are located in midship section are considered with theoretical line on the aft face.3 The conventional elements position relative to the moulded line. Angle profile and bulb are considered with theoretical line on free straight face of the profile. Bottom shell (single or double). Web girders (bottom. . .doc . Web longitudinal girders which are located in diametral plane are placed with axis of symmetry in this plane. longitudinal and transversal bulkhead are placed on top of theoretical line. . . .Elevation – moulded lines © 2010. . platforms and decks) are placed to the side.5 .

ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.doc .7 . These rules can be identified (explained) in separate drawing or/and every detailed drawings. 7. 7.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 85 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. © 2010. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .Horizontal section (Plan view) – moulded lines Every new project can have a particular elements position relative to the moulded line.Transverse section – moulded lines Fig.Draughting Manual.6 .

7.11).10) Fig.4 Profiles ends Abutting Profile Ends When profiles are abutting (normally welded against another part): the following symbols are used. 7. 7.4.10 Case 4: Straight cut in web and flange.Draughting Manual. 7. 7. 7. flange end offset (Fig. Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .11 © 2010.8). 7.doc . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.8 Case 2: Sniped flange ends. Case 1: No snipe and no offset of flange end (Fig. 7.9).9 Case 3: As case 2 but flange end offset (Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 86 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. Fig. Fig. no flange end offset (Fig.

Fig.12 Case 2: Same as case 1 but with sniped flange (Fig.Draughting Manual.13) Fig.15). 7. 7. 7. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .15 © 2010. 7.14).13 Case 3: Both web and flange sniped (Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 87 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Profiles with Free End or Gap at End The following cases represent details to be used for unconnected profile members with square (90 degree) endings as well as for profile member endings where the member is to be cut clear but has sniped (or tapered) ends. 7.doc .12). Fig. 7. Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. 7. Case 1: Straight cut in both web and flange (Fig.14 Case 4: Like case 3 but flange not sniped (Fig. 7.

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet
Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 88 of 111
Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A

7.5 HULL SAMPLE DRAWINGS
7.5.1 Basic design - Midship section

Fig. 7.16
The Midship Section is represented looking Forward (Ps on the left and Sb to the right).

© 2010, ICEPRONAV
Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010

File name: PES-MD-G003_A - Draughting Manual.doc

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet
Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 89 of 111
Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A

Will have indicated the Base Line, Centre line with long dashed dotted narrow line,
longitudinal horizontal and vertical ruler.

1 Keel plate intersected by transversal section – continuous wide line,
2 Bottom (bilge) shell plate intersected by transversal section - continuous wide line,
3 Inner bottom plate intersected by transversal section - continuous wide line,
4 Double side intersected by transversal section - continuous wide line,
5 Deck plate intersected by transversal section - continuous wide line,
6 Side girder in double bottom - continuous wide line,
7 Side platform plating - continuous wide line,
8 Bottom longitudinals (bulb profile) oriented to CL,
9 Inner bottom longitudinals (bulb profile) oriented to CL,
10 Side transverses (bulb profile) oriented to this side,
11 Double side transverses (bulb profile) oriented to this side,
12 Plate thickness,
13 Distance between stiffeners (placed on this side – they are represented with
continuous narrow line),
14 Distance of the support from CL,
15 Distance between longitudinals,
16 Hole in supports (girders),
17 Stiffener on girder (the bulb is represented with continuous narrow line – bulb
profile is oriented to this side),
18 A, B, C - details identifier,
19 Symbol meaning – bulb profile is continuous, passing through the platform which
is represented with continuous wide line.
20 The symbol of discontinuity means that the floor is stopped in lateral support,
21 Vertical stiffener on floor – this side (continuous narrow line),
22 Butt weld – strait cut plates edges,
23 Vertical stiffener on web frame – flat bar on this side (continuous narrow line),
24 Hole in web frame – dimensions 800x600,
25 Welded flange of web frame in wing tank,
26 Cut out and clip (lug).

© 2010, ICEPRONAV
Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010

File name: PES-MD-G003_A - Draughting Manual.doc

Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet
Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 90 of 111
Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A

Fig. 7.17

© 2010, ICEPRONAV
Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010

File name: PES-MD-G003_A - Draughting Manual.doc

doc .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 91 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7.Draughting Manual. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . 7.2 Detail design Double bottom – plan view Fig.5.18 © 2010.

Section joint profile 30. Plate‘s position number. Section joint( will be indicated aft and fore limit of the unit and distance to the nearest frame) 8. Sloped Deck‘s area 19. Centre Line 5. Frame Spacing 4. Profile‘s position number. The symbol shows that thickness of bracket is orientated to aft. 28. Unit Name 6. Longitudinal Ruler 3. Welding seam between two plates inside unit without edge preparation for both plates 14.L 23.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 92 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 1. Frame Ruler 2. The symbol shows that thickness of profile is orientated to the C. Adjacent Units 7. Shape of hole and dimensions 26. Bracket‘s position number. Profile‘s thickness orientated to bottom 27. Horizontal flat bar(thickness orientated to bottom from transverse section) 29. dimension and material quality 32.Draughting Manual. Length of Unit 17. Theoretical line of longitudinal girders or bulkheads represented with interrupted middle line – that means these are on the other side 24. Welding seam between two plates inside unit with edge preparation 11. thickness and material quality 22. dimension and material quality Theoretical line of profiles represented with interrupted middle line – that means this profiles are on the other side.L 12. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Deck Knuckle Line 20. Theoretical line of transverse webs or bulkheads represented with interrupted middle line – that means these are on the other side 25. Excess (in aft part for plates and profiles) 13. Distance between welding seam 21. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Horizontal Deck‘s area 18. Hole in profile for drainage or air 31. Welding seam for connection with aft unit with edge preparation on this side for both plates 9. Longitudinal girders and bulkheads distance to the CL 16. thickness and material quality © 2010. Flat‘s bar position number. Longitudinal spacing 15.doc . Profile‘s thickness is oriented to C. Welding seam with edge preparation on this side for one plate 10.

Plate‘s position number. dimension and material quality Double bottom .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 93 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Double bottom . Profile‘s position number. The symbol shows that thickness of plate is orientated top 10. Excess (in aft part for plate and stiffeners) 9.Draughting Manual.19 This elevation is of a longitudinal bottom girder (located at 4800 mm off CL to Port). ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. thickness and material quality 17. Base Line 3. Section joint 7. Theoretical line of profiles represented with interrupted middle line – that means this profiles are on the other side. Small hole for drainage 15.doc . 7. Welding seam for connection with fore unit with edge preparation for both plates on the other side 8. 7. Double bottom height above BL 5. The symbol shows that longitudinal girders is continuous and floors are discontinuous 12.elevation in way of a longitudinal girder 7 Fig. Unit limit distance to the nearest frame 6. Theoretical line of profiles represented with interrupted middle line – that means this profiles are on the other side. Profile‘s thickness is orientated to BL 13. Profile‘s thickness is orientated to aft 14.elevation in way of a bottom longitudinals Fig.20 © 2010. 1. Frame ruler 2. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Welding seam between two plates inside unit without edge preparation 11. Hole dimensions 16. Double bottom or name of horizontal structure 4.

1. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Type of hole and dimensions 12. Distance of stiffeners from C.L 5. Longitudinal girders distance from C. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .L 4. Profile‘s position number. T profile on floor below transverse bulkhead stool 8. dimension and material quality 10. Position number.21 This section is made at an ordinary section (between floors). Welding seam for connection with aft unit with edge preparation for both plates on the other side 4. Longitudinal ruler 2. dimension and material quality of bracket flange welded on fore side 9.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 94 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A The elevation is shown in way of longitudinals between girders (located at 5600 mm off CL to Port). Small hole for drainage 11. 7. Vertical stiffeners on floor (snipped ends) 7.doc . Frame ruler 2. The symbol shows that inner bottom longitudinal is continuous 5. Bracket‘s position number. Plate‘s position number. Inner bottom longitudinal 6. thickness and material quality 9.L 7. thickness and material quality 11. Position number. The symbol shows that thickness of inner bottom longitudinal is orientated to C. Vertical Ruler 3. Theoretical line of profiles represented with interrupted middle line – that means this profiles are on the other side. Profile‘s thickness is orientated to BL © 2010. Section joint 3. 1.Draughting Manual. Horizontal distance between stiffeners on centre floor 6. Section joint and excess 8. Thickness of bracket is orientated to bottom Double bottom – section between floors Fig. dimension and material quality of vertical flat bar 10.

A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Longitudinal Ruler 2. Cut-out for stiffener 8. Theoretical line of vertical profiles represented with interrupted middle line – that means this profiles are on the other side. Flat bar position number 16. Clip (lug) 10. Clip (lug) position number. 1. Scallop for welding 13. Fillet welding 5. Hole in plane plate 14. Bilge keel 7.doc . Bilge keel 16. Plate position number. Welding seam between two plates inside unit without edge preparation 6. The symbol shows that girders are continuous and the floor is intermittent 4. Vertical Ruler 3. thickness and material quality Double bottom – section at one floor Fig. Theoretical line of horizontal profiles represented with interrupted middle line – that means this profiles are on the other side. Transverse section through inner bottom longitudinal (bulbous profile) 9. 7. Clip (lug) position number. thickness and material quality 15.22 This section shows a transverse bottom web (floor). thickness and material quality © 2010. Profile‘s thickness is orientated to BL 11. Transverse section of longitudinal on sloped bulkhead (hopper tank) 15. Profile‘s thickness is orientated to PS 12. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual. Theoretical line of flanged bracket represented with interrupted middle line – that indicates that the flange is orientated forward 14.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 95 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 13.

and sections and details as necessary. view of double side. longitudinals and stiffeners. horizontal and vertical stiffeners. cut-outs. remarks which show the plate thicknesses and quality. plan view on bottom shell and elevations showing plate thicknesses and dimensions for floors. webs. and sections and details as necessary.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 96 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7.doc . girders. webs. necessary elevations including chain locker boundaries. including view of double side. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . DOUBLE BOTTOM (CARGO AREA) Drawing contains plan view on double bottom.6 LIST OF MAIN HULL DOCUMENTS FOR BASIC DESIGN AND DETAIL DESIGN 7. dimensions and qualities. typical details. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. necessary elevations including steering gear flat and view at CL. plan view on decks. TRANSVERSE SECTIONS Upon occasion additional drawings may be required to show sections other than at midship section. longitudinal. principal dimensions and information pertaining to classification of the ship. typical details which shows the plate thicknesses and quality for the ship shell.1 Basic Design MIDSHIP SECTION Drawing contains transverse sections for an ordinary frame and a web frame. MACHINERY SPACE STRUCTURE Drawing contains plan views of all decks and platforms. FRAMING PLAN Drawing contains view of shell. hawse pipes and view at CL. comments. longitudinals and stiffeners for all the ship (ordinary frames and web frames). anchor pockets. sections and details including material. © 2010. FORE PART STRUCTURE Drawing contains plan views of all decks and platforms. transom. necessary elevations including machinery casings and view at CL. AFT PART STRUCTURE Drawing contains plan views of all decks and platforms. SHELL EXPANSION Drawing contains view of shell. elevations. necessary elevations and sections of the ship showing plate and profile thicknesses. view on double bottom which shows the plate thicknesses and dimensions and quality for beams. bulwark. girders. thicknesses and qualities. PROFILE AND DECKS Drawing contains CL elevation. view on main deck. joining nodes. DEEP TANK AND BALLAST TANK BULKHEADS Drawing contains layout of double side. joining nodes. holes for air and drain. technical information.Draughting Manual. and sections and details as necessary. transom. detail for manholes.6. dimensions and quality for beams.

rudder horn.Draughting Manual. sections and details as necessary (including details in way of strengthening below mooring equipment). CARGO HATCH COAMINGS STRUCTURE ON WEATHER DECK Drawing contains view on main deck. docking plan.doc . crane foundations. rudder stock. and sections and details as necessary.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 97 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A SUPERSTRUCTURE Drawing contains plan views of all decks. OTHER DRAWINGS Other drawings necessary for Class approval may include for example: rudder. POOP DECK STRUCTURE Drawing contains plan views of all decks and platforms. FORECASTLE STRUCTURE Drawing contains plan views of all decks and platforms. masts and welding table. tank testing plan. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . necessary elevations and view at CL. deckhouses. elevations for hatch coamings. sea chests. and sections and details as necessary. sections for hatch coamings and details including stays. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. © 2010. main engine foundations. necessary elevations and view at CL. necessary elevations including machinery casings and view at CL.

quality. component name and description. PROFILE NESTINGS Profile nesting list contains a table which shows: nesting. quantity in PS and SB. Other Side). quality and weight. CUTTING DOC FOR PROFILES Drawing contains the profile. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . © 2010. thickness. typical details for edge preparation. quality and weight. including elevation in CL. excess. dimensions. material quality and weight for the all pieces. quantity.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 98 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A 7. orientation. up. PROFILE PARTS LIST Profile parts list contains a table which shows: position number. nesting name and number of parts. principal dimensions and a diagonal for a part (if required) and a table which shows: length. clips (lugs). CL. CL. 3-D view of unit. width and thickness of plate and will be placed apart the bending templates with their dimension: height and width that have check points for be placed in right position on the plate. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. width and thickness. profile type. typical details for cut-outs.doc . nesting number. part name and name of template. shape. weight and quality of the plate. part shell expansion. PLATE PARTS LIST Plate parts list contains a table which shows: position number. nesting name for plate. drawing number. PS. a scale where holes in profile will be placed and a table showing: length (minimum and total). orientation information about the positioning in the ship (aft. orientation information about the positioning on the ship (aft. ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS Drawing contains the plate and the stiffeners that will be placed on the plate and a table which shows: position number. length. BENDING INFORMATION FOR PLATES Drawing contains the plate with some check points where the bending templates.6. fore.Draughting Manual. elevations and sections. joining nodes. excess. etc. sketch number and ID for profile. quantity in PS and SB. plan view for the unit with diagonal dimensions. excess for the plate. edge preparation. profile dimension. up. quantity in PS and SB . width. roll axis). FWD). length. SB. location and end-cut codes. down. section number/name. top. down. bottom. bevels (This Side. ship. fore. sections at each frame.2 Detail Design WORKSHOP DRAWINGS Drawing contains plan views. assembly name. position number. thickness. quality of the plate. PLATE NESTINGS Drawing for each piece contains marking lines for the parts to be welded in these position and number of these parts (plates and profiles). SB. nesting number. details for manholes. ID for plate about each nested plate. holes for air and drain. PS.

Simmons. Dennis E.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 99 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A REFERENCES [1] Colin H. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . Maguire .Faculty of Mechanical Engineering courses from ―Dunarea de Jos‖ University Galati © 2010.doc .Manual of Engineering Drawing [2] Polytechnic University Bucharest .Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics courses [3] Alexandru Vasile . ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Draughting Manual.

Fig. Fig. top and left views. A. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.doc . For a complete geometric definition just two views (front and left view) are necessary. According to projection direction the views are classified in: . It is easy to see that the views utilization is not enough for relieving the shape inside sides. b) representation ratio in the view.Draughting Manual. A. A.1.1. A. The main geometric shapes are core bar cylinder and right regular prism of the screw head.particular views.1 Terminology View – is a representation in orthogonal projection on a piece plane without sections. A.2 shows a bearing with simple inside and outside sides. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .8 Fig.7 In Fig.1 .1. .Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 100 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A APPENDIX A.1.regular views.2 The view classification The view classification is done according to: a) projection direction. using the front. © 2010.TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION A.1.1 shows a simple piece.1. prismatic and cylindrical. the inside forms missing.

The top view is not a partial view. The complete view is the view that presents the whole-piece (the entire assemble).1.1.Draughting Manual. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. © 2010. The same edge can be visible in a view and invisible in another.1 and Fig. Also in Fig. is a regular one represented 50% because the piece is symmetric towards a front plane that contains its vertical axis. This view is important to specify the real space of the necessary space for the screw mark.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 101 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A According to representation ratio the views are classified in: .3 the slit view of the guide assembly is a local view. . .complete views. A. placed near view notation.local views. A.2 the bearing views (front. In Fig.1. A.9 In a view representation of a piece we can see the visible contour and the piece edges. left and top views) are complete views and A view is a partial view. In Fig.1 a particular view.1. A.2 the projections used for the representation of those two pieces are regular views. The particular view is the regular view obtained after another projection than the standards one ore the one that is located to another position than the one regularized by standard compliant one. A. The edge is the projection on a plane between two surfaces of a piece.1 m1 is an edge because it represents the common circular base of the truncated cone and of the cylindrical bar.1. A. is also represented. standard which is referring to normal location of projections. Fig.1.1. The regular view is the view realized after one of standard projection directions and located in format according to the standard rules.partial views. disposed according to method A.1. A. It is different from a partial view because it is not delimitated by a break line and is disposed after method A. In Fig. A. An edge can be a part of a projection visible contour. In Fig. and m2 is the intersection between plane surfaces which form the prism sides of the screw head. after direction A.1. The view rotation is accentuated by the specific symbol. the view from A is represented in projection correspondence or rotated. The local view contains just a piece (assemble) detail. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . The partial view is the view that presents just a part of a piece (assemble) and is delimitated with a line.doc . In Fig. A.1.1 and Fig.

6.1. The geometric shapes are a cylinder and a cone (Fig. metal cutting). © 2010. Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .5a) a front plane which contains its axis is used.1. A. If between those two surfaces a transition surface is made (Fig. A.4 shows the extremity possible shape of a scribe needle. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.1. The invisible fictive edges are not represented. For accentuate are necessary sections.1.1. For a longitudinal sectioning of the bushed bearing with cylindrical inside and outside shape (Fig.1.4a Fig.4c) will comply with the rules that shall be detailed further on.1. A.4a) and their intersection is a real edge. A. A.1. the invisible outside edges is possible to be represented with type E (dashed narrow line) line or type F (dashed wide line). then the representation will contain a fictive edge. The real edge is the edge resulted by processing (cutting. A. A. A real edge is evident and is mapped out with line type A if is visible. A. The obtained section can be represented in two ways: proper section.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 102 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A The edges can be real or fictive.4c Fig. invisible on its views. The fictive edge is the projection on an imaginary intersection plane of a piece two surfaces. The section is the representation in orthogonal projection on a plane of the intersection result between an object and a section surface followed by the imaginary removal of the object part placed between observer and section surface. If necessary.1.1.5b). (Fig. A.1. Fig. The fictive edge representation (Fig.1.doc . generated by imaginary extension intersection of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. A. A.4b). The invisible outside edges in a projection are not usually represented because they will be visible in another piece projection. A.5c. The imaginary sectioning result and the removal of the piece part placed between observer and section plane presented in Fig.Draughting Manual.5 intuitive shows a section obtained as described in the section definition.1. both presented in Fig. Fig.4b Fig. A. and section with view.10 The pieces with insides shapes have contours and inside edges.

1. A. A.6c and Fig.1. A.6d section A-A is represented in two ways: proper section – Fig. A.1.1. The section route – the section plane trace or trace assembly of the section planes which generates a section.Draughting Manual.6c and section with view – Fig. in Fig.6c Fig.14. © 2010.6a the bushed bearing is represented with the views help. A.5c Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.16).Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 103 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. A.6a Fig.1. A. Because an object representation can need more section routes. In Fig.1. The section route is represented with line type H and on the segments from extremities have arrows that indicate the projection direction. A. A. A.1.5a Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .6b Fig. written near the arrows.5b Fig.6d Fig.1.12 In Fig.1.15 and Fig. A. A. For the routes case which generates broken or step-up sections.1.6b is presented the choosing of the sectioning surface showed in section route notation. each route is notated with capital letter.1.1.1. A. Fig. A. A.doc .1.1. The combined projections ½ view and ½ section don‘t need notation of the section route.11 Fig. A. (see Fig. A. each route break is accentuated with continuous wide line segments.6d.1. A.1.1.

a) After the representation way we have: i) proper section. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . b) sectioning surface position in ratio with projection plane of trihedral. For example. the section from Fig. Fig.7 the section realized by a shaft. c) sectioning surface position in ratio with the piece. In Fig.9.8 the section A-A is horizontal. A. ii) The section with view is a complete proper section with the contours and the edges placed behind sectioning surface becoming visible by the imaginary removal of the object part placed between sectioning surface and observer. with a simple particular plane. Fig. i) The proper section is the geometric result of the piece sectioning.6c shows the proper section A-A which consists of two rectangles. A. total. A. d) sectioning surface shape. vertical view.6d the same section A-A is represented like a section with view.1.1. b) Attend to the position of the sectioning surface in ratio with projection trihedral planes we have: i) horizontal section. A. e) sectioning ratio. These must be completed to become sections with view. a front or a profile plane). is a leaning section. In Fig. A.3 The sections classification For a correct section description that intervenes for a piece or assembly representation section classification knowledge is necessary. Fig. The section classification is made taking into account the following criteria: a) representation way. The difference between the proper section and the one with view is important because the assisted design programs generate proper sections. iii) The leaning section is a section realized with a certain plane or.6d. i) The horizontal section is the one obtained with a level plane.10 the sections are vertical.1. with the purpose to accentuate the oil ducts.1. Such a representation has the commodity advantage.6c. ii) section with view. iii) leaning section.1. In Fig. ii) vertical section.1. A. A.6d is correctly described: longitudinal section with plane.Draughting Manual.1.doc . A.1.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 104 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A A. ii) The vertical section is generated by a normal plane to the horizontal plane of projection (a vertical plane. Fig. but doesn‘t give information about the object part placed behind the sectioning plane.1.1. © 2010. In Fig. more often.

A.1.1. A.doc .15 Fig.Draughting Manual.1. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .9a Fig. A. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.14 Fig.1. A.9b © 2010.13 Fig.1. A.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 105 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.

In Fig.9a and Fig.16 the broken sections are exemplified. ii) transversal section. ii) broken section.7 the sections are total. iii) The combined projection is named ―1/2 view and ½ section‖ and is used to represent objects that accept a symmetry plane and is obtained with a step-up plane.5a with a combined projection help ―½view and ½ section‖ on vertical plane. In Fig. A.11 the section is a transversal section. A.1.1. © 2010. on transversal or longitudinal direction. the difference being the representation in section which is not bounded by a break line. A. iv) cylindrical section.1. In Fig.8 shows a partial section. e) After the sectioning ratio: i) total section. A.9b). A. In Fig. i) The plane section is the result of the piece intersection with a plane.Draughting Manual. A.1. ii) The transversal section is generated by a plane that intersects the longitudinal axis of the o piece – usually to a 90 angle. the first plane being placed in front of the object and in that way generating a view instead of a section. i) The longitudinal section is realized with a plane which contains the longitudinal axis of the piece or is parallel with it. In Fig. converse perpendicular.1. i) The total section is the one generated by the complete ―cut-out‖ of the piece.9b the same piece.1. Fig. ii) The partial section is generated by a surface which intersects just a part of the piece.1. ii) The broken section is generated by an assembly of two planes which are intersected to a o 90 angle. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. Most sections are plane sections. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . The combined projection doesn‘t need the sectioning route representation. iii) The step-up section is obtained from a plane sequences. and Fig. d) After the sectioning surface shape: i) plane section. A. A. A.1. Fig. In Fig.1. A.doc . iii) step-up section.6c.1. with a transversal cylindrical orifice. The partial section must not be confused with the break (Fig. A. A.1. A.1. A.6c and Fig. iii) combined projection (½ view and ½ section). is represented with a combined projection help on vertical plane and the top view is completed with a break that shows that the orifice permeates the wall.14 and Fig.6d the sections are longitudinal.9a shows the piece from Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 106 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A c) After the sectioning surface position in ratio with the piece: i) longitudinal section. d. The sectioning result is represented with the evolute.1.15 those sections are exemplified. iv) The cylindrical section is generated by a cylindrical surface. ii) partial section.1.

10a Fig.16 Fig.1.1. A.10c Fig. A.10b Fig. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .1.17 © 2010.1.10d Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 107 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. A. A.Draughting Manual. A.1.1. A.doc .

1.Draughting Manual.1. A.18 Fig.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 108 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.13c Fig. A. A.1.13d © 2010.1.doc . A.1. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A .13a Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.1. A.19 Fig. A.13b Fig.

A. A.15a Fig.22 © 2010. A.1.doc .14a Fig. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. A.1.15b Fig.1. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . A.Draughting Manual.21 Fig.1. A.1.1.20 Fig. A.14b Fig.1.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 109 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig.

iv) The superimposed proper section (Fig. . d. b.1.Draughting Manual.10d) is different from the intercalary one because it is not necessary to eliminate a part from the represented object view and its contour is mapped out with continuous narrow line. The break is the orthogonal representation on an object plane with an eliminated part with the purpose: . noted accordingly.doc .23 A.10a.1. not to create confusion by superimposing with the representation in view.Elimination of the sectioning plane track representation.Indication of the sectioning route just by its trace (long dashed dotted narrow line). A. Fig. The proper sections are exemplified in Fig.Placement of the section in the space obtained by elimination of a part from the represented object view. A.1. A.1.Reducing the necessary space for representation.10b shows the vertical trace of the profile plane which sections the piece and the o proper section resulted is rotated 90 right until it reaches the projection vertical plane.Is accentuated with sectioning route help. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev.The resulted section. ii) shifted proper section. .1.1.4 Proper sections representation and classification The proper sections are named according to their representation particularities: i) regular proper section. A. This representation variant can be used only when the section is transversal and the part of the eliminated view doesn‘t contain details. iv) superimposed proper section.The displacement of the resulted section and its spin for right until it reaches in the projection plane that has indicated the sectioning track. . without compromise the drawing clarity by the piece representation to a decrease scale.10c) is characterized by: . . © 2010.1. iii) intercalary proper section. A. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . can be placed in projection correspondence or in other position in paperwork format. iii) The intercalary proper section (Fig.Details representation hidden by that part. c. The represented piece is an angle bar part.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 110 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. ii) The shifted proper section is characterized by: . i) The regular proper section ( Fig. A.10a) has the following characteristics: .

3.doc . Fig. and the cylindrical part without details is eliminated. The eliminated parts are bounded with a continuous narrow sinuous line.1. to a increased scale. with the purpose to specify the part shape and dimensions.Project Name: PROJECT ENGINEERING SYSTEM Sheet Title: DRAUGHTING MANUAL 111 of 111 Document No: PES-MD-G003 Rev A Fig. The bar can‘t be represented to a decrease scale the left view and the section A-A would have too small dimensions. A. In this situation the piece is represented with a break.9b a break is used to avoid the representation of a horizontal section.23 exemplifies the detail representation and notation.1. A / May 2010 File name: PES-MD-G003_A . A. ICEPRONAV Form Code PES-AD-T001 Rev. The detail is the representation in orthogonal projection of a small piece part.Draughting Manual. © 2010.11 shows a bar with a big length in ratio with transversal dimension. Fig.