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International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR

ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2015

Diabetic Macular Edema Detection by Artery/Vein
Classification Using Neural Network
Binooja. B.R, Nisha. A.V

Abstract— A thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye veins. Arteries transport oxygen rich blood from heart to the
on the inside is known as retina. Retina plays an important role tissues of the body. Fig.1 shows the retinal image of an eye.
in visual recognition, as it converts the light focused by the lens The vein transport blood low in oxygen level. Arteries are
into neural signals which is send to the brain for visualization. bright red in colour but veins are darker. For identification of
Retinal blood vessels are classified into two: arteries and veins.
various diseases it is more essential to distinguish the vessels
Any disease that effect retina leads to so many problems.
Classifications of retinal vessels are essential for the early
into veins and arteries. Automatic surgery on eye, biometrics
detection of diseases like Diabetic Retinopathy, Hypertension etc are the main applications of retinal images. Retinal vessel
and other Cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic retinopathy is segmentation and classification of artery/vein are the essential
caused by changes in blood vessels of the retina. The damaged things for the detection of disease like diabetes, hypertension
blood vessels due to Diabetic Retinopathy can lead to fluid and other cardio vascular conditions. Several characteristic
leakage in the center of the macula causing it to swell, thus signs associated with vascular changes are measured,
blurring the vision. In this condition is called Diabetic Macular assessed each stage and severity of some retinal conditions.
Edema. This paper presents detection of Diabetic macular Diseases can alter the width of the portion, length of retinal
edema based on Neural Network by analyzing the graph
vessels, increase their curvature and change the reflectance of
extracted from the retinal vasculature. Segmented retinal
vasculatures detects the type of intersection points (graph
light. Generally arteriolar narrowing is inversely related to
nodes), after that one of two labels is assigned into each vessel high blood pressure level which is expressed as
segment (graph links). Based on the set of intensity features Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter Ratio (AVR). The AVR value
vessels are divided into A/V. The parameters such as sensitivity, is an indicator of other diseases, like diabetic retinopathy and
specificity and accuracy are calculated. Based on this value the retinopathy of prematurity. Among other image processing
stages of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) effected to the operations, calculations of AVR requires vessel
Artery/Vein are analyzed. INSPIRE-AVR, DRIVE and segmentation, vessel width measurement and artery/vein
VICAVR databases are used for the detection of retinal disease. (A/V) classification. Automatic AVR measurement systems
accurately identify which vessels are arteries and which are
Index Terms— Artery/Vein, Diabetic Macular Edema,
Feature extraction, Retina, Vessel segmentation. veins, since small classification errors having large influence
on the final value.

Eye is the one of the most important organ in our body,
called as organs of vision. They detect light and convert into
electrochemical impulses in neurons. It is a complex optical
systems that collects light from the surroundings, regulate
intensity through a diaphragm and focuses it by adjusting
lenses to form an image. Its internal component is called
retina. The light sensitive layer at the back of the eye, which
serves same function as a film in the camera. The central part
of retina is called macula, responsible for central vision and
outside provides peripheral vision. So many diseases are
affected by retina. They are diabetic retinopathy,
hypertension and other cardio vascular conditions. In diabetic
retinopathy, the blood vessels show abnormalities, as well as
vessel diameter changes. Decrease the width of arteries and
increase the width of veins and their branches are also Fig.1. Retinal image.
associated with hypertension and other cardio vascular
There are many geometric and visual features that
conditions. Retinal images play major role in several
discriminate between arteries and veins. Bright colored
applications such as human recognition and disease diagnosis.
arteries have thicker walls than dark colored veins and artery
Blood vessel is the most important features of retina,
calibers are smaller than vein calibers. Important
consisting of arteries and
characteristics of retinal vessel is that at least in the region of
optic disc, arteries rarely cross arteries and veins rarely cross
veins but artery and vein bifurcate to narrower vessels and can
BINOOJA B R, Department of ECE, Kerala University, Younus
College of Engineering and Technology, Kollam, Kerala, India. cross each other.

NISHA A V, Department of ECE, Kerala University, Younus College of
Vazquez [3] described a vessel tracking method with a
Engineering and Technology, Kollam, Kerala, India. color based clustering algorithm. First the clustering approach


(a) Orginal image. Classification of retinal vessels is centerline vessel graph. It consists of: 1) Graph graph nodes are extracted by finding the intersection points generation 2) Graph Analysis 3) A/V classification 4) Disease and terminal points. depending on vessel segmentation classifies the vessels into Artery/Vein. and node gives an intersection point and each link is associated retinal vessel classification. A piece Gaussian model describes the Creation of Training set DISEASE intensity distribution of the vessel based central reflex [5]. (b) Vessel segmentation. if it is untreated people had lead to remove thicker pixels and provide a minimally connected moderate vision loss. skeleton is Features extracted and points are detected. It is used to caused by fluid accumulation in the macula. meeting. DESIGN METHODOLOGY In this paper a graph generation algorithm is proposed for Artery/Vein (A/V) classification. Graph Generation. Diabetic applied to the segmentation result to obtain the centerline Macular Edema affects up to 30% of people who had diabetes image [7].erpublication. and finally it combines the result. following sections: a) Vessel Segmentation b) Vessel Based on the set of intensity features finally vessels are centerline extraction c) A/V classification. Graph extracting from the of the eye. causing blurred vision that can be severe. [6] From the segmentation result. For labeling. a semi automatic method was proposed by Martinez-Perez. A. The decision regarding the type of point is totally based on geometrical vascular tree analysis of graphical network. When the macula begins to . then it Input Image Graph Graph A/V separately classifies. 3(c) shows centerline extracted image.2. Rothauset described a semi-automatic rule based constraint optimization approach Fig. stages in human retinal disease diagnosis. Graph generation include the the retinal images and detect the graph nodes and graph links.3. it provides easier analysis of several (c) Centerline image. on the A/V classification. In crossing point two different types of vessel cross each other. Here INSPIRE-AVR. retinal image registration. In this paper graph extracted from with the vessel segment [4]. Graph Generation In recent years graph-based methods have been used for Vascular network is represented as graph in which each retinal vessel segmentation. Fig. Terminal points are pixels having 161 www. the ability of those cells to sense light is (b) Vessel Centerline Extraction: Thinning algorithm is impaired. more than two neighbours. Intersection points are pixels having Identification. or central portion locate boundaries in an image. fill with fluid. VICAVR databases are used and detect disease likes Diabetic Macular (a) Vessel Segmentation: Segmentation is the process of Edema as moderate or severe by using Neural Network. which targets the characteristics of retinal vascular network nearer to the optic disc (OD). Block Diagram of A/V Classification for Disease Identification. divided into A/V. This system having great potential benefits that screening more number of images in less time. crossing. Based on the assumption we define various number (a) (b) of intersection points like bifurcation. Fig. The macula is filled with cones. Diabetic Macular Edema Detection by Artery/Vein Classification Using Neural Network divides the retinal image into four quadrants. vein rarely cross veins and arteries rarely cross arteries. 3(b) shows vessel segmentation result [2]. (d) Extracted graph. Then a Generation Analysis Classification tracking method based on a minimal path approach is applied to join the vessel segments. Where vessels never cross or bifurcate and are a continuation point connecting different segment of the same vessel called connecting point. Fig. assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels Diabetic Macular Edema is a complication of diabetes with same label share certain characteristics. root segment Extraction of the tree to be tracked by the user and algorithm will search for terminal point. and connecting points. II. graph analysis and A/V classification and second part is the disease identification Fig. For analyzing retinal vascular Pre-Processing Segmentation trees. That for 20 years or more. 2 shows block (c) Graph Extraction: From the centerline graph image diagram of the proposed model. (c) (d) The first part describes graph generation. DRIVE. IDENTIFICATION The Minimum distance classifier based on the Mahalanobis DME disease distance was used to differentiate between the vessels using Identification features derived from the parameters. low cost and reduced workload. the nerve cells that vessel segmentation is used for the calculation of vessel are responsible for sensing light. essential for the early detection of DME. In meeting point different types of vessels meet each other without crossing. Bifurcation point is an intersection point where a vessel bifurcates into narrower vessels [1].

Hue. resulting in vision impairment. floaters. Hue. Common symptoms of DME are splitting. (a) Graph analysis (b) A/V classification. 3(d) shows extracted graph image. and analysis phase. labeling is assigned with suitable (e) Gaussian Filter (f) Median Filter (g) Image after adjust algorithm then we cover the whole retinal image. and a manual artery/vein of links connected to each node. is artery and which is vein class. meeting and connecting points. Energy. DRIVE dataset were captured with removed. Labeling stage in the graphical representation is embedded After feature calculation Feed forward neural network with vessel structural information stage.41 0. DRIVE [8]. There are hidden nodes in between input nodes some misrepresentation.32 Fig. all vessels around the optic disc (OD) are VICAVR [10] are used. B. These false nodes will affect the correctness of the final result.e. the vessel caliber at each link.4. An incorrect detection of a link between the two nodes is known as false link. Generally vein calibers are from the optic disc as well as the vessel type labeled. Diabetic Retinopathy is a disease that damages blood vessels in the retina. causing DME. (l) Gabor Features. optic disc-centered. Fig. Fig. 4 (a) & (b) classify the DME as moderate or severe based on the shows graph analysis and A/V classification result. The VICAVR database the degree of adjacent nodes. FEATURE VALUES OF INPUT IMAGES Features Severe Moderate Energy 0. Volume-3. This will happen when the two vessels are close to each III. crossing. A FFN is an artificial neural network where (d) Graph Modification: Result of the segmentation and information moves only in one direction i. and 40 images of the INSPIRE database. The features of Gabor are Entropy.35 Standard Deviation 0. forward from centerline extraction process the extracted graph may include input node. Based on this assumption locate accuracy values are obtained for centerline. The extracted centerline pixels in a single intersection. specificity and accuracy values. A/V Classification and Intensities in the vessels taken for the feature extraction. The larger than artery calibers. The optic disc area usually contains many vessels 768 × 584 pixels and INSPIRE-AVR database have and the graph in that area is not reliable.33 0. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P). RESULTS other but they do not cross. It can be corrected by setting threshold value. now we Intensity (h) Imclose . Table I shows Depending upon the label the next class is assigned as which feature values of the input .to remove blood vessels (i) Image after having graph with various labeling to its each disjoint colfilt (j) Image after image segmentation (k) ROI image subgraph. Vessel caliber assign to each includes the caliber of the vessels measured at different radii link by vessel caliber estimation. Blue. Blue. vessel pixels in the centre of optic disc (OD) with the help of vascular entropy the entire image and pixels inside the region of interest (ROI).31 0. INSPIRE-AVR [9]. these blood vessels begin to build up pressure in the eye and having two graph nodes instead of only one is known as node leak fluid. the features of Gabor are Entropy. The reason for Diabetic Macular Edema is a link and iii) False link. Then all the intersection points and their neighbours are Energy. was performed by using 20 images of the DRIVE data set and the angle between the links. double vision. one these errors is identified. Green C. Disease Identification Covariance 0. resolution of 2392 2048 pixels and are optic disc-centered. D. and eventually link. sensitivity. extraction.erpublication. Correlation. It calculates pairs of pixel with specific values and in a specified spatial relationship occur in an image. in the vessel. Before initiating the graph Three databases. additional features are Mean and Standard deviation of Red. Automatic vessel segmentation results Node classification extracting node information like number were available for three datasets. Green and Intensities segment is represented as link.38 Feed forward neural network (FFN) is used to detect disease likes Diabetic Macular Edema as moderate or severe. They are i) Node splitting ii) Missing and output nodes. Graph Analysis The 58 images of the VICAVR database were acquired using It analyzes various numbers of intersection points (nodes) a TopCon non-mydriatic camera NW-100 model and are also like bifurcation. Once Fig. and Homogeneity. The lost link between two nodes is known as missing blurry vision. For feature 162 www. finding the distance between the nodes. and Homogeneity. The graph should be modified when an accumulation of fluid in the macula-part of the retina. Additional features are Mean and removed from the vessel centerline graph the resulting vessel Standard deviation of Red. If it is untreated. Issue-7. Labeling is carried out for every subgraph. directions. Correlation. TABLE I. the orientation of each link. after blindness. 5 shows (a) Input Image (b) Red (c) Green (d) Blue for each subgraph. July 2015 only one neighbour.

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