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Dictionary of Ship Hydrodynamics

Version 2008

I

CONTENTS

Page No.
CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................................ II 
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. III 
1  GENERAL ................................................................................................................................1-1 
1.1  DEFINITION OF GENERAL TERMS OF WIDE APPLICATION ...............................1-1 
1.2  LIQUID PROPERTIES AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS .............................................1-2 
2  SHIP GEOMETRY ...................................................................................................................2-1 
3  RESISTANCE ..........................................................................................................................3-1 
4  PROPELLER ............................................................................................................................4-1 
5  CAVITATION ..........................................................................................................................5-1 
6  SEAKEEPING ..........................................................................................................................6-1 
7  MANOEUVRABILITY............................................................................................................7-1 
8  PERFORMANCE .....................................................................................................................8-5 
9  OVERALL INDEX OF TITLES ..............................................................................................9-1 

II

INTRODUCTION

This Dictionary is intended for a broad The order of entry for each item is: title,
readership including practising naval architects symbol, dimensions, followed by the definition.
who wish to acquire and apply knowledge of In each section the titles re arranged in alpha-
hydrodynamics and also physicists and theo- betical order. In this way, having found the item
retical hydrodynamicists who wish to apply required, perusal of the section will indicate
their particular knowledge to the solution of other related items which may be of interest.
ship problems. For general reference, there is an overall alpha-
betical index of all titles and against each is
Engineering, physical and nautical terms in given the section and page where the item is to
common use have not been included when did be found.
not require special definition in the context of
ship hydrodynamics or when their meanings The symbols given are in accordance with
were self evident. The work is arranged in the those in the latest ITTC list which is comple-
following sections prefaced with a brief refer- mentary document.
ence to the nature if their content:
In a number of instances, the list give alter-
1. General native symbols and these are generally included
2. Ship Geometry except where a definite preference is indicated.
3. Resistance
4. Propeller (including propeller geometry)
5. Cavitation
6. Seakeeping
7. Manoeuvrability
8. Performance ( in the context of speed
and power)

III

As an adjective, pertains to motion as the result
1 GENERAL of force, or to bodies and system in motions; in
this respect it is opposite of static (which see)
Dynamic stability
That property of body which cause it, when
1.1 DEFINITION OF GENERAL slightly disturbed from a steady motion, to re-
sume that the same steady motion, usually
TERMS OF WIDE APPLICATION
along a different path, without any corrective
control being applied.
Under this heading is listed a number of gen-
Equilibrium
eral terms frequently encountered in the field of
A state of balance, between opposing forces or
naval architecture and marine engineering. To
actions.
ensure that their general meanings are retained
Specific
and that they are employed in the proper man-
As an adjective, often applies in English-
ner, their definitions are given here.
speaking countries to the ratio between some
quantity to be defined and a standard quantity
Axes co-ordinate
having the same characteristics, which is take
Generally a system of rectangular Cartesian co-
as a reference. The best known term of this
ordinates and in particular:
kind is the expression “specific gravity”. Here
Body axes (x, y, z) A right hand orthogonal
the specific gravity is the dimensionless ratio
system fixed in the body or ship. The x axis
of weight of unit volume of the designated sub-
is forward and parallel to the reference or
stance to the weight of unit volume of fresh
baseline used to define the body’s shape.
water. In other countries the term “specific”
For dynamic considerations the origin
generally refer to absolute values per unit vol-
should be at the centre of the gravity of the
ume and is not expressed in terms of properties
body and the z axis vertically downwards.
of a reference substance, such as water.
The y axis is to starboard.
Stability
Fixed axes (x0, y0, z0) A right hand
The property, quality, or characteristic of a
nal system nominally fixed in relation to the
body, which cause it, when its equilibrium is
earth; the positive z0 axis is vertically
disturbed, to develop forces or moments acting
downwards and the x0 axis lies in the direc-
to restore its original condition.
tion of initial motion.
Static
Control
As an adjective, pertains to bodies or system at
As a noun, is applied to the act o controlling or
rest or forces in equilibrium; in this respect it is
directing, such as when controlling the move-
the opposite of dynamic (which see)
ments of body or directing a ship in the steer-
Steady state
ing, turning, and diving manoeuvres.
This applies to a condition may be static, but is
Control surface
generally dynamic, in which there is no change
The rudders, hydroplanes, and other hinged or
with time. A ship moving in a straight line at
movable device used for controlling the mo-
uniform speed and a ship in a steady turn at
tions of body or ship.
uniform speed both represent steady state con-
Controllability
ditions.
That quality of a body or ship which deter-
Unsteady or transient
mines the effectiveness of movement of the
These apply to a condition which is invariably
controls in the producing any desire change, at
dynamic, in which the motion of body or the
a specified rate in the attitude or position of the
flow of a liquid changes with time, with refer-
moving body or ship
ence to an assumed set of axes.
Controls
The means or system provided to enable the
crew of a ship to control its speed, power, atti-
tude, direction of motion, and the like.
Dynamic

1-1

the namics. miscible fluids of behaving as if it were a film Capillarity (σ) [M T-2] under tension. water at 15° C (59° F) see: Performance Sec- 1 M T-2] tion under “Water standard fresh and salt”. Ship Division Report No. ing international standard value has been agreed: 9. ence. This is not Viscosity. See also: Re- this variation and for convenience the follow.1737 ft/s2). * Viscosity. Trans. mass) Capillarity (phenomenon) Specific weight or specific gravity (-) [-] A form of surface tension. reciprocal of mass density (See: Density . Solubility Under this heading definitions or descriptions The relative capability of being dissolved are given of a number of liquid properties and Specific volume (L3M-1) physical constants concerned of ship hydrody. J. See also: Resistance The acceleration.I units the corresponding change of volume per unit see in “Metrication Ship Research and Design”. a freely falling body in a vacuum. lar force exist between the surface of a liquid Surface tension and a solid. London 1963 or National Physical Labo- ratory. coefficient of dynamic (μ) [L-1 M Density. to values over a range of temperature in S. For The ratio of the stress. See: Relative mass or weight. (See: Modulus of elasticity. or force per unit area. 81 (1966). of section. pour pressure or vapour tension. 1-2 . weight (w) [L-2 M T-2] T-1]* The weight per unit volume of a substance. for corre- Relative mass or weight (γ) [-] sponding values in Imperial Unit see Proceed- The ratio of density of any substance to the ings 10th International Towing Tank Confer- density of fresh water at 4° Centigrade. coefficient of ( . Density. coefficient of kinematic (ν) [L2 T- 1 strictly constant\and over the earth’s surface it ]* varies by as much as ½%. The ratio of the shearing stress in a fluid to its Gravitational acceleration (g) [L T-2] rate of shear deformation. 1971. It is also called the saturated va- of elasticity.) [LM-1 T2 ] The pressure of vapour in equilibrium with its The reciprocal of the volume or bulk modulus liquid state. vol. * For standard values of fresh water and salt Modulus of elasticity.H. In Eng. due to earth’s gravity field. The volume of a substance per unit mass. Paffett.2 LIQUID PROPERTIES AND lish speaking countries the concept expressed is PHYSICAL CONSTANTS called Specific gravity. The surface of the liquid may The property of the interface between two im- thereby be elevated or depressed. sistance section. which for a ume or bulk) given substance depends only upon the tem- perature. volume or bulk ( E) [L. volume.80665 m/s2 (32. Surface tension per unit length. RINA. For most terrestrial The ratio of the coefficient of dynamic viscos- engineering purposes it is usual to disregard ity to the mass density of a fluid. mass (ρ) [L-3 M] The mass per unit volume of a substance. by which a molecu. Vapour pressure Compressibility.1.A.

extreme: maximum beam wherever Angle of run it occurs on the hull above or below water. When not otherwise defined the beam is Near the centre of ship length. principal co-ordinate Beam (B) [L] Amidships (sometimes contracted to midship) A dimension expressing breadth or width of a body or ship in a transverse horizontal direc- ( ) [-] tion. it is named: plane forward of the fore perpendicular. bilge keels. mean over chines (BPA) [L]: mean starboard). This re- projected to the direction of relative wind. excluding rest). over chines (BPC) [L]: beam over Area. The cross sectional area (full section port and Beam. bulbous bow in longitudinal plane breadth or width of the planing bottom. midship section. maximum section (BX): beam Appendage measured on the designed waterline at the An additional structure or fitting to the main maximum section area. Beam. wind exposed (AV) [L2] The submerged transversally curved portion of Area of the portion of ship above the waterline the ship between the side and bottom. ward to the perpendicular. defined as the ratio be- so as to terminate on the fore perpendicular ABT tween planing bottom area and projected is measured by continuing the area curve for- chine length (See Figure 2-3). Propeller geometry is Baseplane given in the Propeller Section. (See appropriate items) For a hard chine hull the beam refers to the Area. the the breadth moulded of a ship. The Aspect ratio 2-1 . transom (BPT) [L]: Breadth over (AM) [L2] chines at transom. it is Angle of entrance named: See: waterline Beam. ignoring the final rounding. Where the water lines are rounded breadth over chines. Beam. excluding area of external spray strips external spray strips (See Figure 2-3). measured amid- section of the ship at mid length (See Figure ships at the design waterline. main hull. Beam of design water line (BWL) [L]: Examples of appendages are: rudders. (See Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4) Bilge Area. struts. immersed: maximum: maximum Angle. APB BPA = Area. maximum over chines (BPX) [L]: Horizontally projected planing bottom area (at Maximum breadth over chines. See: Manoeuvrability Section 2 SHIP GEOMETRY Baseline The intersection of the baseplane with the plane This section is concerned with ship and hull of symmetry of the hull. See: waterline Beam. transverse cross section of a bulbous chines. which generally re- Beam. planing bottom (APB) [L2] Beam. geometry generally. See: Planes. specially. shafts. boss- maximum moulded breadth at design water ings. Ac- (ABL) [L2] cording to the position were the breadth is The area of the ram projected onto the centre- measured. gion is also called the turn of the bilge. or midlenght section Beam. stabilizing fins. excluding external spray See: Section strips (See Figure 2-3). deadrise (β) [rad] beam of underwater body See: Deadrise angle. excluding external spray strips (See bow (ABT) [L2] Figure 2-3). underwater hull of a ship. According to the 2-12) position were the breadth is measured. midlenght (BM): beam at the midsec- sults in a discontinuity in the fair surface of the tion of the designed waterline. line etc. Area. maximum section (AX) [L2] LPR See: Section Area.

Entrance. Block coefficient (CB. (LR ): that portion extending erally forward. both above and below the waterline. Particular parts of the body of a buttocks. beam equal to the waterline beam BX an Boundary plate draught TX : A plate at. In non dimensional form: ii. intended only to house the after- (ABT). An appreciable swelling of the ship form gen- Body plan erally below the waterline. if a ship. body. or from the fore end of the parallel middle- in a consistent system of units. R. The sections are lying just above the keel (bulbous bow). frequently at the forward end to a vertical transverse plane. A protection erected on the weather deck. Taylor sectional area coefficient for bul- shaft bearings. The ram bulb di- close the propeller shafts or other external mensions are characterised by the transverse items. or of an element acting as a hydrofoil. or near. (LP): the The ratio of the maximum breadth to the cube midship portion having the same transverse root of the volume displacement of a ship.E: Froude (BC) [-] Parallel middle-body. enclosing the entire propeller shaft. Bossing are of two general forms: cross section area at the fore perpendicular i.minimum radius of the bilge at the section of A long bossing is called contra or deflection maximum area is called bilge radius. Bow If it is referred to length. usually its under. and the supporting frame bous bow (fBT) [-] : from the hull to the propeller. angle The ratio of displacement volume ∇ to the vol. the tip of a hydrofoil. normally V-shape in planform. Bulb See Figure 2-16 for illustrations of these items. or from the to prevent water shipped over the bow from after end of the parallel middle-body. type when its end is shaped to direct the flow Bilge keel of water against the direction of rotation of See: Keel propeller (See Figure 2-1). floating in a fluid. to the forward extremity of the un- Breakwater derwater body. Similar intersections in the afterbody are called water portion. section throughout. which is the area of ram ahead of form a faring where the propeller shaft the fore perpendicular projected on to the cen- emerges from the hull terplane. A length dimension expressing beam or width. to suppress or reduce the tip vortex. times with increase of length beyond the for- Bossing ward perpendicular (ram bulb). after extremity of the underwater body. they should be Bowline clearly defined. Intersection of a plane parallel to the centre Body plane with the moulded form of the forebody of Any hull or form which may be immersed or the ship. sometimes the The part of the underwater hull of a ship which after end near the keel or at the level of the is carried outward beyond the fair form to en- propeller shaft (stern bulb). Short. length of. length of. (LE): the portion ex- C tending from the maximum area section. from the maximum area section. length of. (See Figure 2-1). to the running aft. involving increase The transverse sections of the ship projected on of section area. and the ram area in the longitudinal most hull bearing of a propeller shaft or to plane (ABL). ship are: Breadth Forebody: the part forward of the midsec. Long. formerly δ) [-] Bossing. some- generally equally spaced. 2-2 . Angle of bossing with the plane of symmetry ume of a rectangular block having length L. gen- Run. beam or draught other The forward end of a ship than those defined above. tion (See: beam) Afterbody: the part aft of the midsection Breadth coefficient of.

as in the junction of side and bot- cally. where it represents The angle at the junction between the two parts the curvature in an athwartship or transverse of a section. propeller (See Figure 2-5) Vertical centre of buoyancy. In such instances this area should be calculated depth KG D respectively. Coefficient. Buttok Chine (See Figure 2-2) The intersection of a plane parallel to the cen. It passes tion. after perpendicular. continuous over a significant length both below and above the waterplane. Synonymous with A B ) is called the Longitudinal centre of buoy. The chine is known as distinguished from similar intersections in the “soft” when the corner is rounded. called bowlines. the height of the deck at the cen. B of the submerged The length of the chord line which is the volume of a body or ship through which the to. Centre of buoyancy (B) [-] Chord (of a foil section) (c) [L] The geometric centroid. and is generally expressed as a fBT = ratio of the waterline length. two parts of the hull form at the chine. A more or less sharp corner or knuckle in the treplane with the moulded form of the ship. the fore and aft ex- from the fore (FB ) or after perpendicular ( tremities of the section. prismatic the distance from midships or from the fore or See: Prismatic coefficient. prismatic. As shown. (See Figure measured in a transverse plane. nose-tail line. the stem contour re. ABT is from the after perpendicular (A G ). using as datum the aftermost vertical tangent to Centreplane the contour instead of the fore perpendicular. See: Planes. as tom in planing craft. treline above the height at side. of the ship. ignoring the final round. ancy and from the base line or keel ( KB ) the Clearances. the baseline or keel ( KG ) are called Longitu- ing. A BT tre of flotation. or imaginary (in The maximum separation of the mean line and a “soft” chine). otherwise. dinal and Vertical centre of gravity respec- cedes aft the fore perpendicular below the load tively. The clearances as indicated between the sweep sional form these distances are often expressed line of a propeller and the hull or aperture in which is placed. and from measured by continuing the area curve forward to the perpendicular. AX Centre of gravity (G) [-] Area coefficient for ram bow (fBL) [-]: The centre through which all the weights con- A fBL = BL stituting the ship and its contents may be as- LT sumed to act. measured as the distance from midship or through. gle between the tangents to these two parts. Camber Chine angle (See Figure 2-2) Generally applied to decks. The distance measured from mid- When the waterlines are rounded so as to ter. They are generally expressed as ratios of waterline before projecting forward to define the ship length FG L or A G L and of the ship the outline of the ram or fore end of the bulb. 2-10). straight line connecting the extremities of the tal buoyancy may be assumed to act. ships. mean line of a hydrofoil section. is called Longitudinal cen. clearances are generally measured at 0. locus of the intersections of the nose-tail line. Specifi. from the fore perpendicular ( FG ) or minate on the forward perpendicular. plane of any waterline. In some instances.70 of and of the draught KB T respectively. See: Block coefficient. Centre of flotation (F) [-] Coefficient. Chine line (See Figure 2-2) Camber (of a foil section) (f) [L] The actual (in a “hard” chine). or nearly through. co-ordinate. all such intersections in the afterbody. Its position measured as Coefficient. on either side of a chine or the an- vertical plane. hull form. the fore and aft as ratios of length of the ship FB L or A B L . block The geometric centroid of the area of water. Its posi. and “hard” forebody. vertical 2-3 . In non dimen. the propeller radius above and below the shaft centreline. principal.

“level trim” are preferred. its slope measured with respect to the deadrise angle angle at transom horizontal. The trace on the outside of a body marking the Forefoot intersection of a plane passing through it at an The part of the bow of a ship at or near the in- angle other than 90° to the baseplane. ing the aftermost portion of a main hydrofoil. auxiliary hydrofoil. or an appendage added to the ship generally in a longitudinal direction. Coefficient.or deadrise (-) [L] (See Figure See: Skeg. the bottom part of a body section and the inter. in which a ship is float- Drag (-) [L] ing. the bottom. the diagonal Frame section plane is generally parallel to the baseline. rise of . form- (See Figure 2-2). inertia draught at the transverse section having maxi- See: Waterplane inertia coefficient. The intersection of the hull form with a vertical Dihedral. For vessels in which the keel is not Cutaway (See Figure 2-6) straight or normally parallel to the water sur- A volume cut out of a body. plane of symmetry of a craft or body and the Freeboard (f) [-] axis of a hydrofoil attached to it projected on to The vertical distance between the surfaces of a transverse plane. of the underwater body of a ship. tersection of the stem with the keel. the undisturbed water. with a vertical straight line at half-beam from Diagonal the centreplane. to stem to reduce the spray. A designed trim.See: Prismatic coefficient. According to the position were the deadrise an. attached to a the waterline. or to provide a lift force to windward. angle at midship (βM) [rad]: of a transverse section of a hull above the de- deadrise angle at midship section sign waterline. Cutwater Fin A narrow sharp portion of the stem of a ship at A fixed or moveable hydrofoil. to the designed waterplane.or deadrise ally less than 90°. designed load Specifically. Angle (-) [-] transverse plane. mum area is indicated as TX Counter Entrance The overhanging portion of stern of a ship See: Body. rise of . surface. improve the dynamic stability or manoeuvra- Deadrise angle (β) [rad] bility. maximum transverse and mid. vertical. Draught (T) [L] ship section The vertical distance. it is named: The slant upward and outward from the vertical Deadrise . Flap (See Figure 2-8) section between basis plane and section plane A hinged. designed load. at the position of a transverse The complement of the acute angle between the frame of the ship. Deadwood (See Figure 2-7) Floor. from the water surface to See: Sectional area coefficient. (American usage – See: Trim) Coefficient. See also Stern. is called Angle of flare. specifically at the face its use is not recommended: “zero trim” or forward or after end of a ship. Counter or Fantail which the ship has its keel parallel to the water and Figure 2-19 a). Specifi. the draught moulded. Flare (See Figure 2-9) gle is measured. waterplane. defined as the intersection point of the prolongation of the flat height above the baseplane of the lowest point of the bottom at the maximum section area of a deck where it joins the side of ship. Flare is opposite of tumble- Deadrise . cally for a ship of normal form. movable. In certain 2-4 . When different. which lies between the designed waterplane Even Keel and deck and which project abaft the waterline This term is used to define the condition in termination. as Angle between a straight line approximating in the fin keel of a sailing yacht. angle at transom (βT) [rad]: home. generally in the entrance and gener- See also: Floor. at midships See: Waterplane coefficient. 2-10) Depth. and the edge of a reference deck (Free- board deck) or other reference point. the Coefficient. moulded of a ship hull (D) [L] The vertical distance above the baseline of the The moulded depth of a ship. waterplane.

a minimum free. an appendage. parallel to Length overall (LOA) [L] the baseline. diculars is generally assumed. the longitudinal board is specified at midship. (This in- hydrofoil. buttocks and profile. This fin 2-5 . span (b) [L] part of the chine The length of a hydrofoil from tip to tip. moulded shape and dimensions. attached to the underside of a ship cludes a Body Plan which see. ing craft (LC) [L]: the length of the wetted Hydrofoil. it is Length. fitted along the Lines side of a ship at the turn of the bilge to re- A drawing. section. or parallel to. from Length. between two Leeward side of a ship selected points. See also Amid- Hull. or from end support craft (LK) [L]: the length of the wetted part to end support. Length overall submerged (LOS) [L] Hull Length between perpendiculars (LPP) [L] The body of a ship.governmental load line rules. 2 tom which is called the “keel line”. See: Chine. of the keel tion of relative liquid motion. measured normal to the direc. Length coefficient of Froude. to indicate: when under way i. It is used to ex. of the portion or body. chine wetted under way of plan- also called bare hull. verse station. It is opposite to the windward side. (See Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4). in the vicinity of the keel that is in a number of ways as follows: perpendicular to the centerplane. intersections. ii. bowlines. Length (L) [L] (See Figure 2-12) Half-siding (-) [L] (See Figure 2-10) The principal longitudinal dimension of a ship The half breadth. LM = C . the length between perpen- press either its form or its structure. fin stations (transverse section or frames) water- A deep. or length – This may be of the flat type (Flat keel) or displacement ratio (MC) [-] a heavy bar extending beyond the fair The ratio of the ship length to the cube root of form of the bottom (Bar keel – See Figure the volume of displacement: 2-11). or more long narrow fins. The intersection of the plane of symmetry L + LK with the moulded hull surface at the bot. The keel as the central longitudinal girder. The side of a ship opposite to that the wind these two points are generally the waterplane blows. alone or characterised with an the bottom of a planing craft actually wetted appropriate adjective. showing the Keel. When not defined. It may Length.e. of planing craft Keel (LM) [L]: the mean length of the portion of The term is used. Appendages to improve the directional C stability or reduce rolling: Bilge keel. centreplane. Girth (-) [L ] Knuckle The distance around the perimeter of any trans. naked ships for and Perpendiculars for AP and FP. to reduce the leeway Maierform and improve the directional stability. at any section. projected chine (LPR): Length of be parallel to the designed waterline or chine projected in a plane containing the may be raked or sloped in the fore and aft keel and normal to longitudinal centre plane direction. or frame. depicting the form of a ship to the duce rolling (See Figure 2-11). including the above water Length on waterline (LWL) [L] and the underwater portions. relatively thin. keel can be on. keel wetted under way of planing root to tip if cantilevered. For wetted surface calculations. i. mean wetted.) (generally a sailing ship). Length. The condition of a ship or model in which the For a planing hull the following definitions of fair form and the surface are represented with. length are used: (See Figure 2-13) out appendages or additions of any kind. generally fixed plate or lines. generally in the form of one in a consistent system of units. iii. specifically for a ship it can be defined of the bottom.

parallel to the dinal metacentre above the centre of buoy. transverse (IT) positive when M is above G when the ship about the longitudinal axis through the cen- is said to have metacentric stability. of the transverse or longitu. Offset tions. ancy of a ship in the upright position. measured Second moment of the waterplane area vertically in the equilibrium position. of flotation. Second moment of free-water surface (or Metacentric radius. lies outside that designed moment of inertia ) of the waterplane [L4] waterline. longitudinal ( BM L ) [L]. calculated about an axis passing through the ured vertically. See: Perpendiculars tre of buoyancy of an inclined body or ship Midship section coefficient with the upright vertical when the angle of in. that is. Moulded metrically. Midstation plane verse or longitudinal inclinations respectively.A commercial name applied to a certain type of IL = longitudinal second moment of area (or hull form with pronounced V sections at the moment of inertia) of the waterplane [L4] fore end. The summation of the products of the elements ured vertically. transverse (M) and longitudinal verse parameters. meas. of the transverse or longitu. generally in ship in the upright position. to the vertical. It is (or moment of inertia). transverse and longitudinal. centre of area of that surface. it may be at the bow or stern or (which see) anywhere along the side. meas. KM and ( tia) [L4] KM L ) respectively [L]. to transverse inclinations. Perpendiculars (See Figure 2-12) 2-6 . Moment of area. used for defining the size and the shape of a body or ship. tre of flotation. They are given by: One of a series of distances. BM is the radius of curvature of An adjective used to indicate the generally fair the locus of the centre of buoyancy related form and dimensions of the hull as determined by the lines to the inside of the shell plating. about the transverse axis through the centre tween the centre of gravity and the trans. The height.) (ML) [-] Midship The intersection of the vertical through the cen. (See Figure 2-14 for illustration of the trans- Metacentre. Especially for a ship: Second moment of the waterplane area Metacentre height. transverse (GM ) and (or moment of inertia) longitudinal (IL) longitudinal (GM L ) [L]. The distance be. transverse ( BM ) and moment of inertia) generally within a ship. See: Sectional coefficient clination approaches to zero as limit. and BM L the ra- For wooden ship it is taken to the outside of the dius of curvature of the locus of the centre planking. The height. the surface. L       Overhang Any portion of the abovewater hull of a ship where: which when projected downward on to the de- IT = transverse second moment of area (or signed waterplane. verse or longitudinal metacentre. generally the intersection of on inclination to a small angle a restoring the intersection of the waterplane and the moment arises which acts to return the ship centerplane. for trans. Geo. See: Planes. of buoyancy related to longitudinal inclina. second (or moment of iner- height above the baseline. measured from T reference planes (normally from the center- plane). expected heeling or rolling axis. of an area or surface squares and the squares of dinal metacentre above the baseplane of a their distances from a given axis. (which see) Maximum transverse section coefficient ∇ = volume of displacement [L3] See: Sectional area coefficient. principal co-ordinate Metacentre.

stern. as well as the cross section area 2-7 . The verti. ship shape The prismatic coefficient can also be referred Any shape of transverse section considered to the different parts of ship. any transverse volume of the cylinder having the length L and section perpendicular to the designed water- cross section of the maximum section of the plane such as: ship. draught at midships. age projected orthogonally on to a plane paral. section having maximum area is used (TX). cal plane at midstation. principal co-ordinate. The horizontal Raked Keel plane. Some forebody. or centerline of the volume of a vertical cylinder having as hori- rudder stock in ship without a stern post. and rudder. zontal section the waterline and as height the Fore or forward perpendicular (FP). or y-z plane. entrance and run. generally VP / the intersection of the fore side of the stem with the load waterline. which may or may not be fitted of a ship. formerly ). such as afterbody. maximum breadth in other bodies. generally through the lowest point of the Ram bulb or bow midsection. with a projection extending beyond that sur- Planform. parallel to the designed waterline and See: Keel and Trim. as stated by classification rules: specially: Prismatic coefficient. midship section. Profile Through the point in the middle of LPP. maximum section (AX) [L2] prismatic coefficient and is given by: Area. designed for catching and taking water The contour of a ship. slenderness. Scoop Plane. or to the Plane. y. symmetry. The outline of a ship when projected on to the Planes. typical in the development of ship forms. The vertical Ratio. vertical (CVP. of this are: sumed length. For different shapes and the ship to define the hull shape (see Axes. The intersection of a plane with a body or ship Prismatic coefficient (CP. of a body longitudinal plane. or append. see Stem and ordinate in General Section): Stern. types of stem and stern profile. specifically for a ship. midlength section. midstation. z fixed in similarity projected. Run Plane of symmetry See: Body See: Planes. perpendicular to the Ratio. formerly φ) [-] which it passes through in any position or di- The ratio of the volume of displacement to the rection. ameter D of a body of revolution. Section lel to the baseplane. a hydrofoil. the draught of the transverse Midship perpendicular or midship (MP. of a ship (MC) [-] baseplane and the centreplane or plane of See: Length coefficient of Froude. See: Bulb and Stem Centreplane or x-z plane. such as the stem. In any case the as. which coincides with the The ratio of the length L to the maximum di- plane of symmetry. when nal co-ordinate system of axes x. generally the aft The ratio of the volume of displacement to the side of the stern post. Through φV) [-] a fixed point at the stern. When different. This sometimes called the longitudinal Area. projected face. principal co-ordinate centerplane. co. into a ship. ship. fineness. formed by an orthogo. It given by: Through a fixed point at the bow. also the outline of parts of the The co-ordinate planes. transverse An opening in the surface of the underwater Any vertical plane orthogonal to the baseplane body of a ship. formerly Aft or after perpendicular (AP). midsection or midstation section (AM) [L2] P / Section. is to be clearly in- load waterline of a ship through a fixed point dicated. (See also Manoeuvrability Section) Baseplane or x-y plane.Straight lines perpendicular to the designed if different from the above.

to define a midship ordinate is called the Taylor tangent the shape and the position of the various parts. Sheer line U-shaped (See Figure 2-15 d)). CX. generally but not See: Strut or Shaft bracket. CX = X B T X X Skeg where AX is the area of a maximum transverse The thin portion of the hull at the stern of a section. Specifically: (e. designed waterline plotted on a base of length Spray – strip L. tersection of a deck with the plane of symmetry V-shaped (See Figure 2-15 e)). perpendicular or midships). perpendicular to the baseline. for where AM is midship section area. this diagram section. BM and TM protection when grounding or to increase the are the beam and draught at midship respec. Generally the length between perpendiculars is cept ratio or terminal value of Taylor “t”. representing the distribution of underwater A relatively narrow strip. for docking support. A skeg is usually of large lateral The midship section coefficient CM is given by area compared to its transverse thickness. necessarily above the designed waterline. Shoulder merly β) [-] The portion of a ship. relatively of a ship. a local swelling below the waterplane gen. but it can also be Bulb (See Figure 2-15 b)). Sectional area coefficients (CX). ward or aft. therefore. to ratio was originally related to the tangent at the a more or less standard type of section. C M = AM B T M for structural strength. and course keeping ability to the hull or for Sectional area curve (See Figure 2-16) other reasons. tot the area curve or midperpendicular inter. is given by where the waterlines approach or reach their A maximum width. It is placed generally at the aft A diagram of transverse section areas up to the end. at the junction of the The maximum transverse section coefficient. or the in- vertical sides. (For details and varia. forward perpendicular only. Blister (See Figure 2-15 a)). of small cross- volume along the length of a ship. when there is a bulbous bow) both inter- cept should be diminished by that area in 2-8 . The midperpendicular intercept excrescence is added. spectively the midperpendicular intercept ratio tions see special entry Bulb) for entrance and the midperpendicular inter- Peg – top or battered (See Figure 2-15 c)). BX and TX are the beam and draught at vessel immediately forward of or in the vicinity this section respectively. nearly the intersection of deck with the side.g. in which there is referred to the after perpendicular. The intercept of the Station tangent to the sectional area curve at the bow An imaginary transverse plane. for. If divided by intermediate stations into 10 or 20 the sectional area at the end ordinate is not zero equal intervals. lateral area and give increased roll damping tively. the terms tE and tR may be used to indicate re- erally at bow or stern. ordinate as the ratio of area A of any section to Spread (-) [L] the area AX of the maximum section and by The transverse horizontal distance between the plotting the position of that section as a fraction centreplanes or the other designed plane or line of a ship length L along the base from selected of the two hulls of a catamaran or other multi- reference points (generally forward and after hulled craft. for- straight but flaring sides. cept ratio for run respectively. of the rudder. but not necessarily on the centreline. The amount of rise of a sheer line sharp at the bottom and with sensibly above its lowest point is called the Sheer. in which there is a marked slope of the ship Shaft bracket or strut side outward and upward. in which an evaluating t. (CM. near the waterline. passing through on the midship ordinate expressed as a ratio of a ship. rounded at The projection on to the plane of symmetry of the bottom and with sensibly straigth. is provided for the support of a propeller shaft. attached to the hull of a ship for the may be made dimensionless by plotting each purpose of controlling or diverting spray. middle body with the entrance or the run.

sel which is called a stern-wheeler. but lar. (See Figure 2-17 f)) sels having propeller shaft fitted off the centre- Step plane. The shaft or spindle upon which a rudder. verse plane. (See Figure 2-19 c)) Midstation. such as bilge keel. Different names are along the arm and a line lying in the plane of given to various types and shapes of stern pro. which a relatively of the structure of some ships. keel line to the top of the hull. the station at midlength. Sternwheel low the designed waterline slops angle of A paddle-wheel mounted at the stern of a ves- much less than 45° which the baseplane. Clipper. terminate abruptly in a transverse pressed in non dimensional form viz: 2-9 . (See Figure 2-19 a)) The surface area of the underwater body of a Cruiser. in which the stem profile be. a straight profile coincid. Raked. contra type Stem A curved non symmetrical form of stern. arms) (See Figure 2-18) Strut–arm angle (See Figure 2-20) Step angle The angle between the axis of any strut arm Angle projected upon the designed waterline. mum area. craft and the centreline. the for. rigid member forming the after end the designed waterline. erally broad and full. or equivalent control surface is extends beyond the forward perpendicu. but the waterlines are Surface. som may be vertical or slightly raking aft. The rudder or plane is generally. as indicated in Figure 2-19 b). Counter or fantail. in which the buttocks and the tion to the frictional drag. and supporting large overhang. waterlines. It is usually ex- waterline. pendages which give an appreciable contribu- Transom. such as: propeller. The tran- which the transverse section has the maxi. and the baseplane of a ship when projected on between the lower corner of a step or a planing to a transverse plane. above and below the designed propeller bossing. designed to diminish with a bearing for the shaft. A bracket supporting the outboard end of a ing with. Stock (See Figure 2-17 c)). propeller shaft in twin or multiple–screw ves- ward perpendicular. that section parallel to the centreplane or base- file. This generally includes the area of the ap- vex shape. Figure 2-17 e) and not necessarily. as distin- (See Figure 2-17 b)) guished from a side wheeler. or almost coinciding with. the station at flat or convex surface or transom. to lessen the suction effects and to shell by one or two streamlined arms (Strut improve control of the longitudinal attitude.(See Figure 2-17 d). div- Ram. wetted (S) [L2] generally fine. (See Figure 2-18) Strut-arm section angle (See Figure 2-20) Stern The angle between the meanline of a strut arm The extreme after end of a ship from the keel section normal to its axis at any selected point line to the top of the hull. The angle between the axes of the two arms of gated extension with appreciable overhang. Maximum area station. connected to the resistance. in which the deck ex. It usually consists of a barrel fitted bottom of a planing craft. (See Figure 2-17 a)) the rudder. and rudder. in which the underwater stem profile ing plane. This is sometimes referred to as an “A” The abrupt discontinuity in the profile of the bracket. a V-shaped strut. or The extreme forward end of a ship from the skeg ending just a head of a screw propeller. Strut-vee angle (See Figure 2-20) tends abaft the rudder post forming an elon. mounted. inflow against the direction of rotation of a file. Different names designed to impart a rotation to the propeller are given to various types and shapes and pro. turned by the stock. a straight profile inclined forward. Stern. when projected on to a trans- With this type of stern the deck line is gen. Icebreaker. also Bulb) Strut or shaft bracket (See Figure 2-20) Vertical (plumb) . in which the stem profile forms a Sternpost concave curve which projects forward above A strong. in which the stern profile as a con. ship. such as: plane.

The angle of the waterline at the stern in the Transom horizontal plane neglecting local shape of stern See: Stern frame is the Angle of the run. Waterplane signed level keel: Any selected plane through a ship from and a Trim = TF . Waterline IT =transverse second moment of area (or This term is used to indicate: moment of inertia) of the waterplane. S /√ where: S = wetted surface area. An inclination of ship or its parts from the ver. C WP = A W LB WL Tumblehome where: The slant inward from the vertical of a trans.The intersection line of the free water sur.e. and trim by the stern if the draught aft is the Waterplane area (AW) [L2] greater. also IL = longitudinal second moment of area (or called turtle deck. with respect to the centreplane .Wetted surface coefficient (CS) [-] ii. Windward side face with the moulded surface of a ship. It is the opposite of flare. (See Figure 2-21) placement or The angle of the waterline at the bow in the ii. corresponding to the as a fraction of the ship length. If the ship has a designed initial trim The area enclosed by a waterline. moment of inertia) of the waterplane. The side of a ship on which the wind blows. This is generally des- Tilt ignated as the Half angle of entrance (iE) [-] i. level trim if both are the same which the waterplane area is maximum. This is generally Trim (-) [L] designated as Half angle of run (iR) [-] i.Froude’s wetted surface coefficient (SC) [-] horizontal plane neglecting local shape at stern C / ⁄ is the Angle of entrance. ei. generally in a trans. parallel to the baseplane.The intersection line of any selected plane. with the moulded L = ship length. designed load ured with respect to this initial longitudinal in. Waterplane inertia coefficients Turtleback or turtleback deck Longitudinal CIL =12 IL/BL3 A form of weather deck with large camber Transverse CIT = 12 IT/B3L which is rounded over at the sides in order to where: shed the water rapidly in heavy weather. (TF . L = LWL = Length on the waterline verse section of a hull above the designed wa. by waves of its own making. (raked keel or drag) the trim is generally meas. It is referred to as Maximum waterplane.TA parallel to the baseplane. and the draught aft TA for a ship with a de. BWL = maximum breadth of the waterline. and is called the trim ratio. (CWP. 2-10 . surface of a ship. terline.TA)/L designed waterline. 2-21.See Figure tical or upright position. with The difference between the draught forward TF respect to the centreplane – See Figure 2-21.e. i. and ∇ = volume of dis. formerly α) [-] clination. It ther in still water or when it is surrounded is the opposite to the leeward side. i. i. specifically: In non dimensional form the trim is expressed Designed Waterplane. verse or athwartship plane. Waterplane area coefficient. corresponding to trim by the bow or head if the forward draught the waterline of a ship at the draught at is the greater.e.

Figure 2-1: Propeller shaft bossings Figure 2-2: Hull form with chine 2-1 .

Figure 2-3: Beam definitions for a hard chine hull Figure 2-4: Planing bottom area 2-2 .

Figure 2-5: Propeller clearances 2-3 .

Figure 2-6: Cutaway at fore end of ship Figure 2-7: Deadwood at aft end of ship Figure 2-8: Hydrofoil with flap 2-4 .

Figure 2-9: Transverse ship section with flare Figure 2-10: Geometrical characteristics of midship section 2-5 .

Figure 2-11: Bilge and bar keels LOA AP MP FP = = DWL LPP LWL LOS Figure 2-12: Characteristic ship lengths 2-6 .

Spray root line Chine A B Keel O A B O LC LK Figure 2-13: Characteristic lengths for a planing hull under way M GM G BM WL KM WL' KG B B' KB K Figure 2-14: Transverse metacentric parameters 2-7 .

a) blister b) bulb c) peg-top or battered d) U shaped e) V shaped Figure 2-15: Typical shapes of transverse ship sections 2-8 .

Figure 2-16: Characteristics of sectional area curve 2-9 .

a) Clipper b)Icebraaker

c) Raked d) Ram bow

e) Bulbous bow f) Vertical
Figure 2-17: Types of stem profile

2-10

Figure 2-18: Step in planing craft hull

a) Counter or Fantail b) Cruiser

c) Transom
Figure 2-19: Types of stern profile

2-11

Figure 2-20: Characteristics of propeller strut or shaft bracket

Figure 2-21: Waterline characteristics

2-12

the rate transport of momentum due to the
3 RESISTANCE boundary layer. For two dimensional flow:

This section is concerned with fundamental as- θ 1
pects of the resistance of a ship, or body, to
motion through calm water without considera- Energy thickness (θ∗, δ∗∗): A parameter
tion on the effects of the method of propulsion. such that quantity is the defect in the
rate of transport of kinetic energy due to the
Angle of diverging waves boundary layer. This is given by:
See: Wave, angle of diverging
Blockage ²
1
The effects of the boundaries of channel or ²
tunnel on the flow around a body
Blockage correction Doublet
A correction made to the results of a hydrody- A source-sink pair where the axial spacing
namic experiments made in a channel or tunnel tends to zero as the product of axial spacing
of one cross-section in order to estimate the and the source strength remains constant. The
equivalent results for another cross-section. value of that product is the “moment” of the
Specifically a correction made to the results of doublet, and the direction from the sink to the
a resistance experiment in a towing tank in source is the “axis” of the doublet. Conse-
other to estimate the equivalent results in unre- quently, a doublet of moment M (dimension
stricted water. L4T-1) and of axis x located in a point A gener-
Boundary layer ates at any point P a velocity potential:
The region of fluid close to a solid body where,
due to viscosity, transverse gradient of velocity cos
4 4
are large as compared with longitudinal varia-
tions, and shear stress is significant. The Where r = AP and θ = angle between AP and
boundary layer may be laminar, turbulent, or axis x(1). If M< 0, the axis of the doublet would
transitional. See also Flow, regime. be in the negative x-direction. In two dimen-
sional problems, the definition holds. But the
Boundary layer thickness (δ, δ∗ or δ1 , θ, θ∗
potential generated by a doublet of moment M
or δ∗∗) [L]
(dimension L3T-1) and of axis x is:
Boundary layer thickness (δ995) : The dis-
tance normal to the surface of a body at cos
which the speed attains that in an equivalent 2 2
inviscid flow. For practical purposes this is where r = AP and θ = angle between AP and
sometimes taken as 99.5% of the inviscid axis x.
flow speed or 99.5% of the total head .
Displacement thickness (δ∗, δ1: the dis- (1)
See: Potential function or Velocity potential.
tance normal to the surface of a body by Drag (D) [LMT-2]
which streamlines outside the boundary The fluid force acting on a moving body in
layer are displaced. For two-dimensional such a way as to oppose its motion; the com-
flow: ponent of the fluid forces parallel to the axis of
motion of a body. Drag is the preferred term in
1
aerodynamics and for submerged hydrody-
where Uδ = the velocity at the edge of the namic bodies, while resistance is generally
boundary layer and U = velocity in the used in ship hydrodynamics. The various forms
boundary layer. of drag are defined in relation to resistance. See
also Resistance.
Momentum thickness (θ):A parameter
Drag coefficient (CD) [-]
such that the quantity is the defect in

3-1

in question would support. potential. tween neighbouring layers of fluid are due to Fluid. See Equipotential line. random fluctuations both in the magnitude and Potential function or Velocity potential (φ) in the direction of velocity. The detachment of the main fluid flow from a Head (h) [L] solid surface due to an adverse longitudinal The height of a given fluid which the pressure pressure gradient sometimes caused by a sud. i. strength. viscous The flow of a viscous liquid in which layers of The flow of a fluid where the flow characteris- laminae of fluid appear to slide smoothly past tics include the effects of the shear forces act- each other. An unstable state of viscous flow between the Number. Flow. turbulent Potential flow A flow in which there are rapid and apparently See Flow. such as layer geometry and by pressure conditions ex. curl U = 0. laminar. the cube root of volume of displacement.e.The non-dimensional ratio of the drag per unit spectrum of vortices of varying size and of a representative area of a body to the dy. wave systems which are geometrically similar. and may be nearly static or Laminar sublayer may contain a region of reversed flow. potential inviscid and incompressible. uniform A line in a potential flow field along which the Flow in which all velocity vectors are parallel velocity potential φ is constant. The fluid in the separated flow See Flow. that in laminar flow at the same Reynolds Dynamic pressure number. because of the high momentum ex- See Pressure. dynamic change by transverse fluctuations. In region. the principal recognised regimes are particular it defines the speed at which geomet- laminar. U = grad φ. transitional See Froude number. Flow. the isting in the main flow. secondary ship. and within it. The velocity fluc. Flow. transitional. Momentum transfer and shear be. steady Line. ing on the fluid. See Reynolds number. A hypothetical fluid which is homogeneous. Reynolds laminar and turbulent regimes. See Sublayer. A flow field in which the fluid velocity U is Frictional resistance equal to the gradient of a scalar velocity poten. laminar Flow. perfect or ideal molecular interactions only. and equal. Number. Equipotential line Flow. regime ditions of dynamical similarity for flow sys- A term referring to the state of the flow in any tems influenced by gravity and inertia alone. den change of the direction or the curvature of Irrotational flow the surface. submergence depth or the depth of water in re- Flow. Froude Flow. Flow. The length term L is usually the length of the Flow. A dimensionless parameter expressing the con- Flow. reversed It is given by: Flow occurring in an eddy or separated zone in V Fr = which the local flow has a component opposite gL in direction to that of the main flow. See also Potential function. contains eddies. ent of time. potential. Flow. separated stricted waterways. Turbulent resistance is higher than namic pressure far ahead of the body. in which no vorticity is Froude number (Fr) [-] present. Other forms of the Froude number use A transverse flow induced by the boundary some other characteristic dimension. See: Resistance tial φ. equipotential Flow in which the velocity pattern is independ. [L2 T-1] tuations may also be described by a random 3-2 . turbulent and separated rically similar models and ship will develop flows.

The non dimensional ratio of any specific com. See Resistance. and hence the momentum of Resistance (R) [LMT-2] the fluid. The length term L is usually the length of the Resistance. po. tal resistance of a hull. axis of motion of a body. CS. to the dy. static (p) [L-1MT-2] cannot be directly measured except for a fully The static pressure. coefficients of all geometrically similar smooth Resistance. Reynolds number (Re) [-] ponent of resistance per unit area. . or model where it is assumed that the sub sur- sures. frictional specific (CF) [-] surfaces are identical as long as the uninflu- An alternative name for the coefficient of fric. For The component of resistance obtained by inte. the expenditure of energy in generating spray. taken to be the wetted area under consideration. the velocity at A quantity obtained by subtracting from the to- any point may be derived from a single func. due to viscosity and turbulence. equal values of Reynolds number and the same grating the tangential stresses over the surface orientation to the flow. the diameter 3-3 . break down of the ship bow wave. A resistance component deduced from meas- Pressure. Pressure. CT. total urements of wave elevations remote from ship This is the sum of the static and dynamic pres. wave pattern (RWP) [LMT-2] local fluid and thus static with respect to it. stagnation [L-1MT-2] The component of resistance obtained by inte- The total pressure measured at a stagnation grating the components of the normal stresses point. deduced does not include wavebreaking resis- ponent of the fluid forces acting parallel to the tance. This quantity Pressure. the expenditure of energy in generating gravity CW. residuary (RR) [LMT-2] surface. spray (RS) [LMT-2] component in that direction. CV. A dimensionless parameter expressing the con- namic pressure far ahead of the body. The component of resistance associated with Resistance coefficient (CF. enced speed field are similar and the flow is in- tional resistance. Resistance is the pre- ferred term in ship hydrodynamics. the com. in which the reference area is fluenced by viscosity and inertia alone. frictional (RF) [LMT-2] influenced by viscosity and inertia alone.In irrotational motion of a fluid. viscous pressure (RPV) [LMT-2] Pressure. distance in any direction is equal to the velocity Resistance. at a point in a stream submerged body when it is equal to the pres- flow is that which would be recorded by a sure resistance RP. Resistance. the specific resistance of a body. wavebreaking (RWB) [LMT-2] merged bodies. etc. dition of dynamical similarity for flow systems Resistance. but the distance from the leading edge of the surface to a specific point. viscous (RV) [LMT-2] The pressure change corresponding to the re. See also Flow. face velocity field. zero.)[-] waves. in the direction of motion. The component of resistance associated with duction of the momentum of a fluid element to the expenditure of energy in viscous effects. dynamic (q) [L-1MT-2] Resistance. a calculated friction re- tion φ such that its derivative with respect to sistance obtained by any specific formulation. pressure gauge advancing with the speed of the Resistance. ponents of resistance are defined below. Resistance. pressure (RP) [LMT-2] The component of resistance obtained by inte- grating the normal stresses over the surface of a body in the direction of motion. The resistance so such a way as to oppose its motion. p. The component of resistance associated with tential. CR. wavemaking (RW) [LMT-2] also Drag. It is given by: Resistance. while drag is generally used in aerodynamics and for sub. Total resistance is denoted by A resistance component associated with the RT and various (not mutually exclusive) com. can be related to the wave pattern by The fluid force acting on a moving body in means of linearised theory .

angle of diverging the plane. form as the potential due to a source. or doublets. coefficient of dynamic (μ) [L-1MT- 1 its dimensions are L3T-1. Source. the shear stress is the tangen. A line in a fluid such that its tangent at any drawn symmetrically from all directions. generated by a constant source in uniform recti- Separation linear motion below the free surface of a per- See Flow. The speed at which the resistance reaches a tial resisting force per unit area acting on any maximum before a planing craft enters the boundary within the fluid. A The quantity expressing the resistance of a source at a point A generates at any point P a fluid to internal shear. separated fect fluid. The strength Q Velocity potential of a source is defined in a three dimensional See Potential function. The acute angle. The velocity MT-1] potential due to such a source of strength Q is: The ratio of the coefficient of dynamic viscos- ity to the mass density of the fluid: ln 2 where r = AP and ln = natural logarithm. See also General Section under “Liquid Prop- Q is the volume of fluid issuing per unit time erties and Physical Constants” and per unit length in the direction normal to Wave. The dimension of Q is L2 T-1. The point is parallel to the instantaneous velocity of velocity potential due to a sink has the same the fluid at that point. Kelvin 3-4 . or a hydrofoil craft enters the the shear stress at a wall is denoted by τw. plane. a d ⁄d source at a point A is in fact a uniform distribu- tion of sources on a straight line passing Viscosity. but the Sublayer. symmetrically in all directions. between axis of motion of a body and sented as due to distributions of source and the normal to the crest or trough line. In a two dimensional flow parallel to a plane. (Some authors use ] ⁄4 volume flow as source strength). Sink Stream-line A point at which fluid is assumed to be with. foilborne phase. the ratio of tangential velocity potential: stress to rate of shear deformation in flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid. coefficient of kinematic (ν) [L- 1 through A normal to the plane. hump (in high speed craft) [LT-1] In a viscous fluid. on some set of points. Shear stress (τ) [L-1MT-2] Speed. within a tur- Source bulent boundary layer and adjacent to a solid A point from which fluid is assumed to flow surface. laminar strength Q is negative.of a body. See also Source. Viscosity. sinks. A very thin layer of laminar flow. For unidirec- ⁄ 4 tional shear flow: where r = AP. measured in the horizontal rotational flow of perfect fluid may be repre. An ir. or the thickness of the boundary A Kelvin source is defined by the potential layer are sometimes used as length terms. The specific value of planing phase. flow as the volume of fluid issuing in unit time.

T velocity of the fluid. A simpler definition. also in use is: formance and various factor related thereto to. D is the propeller diameter Angle of attack for thin airfoil or hydrofoil for in feet. active 4-1). Advance angle (of propeller blade section) Angle of attack (α) [-] See: Angle. speed of where VA is the speed of advance. which the streamlines are tangent to the mean Advance ratio (λ) [-] line at the leading edge. and the tangential ve- locity of the fluid Vθ. the axial I tan . effective lift vector and the inflow velocity vector. tan A⁄ gether with propeller geometry. / . r is the radius of the blade section. be- See: Angle. onymous with angle of incidence. in which case it including the induced velocities. The inflow angle to a propeller blade section Angle. and D is the propeller diameter. The advance coefficient may also be de. Advance. items see Angle. Except where stated. advance. Syn- J = V A nD . For other tan . n is the rate See: Speed of advance. where n is the rate of propeller rotation in revo. VA and the rotational tip “smooth”. the entries refer generally to screw pro. given by: Angle. where D is the propeller diame.7 ler diameter and n its rate of rotation. 4-1. See ⁄ A 101. VA to the rate of rotation. n. Advance coefficient. Angle of attack. VX. Analysis pitch Angle. The induced velocities are not included in the Active rudder determination of the advance angle (See Figure See: Rudder. effective advance (β∗) [-] A propeller inflow angle defined by the equa- ⁄ ⁄ tion: where J is the advance coefficient.27⁄ Figure 4-1. advance (of a propeller blade section) including the axial and tangential induced ve- (β) [-] locities given by the equation: The inflow angle to a propeller blade section . where R is the propeller radius and VA the ad- pellers. speed. effective advance tween the velocity vector representing the rela- Advance coefficient (J) [-] tive motion between a body and a fluid and a A parameter relating the speed of advance of characteristic line or plane of the body such as propeller. Angle of incidence 4-1 . according to the equation: UA and UT are induced axial and tangential ve- locities respectively (which see). analysis. and VA is the speed of advance in knots. ω the angu- 4 PROPELLER lar rate rotation and θ the angular position of the blade section. hydrodynamic flow (βI) [-] See: Pitch. Angle of attack. ideal (αI) [-] lution per minute. of rotation. See also Figure 4-1. V. This section is concerned with propeller per. given by the chord line of an airfoil or hydrofoil. The angle of attack relative to the chord line fined in term of ship speed. D is propel. A determined by the rotative speed. This condition is usu- A non dimensional speed parameter relating ally referred to as a “shock free” entry or the speed of advance. geometric (αG) [-] A parameter defined as: The angle of attack relative to the chord line of a section neglecting the induced velocities. tan A ⁄0. See Figure is given by: J V = V nD . πnD. ω r. vance speed. effective (αE) [-] ter. advance The angle measured in the plane containing the Advance angle. Taylor’s (δ) Angle of attack.

end points of the chord lines laid out in the Boss above manner. plane normal to the shaft axis. the blade during normal ahead operation. Area. t0. the chord length along a straight speed. circular cylinder whose axis coincides with the at each radius r. divided by The area of the circle swept out by the tips of the diameter. The terms expanded area ratio or de- which the lift is zero. expanded (AE) [L ] fined. along each radius r. axial. See: Hub. This 4-2 . if so indicated. the chord length along an arc shaft axis. projected (AP) [L2] Camber (f) [L] The area enclosed by the outline of the propel. when cut by a outline of a blade is constructed by laying off. f/c the extremities of each section as determined in Cap. is equal to the Blade section reference point radius of curvature of the pitch helix given by See: Reference point. The length of the chord line. centrifugal Axial induced velocity Chord (c) [L] See: Induced velocity. The Bollard pull [MTL-2] outline of a blade is constructed by laying off at The pull force exerted by a ship at zero ship each radius r. A term used to denote the ratio of either the Angle of zero lift ( α 0 ) [-] developed or expanded area of the blades to the The angle of attack relative to the chord line for disc area. Chord length. The outline is Camber ratio (δF) [-] constructed by laying off. The maximum separation of the mean line and ler blades outside the hub projected on to a the nose-tail line. The camber divided by the chord length. is known as the blade thickness the blades of a propeller of diameter D: fraction or blade thickness ratio. Sometimes used Back (of blade) synonymously with chord line. tend to the axis of rotation. then this the end points of the chord lines laid out in the variation of thickness may be imagined to ex- above manner. If the thick- AO = π D 2 ness does not vary linearly with radius. The locus of the See: Cone. An approximation to the surface area of the Blade section propeller equal to the area enclosed by an out.Synonymous with Angle of attack. An approximation to the surface area of the propeller equal to the area enclosed by an out- line of a blade times the number of blades. be face of an airfoil or wing. whose radius of curvature. Most commonly taken to mean the shape of a line of a blade times the number blades. then the 4 blade thickness fraction is not uniquely de- 2 Area. blade section Blade thickness fraction [-] r1 = r cos2 j where ϕ is the pitch angle at that If the maximum thickness of the propeller radius. The outline is formed by the locus of blade varies linearly with radius. It is the sum of the propeller thrust and line. The hypothetical Area. This If a craft significantly changes attitude at side of the blade corresponds to the upper sur- speed. shaft [-] side of the blade because the average pressure The angle or angles made by a shaft axis with there is lower then the pressure on the face of the centre-plane and/or the baseplane of a ship. r1. veloped area ratio are recommended in order to Area. The outline is formed by the locus of the the interaction force on the hull. See: Spindle torque. measured between the shaft axis and the direc. developed (AD) [L2] avoid ambiguity. The propeller blade at any radius. disc (AO) [L2] thickness at the axis of rotation. The side of a propeller blade which faces gen. propeller a view along the shaft axis. propeller end points of the chord lines laid out in the Centrifugal spindle torque above manner is the required outline. mean ( cM ) [L] erally in the direction of ahead motion. the shaft angle may. Blade area ratio [-] tion of motion. side of the blade is also known as the suction Angle.

The ratio between the useful or effective power Effective advance angle PE and the brake power PB. The ratio between the power output and the Efficiency. propulsive (ηP) [-] See: Propeller Types. hull relative rotative shafting and Efficiency. η0 and ηR are the open water propeller and Chord line relative rotative efficiencies respectively. hull and relative rotative efficiencies re- blades to the disc area. ηH and ηR are the open water propel- The ratio of the developed area of the propeller ler. It passes thrust of the propeller PT and the power ab- through. T A Cone. quasi-propulsive or quasi- fairwater or a propeller cap. open water (η0) [−] the mean line. behind hull (ηB) [-] when the tips are exposed.The quotient obtained by dividing the ex. The relative rotative efficiency is the ratio of S the propeller efficiencies behind the hull and in M I open water. peller tip circle to the at-rest water surface Efficiency. propeller. developed by Expanded area the thrust of the propeller and the power PD ab. effective. T A B R Face (of blade) D 2 4-3 . effective. relative rotative (ηR) [-] power input of any machinery installation. propeller. Q panded or developed area of a propeller blade shaft torque and n rate of propeller rotation. Effective angle of attack E P H R S G See: Angle of attack. The ratio between the power PT. sorbed by the propeller PD when operating in tremities of the section. See: Propeller Types. Developed area E D H R See: Area. where T is the thrust. B Effective pitch where ηO. or B B R M I where PS and PB are the shaft and brake powers Emergence. developed. ηH ηR ηS and ηG are the open water See: Pitch. propeller. Synonymous with open water with uniform inflow velocity VA: nose-tail line. spectively (which see). Ducted propeller Efficiency. effective advance. propeller The conical-shaped cover placed over the after D 2 end of the propeller shaft for the purpose of T is the thrust. propulsive coefficient (ηD) [-] Contrarotating propeller The ratio between the useful or effective power See: Propeller Types. See: Area. Also known as a propeller Efficiency. The length of this line is called The ratio between the power developed by the the chord length or simply the chord. The straight line connecting the extremities of Efficiency. QO the torque in open water and protecting the nut and forming a hydrodynamic n the rate of propeller rotation. or nearly through. PE and the power delivered to the propeller or Cycloidal propeller the propulsion device PD. by the span from the hub to the tip. the fore and aft ex. as already defined. sorbed by the propeller when operating behind Expanded area ratio (aE)[-] a model or ship: The ratio of the expanded area of the blades to the disc area. mechanical (ηM) [-] gearing efficiencies respectively (which see). expanded. See: Angle. VA speed of advance. D Developed area ratio (aD)[-] where η0. tip [L] respectively and PI is the indicted power The vertical distance from the top of the pro- (which see). fairing for the hub.

and skew angle of the root section will thus be Induced velocity. The rake spectively. blade is higher than the average pressure on the Hub diameter (dh) [L] back of the blade during normal operation. dh /D. pass the upper vertical position. ϕ is the pitch Hydrofoil section angle of the chord line at the radius r (geomet. Positive upstream. the direction of the shaft axis is called the rake. Because of ambiguities which can arise A propeller which is not located on the centre- in so extending the generator line and blade line of the ship is said to have inboard rotation reference line when non linear distribution of if the blade moves toward the centreline as they rake and skew angle are used.The side of the propeller blade which face The central portion of a screw propeller to downstream during ahead motion. hydrodynamic. hydrodynamic flow. Hydrodynamic pitch Fully cavitating propeller See: Pitch. geometric ler/hull interactions. peller hub and the blades at the blade root. geometric The change in the velocity component in the Hub radial direction due to the presence of the pro- peller but not including any change in the wake 4-4 . Ideal angle of attack Generator line See: Angle of attack. axial (UA) [LT-1] defined to be zero and the propeller plane will The change in the velocity component in the pass through the reference point of the root sec. shaft axis at the same point when extended Inboard rotation thereto. The distance measured vertically from the shaft axis to the from the propeller plane to the generator line in free surface. which the driving shaft is fitted. radial (UR) [LT-1] See: Pitch. Hub ratio (xB) [-] Face pitch The ratio of the diameter of the hub to the See: Pitch. ric pitch) and Z is the number of blades. Gap (GZ) [L ] See: Angle. This distance is given by Hydrofoil the formula: A structure externally similar to an airplane ⁄ wing designed to produce lift and which oper- 2  sin ates in water. Hydrodynamic pitch angle Synonymous with hydrodynamic flow angle. it is recom. The line formed by the intersection of the pitch Immersion (h0) [-] helices and the plane containing the shaft axis The depth of submergence of the propeller and the propeller reference line. direction parallel to the propeller axis due to tion. ideal. face maximum diameter of the propeller. foil or wing. The The diameter of the hub where it intersect the face corresponds to the lower surface of an air. Also known as cause the average pressure on the face of the the boss. originate at the reference point of the root sec. Immersion ratio [-] The generator line. The opposite mended that these lines be defined each to direction of rotation is called outboard rotation. generator line. where r is the radius in question. hydrodynamic. Fillet Hydrodynamic flow angle The transition region (fairing) between the pro. This side of which the blades are attached and through the blade is also known as the pressure side be. The distance between the chord lines of two Hydrodynamic spindle toque adjacent propeller blade sections measured See: Spindle torque. Geometric pitch Induced velocity. See: Angle. the blade reference line. the presence of the propeller but not including Geometric angle of attack any change in the wake field due to propel- See: Angle of attack. Also called inward and outward rotation re- tion (see Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4). See: Propeller types. The cross-section shape of a hydrofoil. hydrodynamic flow. normal to the chord. and The depth of submergence of the propeller axis the propeller reference line each intersect the divided by propeller diameter.

Advance per revolution at zero thrust as deter- Mean chord length mined experimentally. between the mean line and the chord line. The term camber line is often used blade section. mean Nozzle i. The pitch of a constant pitch propeller Ogival section which would produce the same thrust as a A type of an airfoil or hydrofoil section having propeller with radially varying pitch when a straight face. The thickness is generally is not constant. Both the radius and the thrust measured in the direction normal to the chord distribution (if known) have been used as rather to the mean line. hydrody- Nose-tail line namic flow. Used only for flat faced sections synonymously with mean line. pitch. nominal. tangential (UT) [LT-1] line of the ship is said to have outboard rotation The change in the velocity component in the if the blades move away from the centreline as tangential direction due to the presence of the they pass the upper vertical position. Pitch. Pitch. chord of the root section. hydrodynamic Median line The pitch of the streamlines passing the propel- Synonymous with generator line. perpendicular to the motion of the body relative Pitch analysis to the fluid. is called the The pitch of a line parallel to the face of the camber. Pitch angle (ϕ) [-] Mean line See: Pitch. Also called geometric pitch (which see). Positive Outboard rotation outward. face). Pitch. (See: Pitch. Synonymous with chord line.field due to propeller/hull interactions. Pitch. maximum thickness at the mid chord. tion. placed in the same flow. Generally synonymous with the effective The duct portion of a ducted propeller. A propeller which is not located on the centre- Induced velocity. Equal leading and trailing edges of the section are to the inverse of one half the aspect ratio for a equal. nominal tively sharp leading and trailing edges. See: Angle. line of the section and a plane normal to the Lift (L) [MTL-2] propeller axis. Syn. Kort nozzle Pitch (P) [L] See: Propeller types (ducted). Also called outward and inward rotation Positive clockwise looking forward. This angle is called the pitch an- The fluid force acting on a body in a direction gle. See: Chord length. Pitch. 4-5 . It is Mean expanded or developed chord of one equal to the face pitch if the setback of the blade divided by the propeller diameter. Pitch. onymous with duct or shroud. Inward rotation Outward rotation See: Inboard rotation. geometric Mean width ratio [-] The pitch of the nose-tail line (chord line). See: Pitch. See: Outboard rotation. ii. ler including the velocities induced by the pro- Nominal pitch peller at a radial line passing through the mid- See Pitch. and rela. a circular arc or parabolic back. respectively. where offsets are defined from a face reference Mean pitch line. effective tween the upper and lower surface of an airfoil Weighted value of geometric pitch when pitch or hydrofoil section. the angle between the intersection of the chord wise direction when viewed from astern. face measured normal to the chord line. wing. The oppo- propeller but not including any change in the site direction of rotation is called inboard rota- wake field due to propeller/hull interactions. The mean line is the locus of the midpoint be. The maximum distance weighting factors. mean. mean. The pitch of a propeller blade section at the ra- Left handed propeller dius r is given by: 2  tan where ϕ is A propeller which rotates in the counterclock. Synonymous with face pitch.

Taylor’s (BU) Propeller Types The thrust horsepower delivered by the propel.A propeller the speed of advance in knots. PD. loading conditions. nent creates torque which must be overcome by pressed in coefficient form: the engine to sustain rotation. ⁄ 8⁄ Controllable pitch propeller . i. Variations on this basic type are listed below. The power absorbed by the propeller. PD. Propeller plane D⁄ The plane normal to the shaft axis and passing where ρ is the mass density of the fluid. Generally. and the shaft axis when the generator line is ameter of the propeller. This of the blade while the propeller is operating. subcavitating. wing. One component of the lift force pro- Power coefficient. Contrarotating propeller . where n is the revolution per minute and VA is Adjustable-pitch propeller . which basically pitch at all radii is said to be a constant pitch consists of a central hub and a number of fixed propeller. thereto extended. can be used with the diameter to form a pitch Projected area ratio (aP)[-] ratio. in order to avoid the ambiguities which can arise when where n is revolution per minute and VA is the non linear distributions of rake and skew are speed of advance in knots. ric pitch at the 70 percent radius is used to Projected area compute the pitch ratio. any device which will produce same at all radii is said to have variable pitch or thrust to propel vehicle. VA is the speed of radial axis so as to change the effective pitch advance. expressed in coefficient form: scribed as fixed pitch. The basic screw propeller may be de- ler. It is rec- The horsepower absorbed by the propeller. projected. and D is the propeller diameter. whose blades can be adjusted to different Power loading coefficient (CP) [-] pitch settings when the propeller is stopped. Lift Plane rotation is generated by the blades when the propeller is See: Propeller plane. If the pitch can be ad- KQ and J are the torque and advance coefficient justed to the extent that reverse thrust can be respectively (which see). A propeller which has the same form is the screw propeller. The ratio of the projected area to the disc area. open 5 1 B U = n (PT ) 2 (V A ) 2 (unducted). blades extending out radially from the hub.Pitch ratio (p)[-] eration. rotated. and fully submerged. achieved without reversing the direction of Pressure side rotation of the shaft then the propeller is The side of the propeller blade having the sometimes called a controllable reversible greater mean pressure during normal ahead op. and D is the di. PD. Pitch. ommended that the plane be defined instead to expressed in coefficient form: contain the propeller reference line. Synonymous with the face of the The ratio of the pitch to the diameter of the blade. The most common varied pitch. Taylor’s (BP) tion (See Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3). used. the face pitch or geomet. Any measure of pitch See: Area. pitch propeller. 4-6 . delivered (KP) [-] duces the desired thrust and the other compo- The delivered power at the propeller.A propeller A ⁄4 having blades which can be rotated about a where ρ is the fluid density. PT. ex. contain 1 B P = n (PD ) 2 (V A ) 5 2 the reference point of the root section. Analogous to the lower surface of a propeller. Also called the plane of rota- Power coefficient.Two propeller pressed in coefficient form: rotating in opposite directions on coaxial D shafts. coefficient may be defined in terms of the ship This allows full power to be absorbed for all speed V and is then denoted by the symbol CPS. n is the through the intersection of the generator line rate of the propeller rotation. Power coefficient. ex.e. variable Propeller A propeller blade for which the pith is not the Most generally.

iG. (See Figure 4-2) Steerable ducted propeller . skew induced (iS) [L] operated with only a portion of the full disc The amount of axial displacement (rake) of a area immersed. Reference line. The blade sections of such propel. It is used where excellent manoeu. short duct attached to the tips of the blades Rake total (iT) [L] and rotating with the propeller. Rake (iG. Pumpjet The duct.Cycloidal propeller . 4-7 .Two propellers fitted rudder-like blades projecting from it. lower speed than would otherwise be impos- tation.A propeller de. fully cavitating ventilated type designed to Rake. leading edges for Rake angle more efficient supercavitating operation and The rake angle is defined as: thick trailing edges for strength. Race. Rk (ISO)) [L] erated. ured in the direction of the shaft axis. used as measures of the rake.A propeller with a very line. but with provision to loidal path. to the generator line in the direction of the shaft signed to operate efficiently at very low axis. Also known as partially submerged or local pitch angle. cavitating propeller. or nozzle is shaped so as to con. and ϕ is the tance. whereas in the other Radial induced velocity form (pump jet) the flow is decelerated. blade peller in which the duct can be pivoted The locus of the reference points of the blade about a vertical axis so as to obtain a steer. θS is the local skew angle. Also known tan G / as supercavitating propeller. turbulent column of water peller.A propeller of the axis. Supercavitating propeller .A propeller with a short cycloidal propeller. vrability is required. face of the vessel with a number of vertical. erator line is forward of the blade reference Ring propeller . duct mounted concentrically with the shaft. It is the distance. A See: Induced velocity. The displacement. flow is accelerated. Vertical axis propeller . The blade motion can be varied introduce air into the cavities in order to so as to produce a net thrust in any desired achieve fully developed. Also called a The sum of the rake and skew-induced rake banded propeller. fully cavitating type. one behind the other. of the blades rotates about its own vertical Ventilated propeller .See: Fully ing of a flat disc set flush with the under sur. The accelerated. between pendage drag associated with the shafts and the generator line and the blade reference line struts of a fully submerged propeller would and is given by: S . ing effect. radial pump jet is sometimes also defined as a Radius (r)[L] ducted propeller with stator vanes regardless Radius of any point on propeller of whether the flow is accelerated or decel. from the propeller plane Fully cavitating propeller . Aft displacement is considered positive cavitation numbers where a fully developed rake (See Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3). The axis of each blade traces a cyc. meas- such as surface effect ship where the ap. sible. lers have relatively sharp. Interface propeller .A propeller consist. In one form (the Kort nozzle) the forming the outflow from a screw propeller. radius. Tandem propeller . The to the same shaft. and disc revolves about a central axis and each rotating as one. It is positive when the gen- surface propellers. blade section which results when skew-back is ered for high speed applications to vehicles used (See Figure 4-2). See: Propeller Types (ducted) trol the expansion or contraction of the slip.Synonymous with Ducted propeller . sections (See Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4). The rake cavity extends at least to the trailing edge of at the blade tip or the rake angle are generally the blade.A propeller of the where r is the radius (See Figure 4-3).A ducted pro. These propellers are consid. stable cavities at direction in a plane normal to the axis of ro. where r is the local result in a considerable increase in resis. propeller stream in the immediate vicinity of the pro.

pitch. Rudder. The translational speed of the propeller in rela- Set back (-) [L] tion to the body of water into which it is ad- The displacement of the leading edge or trail. Skew angle (θS) [-] which passes through the reference point of the The angular displacement about the shaft axis root section (See Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4). The skew angle at the blade tip is often point of the chord line. 4-8 . It Spindle axis is called wash-down if negative. Also called wash-up. The torque acting about the spindle axis of a Shroud controllable-pitch propeller blade resulting The duct portion of a ducted propeller concen. This torque is positive if it tends to ro- edge of the blades at a resonant frequency of tate the blade toward a higher positive pitch. for controllable pitch propeller. Positive skew-back is opposite to rection when viewed from astern.Sometimes used synonymously with generator Skew (-) [L] line. The point of maximum used as a measure of the skew-back of a pro- thickness and the location of the spindle axis peller. hydrodynamic (QSH) [ML2T- 2 Singing ] Intense discrete frequency sound radiated from The torque acting about the spindle axis of a the propeller due to resonant vibrations of the controllable-pitch propeller blade resulting blades. active Span (b) [L] A propulsion device installed in the rudder for The distance from tip to tip of a hydrofoil. The straight line. skew induced. vancing. See also: Performance Section. the blade vibration. It Reference point. In some cases the duct may be rotated tends to rotate the blade toward a higher posi- about a vertical axis to provide steering forces. the pitch helix measured from the generator Right handed propeller line to the reference point of the section (See A propeller which rotates in the clockwise di. Shock free entry Spindle torque (QS) [ML2T-2] See: Angle of attack. distance from root to tip is the semi-span. blade section is positive when opposite to the direction of The point on the pitch helix to which the blade ahead rotation. from the hydrodynamic and centrifugal forces tric with the axis of rotation of the propeller exerted on the blade. Synonymous: duct. It of the reference point of any blade section rela- lies in the plane containing the shaft axis and tive to the generator line measured in the plane the generator line. Figure 4-2). of rotation (See Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-2). as well as other Skew-back (-) [L] points. Spindle torque. Screw propeller Speed of advance (VA) [LT-1] See: Propeller. normal to the shaft axis. This torque is positive if blades. It usually the mid. ing edge of a propeller blade section from the face pitch datum line when the section shape is referenced to that line. The ship manoeuvring at low or zero speed. tive pitch. the direction of ahead motion of the blade sec- Root tion. Synonymous with skew-back but sometimes Reference line. Also called skew. warp. Generally thought to be due to the from the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the shedding of Karman vortices from the trailing blade. The set back The axis about which a controllable-pitch pro- ratio is the set back divided by the chord peller blade is rotated to achieve a change in length. have also been used as blade section The displacement of any blade section along reference points. See: Rake. ideal. nozzle. propeller used (incorrectly) to denote the skew angle. The part of the propeller blade adjacent to the Skew-induced rake propeller hub. Rudder Slipstream See Ship Geometry section. See: Race. This angle is the same as the section offsets are referred.

is 21/3 = 1. Also used to /2 2 denote the blade reference line. BP) [-] See: Power coefficient. expressed Thickness.26.0. Both the thrust and torque coefficient diameter. centrifugal (KSC) Taylor’s power coefficient (BU. When the area ratio is Suction side unity. ρ is the fluid density. KT and KQ are blade. from zero (VA = 0) to infinity (n = 0). PD delivered power. Taylor’s A 0. Supercavitating propeller Thrust index (CT*) [-] See: Propeller Types. VA is the in coefficient form: speed of advance. Usually Thrust coefficient. the limit The low pressure side of a propeller blade. n is the rate of propeller rota.Spindle torque coefficient. Taylor’s advance coefficient See: Advance coefficient. and D is the propeller down. the changes in thrust and torque are pressed in coefficient form: such that propeller efficiency is reduced. of that section.7 /4 4-9 . SC SC / P Thickness ratio (δ) [-] where ρP is the mass density of the propeller The ratio of the maximum thickness. This form of the spindle torque coefficient is useful when pre. produced by propeller expressed where ρ is the density of the fluid. D propeller Synonymous with the back of the propeller diameter. Thrust (T) [MLT-2] Spindle torque coefficient. Thrust coefficient (KT) [-] SH / A 0. and D is the propeller over a range of advance coefficient extending diameter. ex. QSC. section to the chord length. maximum (t) [L] in coefficient form: The maximum thickness of a propeller blade section.7 /4 The thrust. hydrodynamic () [-] ues near the initial inception of cavitation. T. where ρ is the mass density of the fluid. and D is the diameter. T. Analogous to the upper surface of a the thrust and torque coefficients respectively wing. produced by the propeller ex- Tangential induced velocity pressed in coefficient form: See: Induced velocity. n is the senting propeller spindle torque characteristics rate of propeller rotation. n is the rate of propeller rota. / tion. and D is the propeller diameter. ex. while for ducted propellers the Steerable ducted propeller upper limit depends upon the area ratio of the See: Propeller Types. (which see). general. Static thrust coefficient The ideal upper limit for unducted screw pro- See: Thrust coefficient. Thrust breakdown pressed in coefficient form: The phenomenon of loss of thrust due to exces- sive cavitation on a subcavitating type propel- SH SH / ler. t. c. Taylor’s. tion. tangential. In The hydrodynamic spindle torque. generally measured to the chord line. QSH. static () [-] presented as a function of A figure of merit for comparing the relative performance of propulsion devices at zero tan A/ 0.7  speed given by the equation: Stacking line Synonymous with generator line. static pellers is 1. i. may increase slightly above noncavitating val- Spindle torque index. The torque absorbed by the propeller is af- where ρ is the mass density of the fluid. The centrifugal spindle torque. no diffusion or contraction. of a foil blade material. n is the fected similarly and is called torque break- rate of propeller rotation.e. down stream diffuser. hydrodynamic The force developed by a screw propeller in the (KSH) [-] direction of the shaft. The thrust. The hydrodynamic spindle torque. QSH.

See: Thrust breakdown.where ρ is the density of fluid. bearings. ( the symbol CTS is used when this coeffi. absorbed by the propeller ex. n is the rate of rotation and D is the of advance. Ventilated propeller ter. the speed of advance. A propulsion device for zero or low speed ma. Synonymous with cycloidal propeller. VA is radial).7 /4 4-10 . Windmilling The rotation of a propeller caused by flow past where ρ is the density of the fluid. Wash-up Torque breakdown See: Set-back. tangential. A 0.7 . Propeller Types. tum. This action may take place Torque index (CQ*) [-] while the ship is moving under its own momen- The torque. See: Set-back. Torque (Q) [ML2T-2] Wash-down The torque delivered to the propeller aft of all See: Set-back. tan A/ 0.7 . VA is the speed of advance. or while it is be- pressed in coefficient form: ing propelled by other means of propulsion. delivered to the propeller ex. See: Propeller Types. Usually 0). into hull of the ship by means of ducting and pressed in coefficient form: energy is imparted to the water with a pump. Q. and where ρ is the mass density of the fluid. D is the propeller diame. This form of the torque coefficient is efficient is useful when presenting propeller useful when presenting propeller torque charac- thrust characteristics over a range of advance teristics over a range of advance coefficients coefficients from zero (VA = 0) to infinity (n = from zero (VA = 0) to infinity (n = 0). n is the rate of rotation and D is the propeller diameter. produced by the propeller ex. while it is being towed. Water jet Torque coefficient (KQ) [-] A form of propulsion in which water is taken The torque. VA is the speed where ρ is the density of fluid. induced   See: Induced velocity (axial. total. See: Where KT and J are the thrust and advance co. and D is the propeller di. Wash-back noeuvring of vessels. n is the rate of propeller rotation. efficient respectively (which see). the propeller shaft. See: Rake. the propeller without power being applied to ameter. cient is based on ship speed instead of speed of Vertical-axis propeller advance). The water is then ejected astern through a noz- zle. diameter. pressed in coefficient form: Variable pitch 8 See: Pitch. T. variable.   Velocity. Usually presented as a function of presented as a function of tan A/ 0. Q. Warp () [-] Thruster Synonymous with skew angle. This form of the thrust co. Thrust loading coefficient (CTh) [-] Total rake The thrust.

θ) (ωr-Vθ (r.θ)) Figure 4-1: Typical velocity diagram for a propeller blade section at radius r Reference point of blade X Pitch angle root section and of section propeller reference line at radius r Blade root section φ Propeller plane Y Plane of rotation Z Rake ( iG ) Intersection of generator line and cylinder at radius r Total rake ( iT ) Blade section at radius r Skew induced Plane containing shaft axis k ac rake ( iS ) and propeller reference line -b ew Sk r θs θ s = skew angle Intersection of blade reference line (locus of blade section reference points) and cylinder at radius r Figure 4-2: view of unrolled cylindrical sections at blade root and at any radius r of a right-handed propeller (looking down) showing recommended position of propeller plane.θ) φ (r) β(r.θ) αG(r. 4-1 . U A (r) UT (r) α E (r) Chord line extended VX (r.θ) βI(r.

Generator line Propeller reference line Propeller plane Blade reference line θ iG Reference point of root section Propeller hub r Forward Hub Down radius Shaft axis Figure 4-3: Diagram showing recommended reference lines (looking to port) Propeller reference line and generator line Blade reference line (locus of blade section reference points) Projected blade outline Trailing edge θs r Leading edge Propeller hub Reference point of root section Shaft axis Starboard Down Figure 4-4: Diagram showing recommended reference lines (looking forward) 4-2 .

Bubble surface stability stant ambient temperature. or more precisely. defined as the process of formation of the va- Attached cavities pour phase of a liquid when it is subjected to Term applied to cavitation region with fairly reduced pressure at constant ambient tempera- well defined line of attachment to the body ture. unless containing and grow explosively. cavitated regions. being subject to Taylor instability (light and hydrofoils. Expanding gineering context of liquid flow around bodies bubbles are stable. The total by the ambient pressure at which cavitation life of a transient cavitation bubble is measured starts. ambient pressure p and cavity pressure pC to Bubble rebound the free stream dynamic pressure q: 5-1 . by the Critical cavita- in times of the order of milliseconds. the zone Cavitating flow of the curve of weight loss versus time in A two-phase flow composed of a liquid and its which a rapid increase in weight loss occurs vapour is called a cavitating flow when the (the region between the incubation zone and phase transition is a result of a hydrodynamic the deceleration zone which see). when it is subjected to reduced pressure at con. Regrowth. Bubble collapse Cavitation inception The final phase in the life history of a transient Inception of cavitation takes place when nuclei cavitation bubble that enters an increasing subjected to reduced pressure reach critical size pressure field collapses and. due to energy storage in the compressed In this section the term cavitation is defined as gas. Bubble growth The initial phase in the life history of a cavita- tion bubble in which a nucleus become unsta- ble under a pressure reduction and grows ex- plosively (vaporous cavitation) or which grows Cavitation number (σ) [-] under quasi-equilibrium conditions by diffu. In the sequence of cavitation erosion. screw-propellers stable. Cavitation damage Base-vented flow or bodies Deformation and/or erosion of materials in Flow in which the body has a fully ventilated. of a transient 5 CAVITATION cavity that contains considerable permanent gas. It is used in the en. disappears. It is generally described considerable foreign gas. called the Accumulation zone. Cavitation Air content ratio In the most engineering contexts. The stability of the bubble surface. grow as a consequence of pressure reduction. a liquid is said to cavitate about which it is formed. associated primarily with the blunt trailing edge while the body itself is fully high pressures developed during cavity col- wetted. components of air in the liquid. after initial collapse. In general. cavitation is See: Gas content ratio. when vapour bubbles are observed to from and veloped cavity or Partial cavity (which see). in particular. The ratio of the difference between absolute sion of gas (gaseous cavitation). Cavitating wakes Air content Cavitation that occurs in the low pressure cores The term used loosely to describe gas content of the turbulent eddies which make up the (which see) when gas content is composed of wake of a moving body. fluid accelerated toward a heavier fluid) or dis- tortions produced by body forces in a pressure Acceleration zone gradient. It may be a Fully de. Several growth and rebound cycles have the process of formation of the vapour of liquid sometimes been observed. Back cavitation (See also: Vaporous cavitation and Gaseous Cavitation occurring on the suction side (back) cavitation). tion number (which see). lapse. Formerly pressure change. of a propeller blade. Collapsing bubbles are un- generally and.

which cannot be recovered at called Inception pressure. cavitation will not occur. gion following the acceleration zone. Chemo-luminescence Desinent cavitation 5-2 . vapour). Sometimes also called Incep- Actual pressure within a steady (or quasi. (See also: Gaseous cavity closure and hence is exhibited as drag on and Vaporous cavitation. minimum value of the drag coeffi- When σI > σ. (In The pressure produced in the field of a collaps- practical system. turbulent flow. extending from its leading locity at which cavitation inception takes place edge (point of attachment) to the point of clo. tation number. the drag of a body is directly proportional to tion number (which see as Cavitation number. tures. Formerly called the Attenuation zone. thus σI cient is found for a cavitating body. The inception cavitation number σI is the value Choking cavitation number of the cavitation number σ at which the incep- This is defined as that value of σ at which a tion of cavitation occurs in a flowing system. see). critical This is defined as the flow condition in which Often used as an alternate to Inception cavita. It is equal to the energy in the re- entrant jet which is dissipated. the definition of σ is usually ing cavitation bubble estimated to be of the or- based on the vapour pressure. the critical velocity is also de- pendent on the velocity fluctuations associated Cavity pressure (pC) [L-1MT-2] with turbulence. the zone gases diffused and entrained into the cavity. Cavitation number. Critical velocity (UI) [LT-1] Cavity length (lC) [L] In a flowing system (or its equivalent: a body The streamwise dimension of a fully developed moving through a liquid). In a sure. the free stream ve- cavitating region. The pressure coefficient at any point on the body is inde- Cavitation number. associated with turbulence. ambient pressure p and vapour pressure pV to Critical pressure (pAI) [L-1MT-2] the free stream dynamic pressure q: The absolute pressure at which cavitation in- V ception takes place.) the body. In turbulent flow. the critical pres- See also: Cavitation number. steady) cavity. Choked flow Cavitation number. critical). rebound begins. Sometimes also developed cavity. the square of the upstream velocity and is not a inception). of the curve of weight loss versus time in Cavity thickness (δC) [L] which the rate of weight loss decrease (the re- Maximum dimension of a fully developed cav. C Visible light produced in the gas vapour of cavities in an ultrasonic field (see: Sono- When the cavity pressure is assumed to be the luminescence) caused by chemical reactions as- vapour pressure pV the term is generally called sociated with high pressure and/or tempera- Vapour cavitation number (which see as Cavi. vapour (σV) [-] Critical cavitation number The ratio of the difference between absolute See: Cavitation number critical. function of the cavitation number. which ity normal to the length dimension.) Sometimes also der of thousands of atmospheres at the mini- called Critical cavitation number (which see as mum radius reached before the process stops or Cavitation number. inception(σI) [-] pendent of the cavitation number. terminal. tion velocity. Approximately equal to the sum Deceleration zone of the partial pressure of vapour and other In the sequence of cavitation erosion. in either a flowing system V or an imposed pressure field (as in ultrasonic cavitation). sure will be a function of the average hydrody- Cavity drag (DC) [LMT-2] namic pressure and the pressure fluctuations The energy expended in forming a fully. is the characteristic of the flow geometry while Collapse pressure (pAC) [L-1MT-2] σ is characteristic of the liquid gas system. in a field of constant ambient pressure.

but it is now generally agreed that cavita. percavitating flows. Total gas content is Incipient cavitation equal to both the dissolved and undissolved Cavitation which just begins with a slight gas. The term origi. Nuclei and Nucleation). of a propeller blade. the cavity walls are stream surfaces of the flow with the unique feature that the pressure is con. Inception velocity tained in nuclei in an undissolved state (see: See: Critical velocity. Such bubble growth is defined as merly called burbling cavitation). Gas injection. Also. the sufficiently far downstream so that the flow at difference between the angle of attack of a lift- the downstream region does not influence the ing surface for initiation or fully developed body itself. aided by the process of Rectified diffusion Free streamline flow (which see). tion inception is associated with the gas con. The ratio of the content (dissolved and undis- Electrolytic effects solved) in a test liquid to the gas content of the Enhancement of cavitation erosion by electro. Hysteresis. change in ambient conditions: pressure de- ternate terms for undissolved gas content. saturated liquid at standard temperature and chemical interactions due to local differences pressure: S ⁄ S in the liquid or metal structure. Inception of cavitation Gas content (α) See: Cavitation inception. the cavity is fully de. dissolved gas will vary according to Henry’s Inception pressure law. Depending upon the magnitude of the pressure tack is excessively negative.Cavitation under conditions of pressure and ve. than vapour. but crease and/or velocity increase. Such cavitation may occur Free gas content at pressure greater or less than vapour pressure See: Gas content. For steady flows. The quantity of See: Cavitation number. Hub cavitation stant on the free streamlines. has been formed. Fully developed cavity flow. Incubation zone Gas content of the saturated liquid (αS) 5-3 . nates in the mathematical problem that the Hub vortex cavitation boundaries are “free” to be determined by the Cavitation in the vortex produced by the blades known condition of constant pressure. The gas content of the saturated liquid at stan- locity such that cavitation will be suppressed dard temperature and pressure. protection by Entrained gas content Small amounts of gas injected into the cavitat- See: Gas content. The gas content of a liquid may be in either a Inception cavitation number dissolved or undissolved state. See: Hub vortex cavitation. the latter term is preferred. cavitation during angle of attack increase and veloped when the re-entrant jet formed at the the much lower angle of attack at which a fully downstream end of the cavity is dissipated developed cavity can still be maintained once it without impinging on the body. It is generally a result of Gaseous cavitation operation such that the local blade angle of at. ing region to reduce the pressure through a Face cavitation “cushioning” effect during compression by the Cavitation occurring on the pressure side (face) collapsing cavitation bubbles. a bubble Foam cavitation may grow slowly by diffusion gas into the nu- A cavitated region formed entirely of a mass of cleus (which see) and contain mostly gas rather transient cavities so as to resemble foam (for. For example. of a propeller at the hub. See also: Su. reduction and the rate of application. See: Critical pressure. “Free” and “entrained” gas content are al. inception. gaseous cavitation. by a slight change in the ambient conditions: Gas content ratio (aS) [-] pressure increase and /or velocity reduction. cavitation Fully developed cavity Difference between critical cavitation numbers A cavity formed on a body which terminates for incipient and desinent cavitation.

Internal jets Protective coating Jets sometimes formed by the unsymmetrical Metallic and non-metallic materials applied to collapse of transient cavities. re-entrant flow associated with the closure of Onset cavitation non stationary cavities formed about missiles See: cavitation inception entering a water surface. sometimes used to refer to the process of Rectified diffusion stabilisation of nuclei to account for their per. Orange peel surface appearance Root cavitation Description of a surface moderately damaged Cavitation in the low-pressure region of the by the cavitation in which the appearance is blade roots on a marine propeller. Also. Effect associated with the “screening” of nuclei Partial cavities by the pressure gradient about the body to 5-4 . Rate of weight loss stationary cavities. be welded. They may called microjets. which the material undergoes changes (e. Pseudo cavitation Jet cavitation Growth and collapse of gas filled bubbles Cavitation formed in the low pressure eddies whose size is at all times in static equilibrium associated with the turbulent fluctuations in the with the surrounding pressure field. which are required for inception of The re-entrant (upstream) flow at the trailing cavitation at the pressure near vapour pressure. the (See also: Nucleation). Nucleation The weight loss per unit time from a test The process of formation of nuclei in liquid. The cavity sur. for self Non-stationary cavities sustained oscillations. ing a water surface are characteristic of non.e. specimen undergoing erosion. Propeller-hull vortex cavitation Intermittent cavitation Propeller tip vortex cavitation that extends in- A type of cavitation that respectively originates termittently to the surface of hull. Term applied to the net mass transport into a sistence in undersaturated and saturated liquids. but not necessarily a pressure changes) must be equal to the natural stream surface. but in which in which pits are formed either by crater-like the material suffers little or no weight loss. Pulsating cavity Laminar cavitation A “pulsating” cavity is a ventilated cavity See: Sheet cavitation. bubble of gas dissolved in a saturated liquid Nucleus. Description of a surface damaged by cavitation peated bubble collapse pressures. that of the surface of the Jaffa or California or. Screening effect ange.g. corresponding face is a boundary surface. pressure field. frequency of the gas liquid system. deformation (especially as in lead) without loss Intensity damage of material or by actual loss of material follow- The power absorbed per unit eroded area of a ing work hardening or fatigue. the cavity wall (and. sprayed or bonded to the surface.In the sequence of cavitation erosion. Cavities trailing a body enter. Also. nuclei when the liquid is subjected to an oscillating Small bubbles. often sub-microscopic in size. Also sometimes reduce surface damage by cavitation. high shear region of jet flows. the frequency of the vol- Free-streamline (cavitating) flows in which the ume changes due to travelling surface waves on cavity size is a function of time. and disappears from a discrete point on a solid surface. the gas-liquid (cavity-jet) system. specimen. i. hence. which exhibits self excited oscillations of the Microjets cavity surface as a resonance phenomenon of See: Internal jets. Pitted surface appearance work hardening in ductile metals) due to re. The primary criterion for cavitation erosion. containing permanent gas and/or the vapour of Re-entrant jets the liquid. edge of steady (quasi-steady) cavities. the initial Quasi-steady cavities that extend only partially zone of the curve of weight loss versus time in along the bodies about which they are formed.

This phenomenon is be. Unsteady cavities crescences or isolated roughness near the lead. Steady quasi-steady cavities Total gas content Cavitating flow may be composed of individual See: Gas content. propeller blade. vapour. Such sembling steady cavities at any instant) – ex- cavitation may also be associated with pressure tending downstream from the point of attach- variations in unstable laminar boundary layers. sudden reduction in Stream nuclei length). Tip cavitation teristic of brittle materials and other materials Surface cavitation which occurs near the tip after long exposure. eign particles or the crevices of the boundary Streak cavitation under study.which the nuclei are being convected. the bubble. zone of the curve of weight loss versus time. sometimes oscillate (if containing a high vol- Steady zone ume of permanent gas component) and eventu- In the sequence of cavitation erosion. Undissolved gas trapped in the cavities of for- (Also called steady-state zone). denote a ventilated flow in which the cavity ex- lieved to be associated with high temperatures tends beyond the trailing edge of the body resulting from compression of the gases within about which the cavity is formed. transient cavities or of large cavities attached to Trailing vortex cavitation the body on which cavitation has been induced Persisting cavitation in the low-pressure core of (particularly if the detachment point is sharply trailing vortices downstream of hydrofoils or defined. The envelope of the bubbles in the for. (Also. oped cavities extend beyond the trailing edge Sheet cavitation of the body about which the cavity is formed.e. (See also: Tip vortex cavitation and edge). Cavity flows in which attached. ity surface is stationary on a temporal average. 5-5 . thus de. Cavitation bubbles that grow from nuclei. presumably by cyclic filling by the re- Undissolved gas nuclei existing in a stabilised entrant flow and subsequent re-evaporation. Visible light produced in the gas or vapour of Superventilation. mer case and the cavities in the latter case are Transient cavities quasi-steady in the sense that envelope or cav. condition (either on dust particles or otherwise) Vapour cavitation number which are convected by the stream into regions See: Cavitation number. as for hydrofoil with sharp leading propellers. Narrow quasi-steady cavities formed about ex. in Trapped gas which the rate of weight loss is nearly constant. Spot cavitation Tip vortex cavitation A general term for narrow quasi-steady cavities Cavitation occurring in the low-pressure core attached to a surface. formerly oped cavities). A term applied to describe relatively thin. Hub vortex cavitation). of the tip vortex of a hydrofoil or propeller. Attached cavities which alternately grow (re- ing edge of a hydrofoil or other body. fully devel- tion inception to take place. of low pressure where they form cavitation termining which nuclei will be repelled from sources. called laminar cavitation) Supercavitation Term sometimes used as synonymous with Su- Sono-luminescence percavitating flow (which see). sponge. ment and collapse (i. and which nuclei will be swept into regions Supercavitating flows where the pressure are such as to enable cavita. Superventilated flow cavities generated in the alternating pressure of Terms analogous to Supercavitating flow to an ultrasonic field. This description is particularly charac. the final ally collapse and disappear. (See also: Attached cavities and Fully devel- steady or quasi-steady cavities. Thoma number (Th)[-] Spongy surface appearance The ratio of the difference between total head Description of a surface badly damaged by and the vapour pressure (upstream of the im- cavitation in which erosion has taken place to a peller of rotating machinery) to the total head considerable depth and has the appearance of a produced or absorbed by the machine.

gas). vapour phase. from an external source. The most widely used Ventilation inception is defined as the condi. Vortex cavitation Ventilation See: Hub vortex cavitation. This process. Tip vortex cavita- Process by which a ventilated flow is formed tion and Trailing vortex cavitation. Forced ventilation is applied to a ventilated Weight loss (WL) flow in which the permanent gas is continu. pressure be.Vaporous cavitation into the low-pressure region in a non-cavitating A nucleus (which see) that grows explosively flow. Volume loss (VL) [L3] low vapour pressure are required. the diffusion time being too Ventilation index short for any significant increase in gas vol. tion at which air (or permanent gas) is drawn 5-6 . is proportional to the cavity cross sectional di- a true cavitation and is called vaporous cavita. ventilated strut. which depends upon evapo. mension or to some typical body dimension. The ratio of the volumetric air feed rate to the ume. as at the free (after reaching critical size) contains mostly surface of a liquid. and maintained. measure of cavitation damage. An alternative criterion to weight loss for as- Ventilated flow sessing cavitation damage. as from the free surface in the wall material. [LMT-2] ously supplied into the cavity by auxiliary Weight of material actually eroded from a means such as a pump. For such cavitation to occur. product of free stream velocity and an area ration of the liquid into the growing bubble. specimen during a specified time while under- Ventilation inception going erosion damage. case of a surface piercing. often derived from A ventilated flow is one in which a “cavity” is weight loss by using the density of the speci- formed entirely with air (or other permanent men material. tion. Natural ventilation is applied Wall nuclei to a ventilated flow which derives a continuous The undissolved gas nuclei which may exist in flow of gas by means of the pressure created by equilibrium in the crevices of the boundary the flow itself.

quency or ratio of natural period of a motion to Bilge keel period of encounter. such as wind. Thus. A non-dimensional coefficient expressing Covariance added mass (which see) in ith mode due to jth Average of squares of the deviations from the motion. waves. mean value. an apparent wave height is a par. the behaviour and performance of a See: Wave speed. See: Wave direction. pitch Ratio of damping force or moment amplitude See: Pitch angle. or space. It is positive in See: Yaw angle. Amplitude Cross-correlation Extreme value of a sinusoidal quantity with re. ship in a seaway including. See: Heel or list. Factor. The nor. as a function of frequency. The tuning factor in heave. mode of motion. See: Drift or sideslip. yaw ship and its longitudinal axis. time. leeway tion. roll Drift See: Roll angle. analogous Added mass [M] to a correlation coefficient. for instance. Damping Angle of heel or list A characteristic property of a dynamic system. or space. Coupling eration. pitch and roll have the symbol 6-1 . The total hydrodynamic force. angle of pulsion devices of a ship. The relative vertical distance of a part (usually guished from a property of the components the bow) of an oscillating ship above the water waves. Broaching 6 SEAKEEPING An involuntary and dangerous change of head- ing produced by a severe following sea. opposite to submergence. or space. Auto correlation Factor. exerted on a ship or other body in Influence of one mode of motion on another phase with and proportional to the acceleration. with one shifted in relation to Angle of drift or sideslip the other by a “lag” τ. See: Drift or sideslip. magnification The correlation between a random function of The ratio of the output amplitude at a certain time. of time. angle of direction of motion of the centre of gravity of a Angle. Damping coefficient Angle. in particular. A measured of the linear dependency of two random functions of time. the positive sense of rotation about the vertical Apparent body’s axis. surface. per unit accel. ticular peak-to-trough distance. or component of motion. coupling be- Added mass coefficient (Aij) [-] tween heave and pitch. Referring to wave characteristics. in Celerity general. tuning (Λ) [-] malised auto correlation function is the auto Ratio of excitation frequency to natural fre- covariance divided by the variance. Angle of wave direction current and like. In this section the term seakeeping covers. angle of. and the same function shifted in frequency to the static response. ship Coherency motions and the sea states which cause them. angle of Drift or sideslip. Angle. See: Ship geometry section under Keel. a visible Emergence () [L] property of an irregular wave record as distin. or pace. That motion. which dissipates energy and reduces the mo- Angle. See also: Sideslip. angle of. by a specified “lag” τ. caused Angle of trim by some action other than that of the main pro- See: Trim. The correlation between two random functions spect to the mean value. angle of (β) [-] Angle of wave encounter The horizontal angle between the instantaneous See: Wave encounter. angle of.

as distinct from spray. The square root of the ratio of mass moment of Freeboard (f) [L] inertia (referred to body axes) to the mass of a See: Ship Geometry Section. pitch or roll of a ship (fZ. body. If horizontal plane. kXX. fθ. See also Figure and 7-6. if assumed to be linear. Tθ and Tϕ are Force. See General Section for body axes under Frequency (f) [T-1] Axes. ωθ or ωϕ) [T-1] respectively Frequency. the forward longitudinal axis of a ship in a the circular frequency is the angular velocity. which is an oscillatory motion. of heave. The average rate of advance of the energy of a tering a train of waves. The vertical oscillatory motion of a specified Frequency of wave (fW) [T-1] point in a vessel. Force. with minimum possible ter: speed through the water. in referring to a function or motion. The number per unit time of successive crests Although the heaving of a ship is a motion of a train of waves at a fixed angle of encoun- which is confined to operation in waves. angle of (φ) [-] [T-1] The angle. where TZ . and   . pitch E E E or roll (ωZ. or in any periodic motion The instantaneous direction of the projection of which may be represented by a cyclic motion. Heaving where T is the period and f is the frequency. a ship when encoun. of heave. Z              Frequency. kZ. as for instance. it is ter. co-ordinate. natural circular. In deep wa. . 2 between a static inclined position of a ship and E 2 E its normal upright position. pitching or rolling motion of a ship. tremely heavy weather. natural. E        E       E Frequency. defined by degrees of the ω is in radiant per second. μ. Frequency of wave encounter. the reciprocal of the wave period TW. Sinusoidal. A force tending to return a body to its initial kYY. the natural periods (which see). (See Porpoising) of a train of waves meeting a fixed point of a Heave to ship. especially in ex- rocal of the period of encounter TE. The number of cycles occurring per unit of Harmonic time. then compass or degrees azimuth. circular (ωE) Heel or list. at a fixed angle of encounter. possible with a high-speed planing craft for Frequency of wave encounter (fE) [T-1] such motion to occur in calm water under some The number per unit time of successive crests conditions. damping A force which tends to reduce the motion and. kY. To maintain control of a ship. kZZ) [L] condition when displaced by an external force. or fϕ) [T-1] or The frequency of the periodic heaving. Water shipped on the deck of a ship in heavy Force exciting seas. E 6-2 . natural circular. where fW is wave frequency and V ship speed. is proportional to the Green water velocity.       . 2 Heel or list E W cos A steady inclination of a ship about a longitu- dinal axis. to be distinguished from rolling. Frequency. of heave. μ. A fluctuating external force that causes motion Group velocity of body. measured about a longitudinal axis. usually the centre of gravity. circular (ω) [T-1] Heading (ψ) [ ] In any cyclic motion. restoring Gyradius (radius of gyration) (kX. finite train of gravity waves. pitch or Flare roll has the following definitions respectively: See: Ship Geometry Section. the recip.

ship motions. masses and the squares of their distances from Oscillator the respective body axes through the centre of A mechanism used to impose a controlled. Heaving. Tϕ) [Τ] Moments of inertia or roll. is proportional to dynamic motions which may be made by a ship the angular velocity. used to describe any oscillatory body. Moment. the lateral distance the ship acting on a cross section of a hull which is has been forced off the desired path. That part of the inertial lateral bending moment More specifically. Divided into dynamic Moment. IY . wave. Also the gyradius or radius of gyration (which see). angle of. oscillatory motion on a body. or any part this displacement. Moment. tionary in the water or travelling through it. hydrodynamic loading. coefficient which is caused by the action of waves and See: Added mass coefficient. wave bending. pitching quantity or phenomenon. caused by the action of waves and ship mo- Leeway angle tions. vertical (MB2 or MN . tion of a body or ship when encountering a Natural period of motions: heave. List formerly MBV) [L2MT-2] See: Heel That part of the internal vertical bending mo- Long crested seas ment acting on a cross section of a hull which A wave system in which all components ad.IXX. ii. gravity – equal to the mass times the square of known. with the surface of a liquid. damping Motions. pitch. thereof. ] Mass. stabilising forces are absent. tions. roll train of waves. pitch and yaw The time for one complete cycle of the motion moment of inertia (IX . then released. The study of the A moment tending to return a body to its initial interaction between the inertial. The time for one complete cycle of a periodic Moment. IZ . added That part of the internal torsional or twisting See: Added mass moment acting on a cross section of a hull Mass. exciting These motions may occur while the ship is sta- A fluctuating external moment that causes mo. Tθ. restoring or righting Analogous to aeroelasticity. Moment. 6-3 . Rolling.IYY. rolling hydroelasticity. (See also: Natural Exciting moment in pitch. where these three forces are co.Hydroelasticity Moment. See: Drift. Exciting moment in roll. Pitching and Yawing (angular) a position of equilibrium and tending to in. wave bending. See General Section for body axes under Axes. horizontal or lateral Leeway (MB3 or ML.IZZ) resulting when a body or ship is displaced in [L2M] calm water from its equilibrium position by an The summation of products of elementary external force. hydrodynamic condition after being displaced by an external and elastic forces in a structure subjected to moment. destabilising separately: A moment associated with a displacement from i. ship A moment which tends to reduce the motion The all inclusive term to describe the various and. Period (T) [T] co-ordinate. is caused by the action of waves and ship mo- vance in the same direction. tory) Moment. or static hydroelasticity where inertial Moment. Moment associated with a displacement from a Impact position of equilibrium and tending to decrease The sudden contact of body or ship. if assumed to be linear. including the following which are defined Moment. existent. added. Surging and Swaying (transla- crease this displacement. formerly MBH) [L2MT-2] The down wind or down sea motion of a ship. (TZ. Lurch Moment. period of motions). torsional (MT or MT) [L2MT- 2 A more or less isolated large roll amplitude.

(Positive Response amplitude operator bow up). while heavy. axis. is mal upright position. pled system where the excitation frequency is Phase response operator equal to the natural frequency. as a function tion of a hull about a transverse axis. mean increase in (RAW) The time between successive crests of a train of [LMT-2] waves passing a fixed point in a ship. or predominant wave com- 6-4 . in The cyclic oscillation of a high-speed craft waves (nAW) [Revs. advance at oblique angles. impact waves. Power in waves.A condition in which a ship and Pressure. Usually as. The dynamical condition of a simple. tance at the same speed. Phase angle (ει) [-] Resonance The angle between two vector representing si. (Positive starboard not in the nature of a shock. T-1] primarily in calm water in which heaving mo. nents. The square of the ratio of response amplitude Pitching to excitation amplitude of a forced harmonic The angular component of the oscillatory mo. The mean absolute increase in rate of revolu- tion is combined with pitching motion. mean increase in (PAW) Rolling [L2MT-3] The angular component of the oscillatory mo- The mean increase in power in wind and waves tion of a hull about a longitudinal axis. mean increase in rate of. The angle measured about the longitudinal ter surface and the side or bottom of a hull. Note: In a coupled system. (which see) and its position of rest. advance at right angles.Wave encounter period (TE) [T] Resistance in waves. sea and beam sea. between the instantaneous position Pounding can perhaps be differentiated from of a ship when rolling (which see) and its nor- slamming in that the impact. it is possible with a high. Porpoising Revolutions. motion applied to a linear system. or the predominant wave compo- (which see). at a fixed The mean increase in resistance in wind and angle of encounter μ. measured about the transverse body range of frequencies. Although of frequency. subjected to impact with the water. the reciprocal of the fre. responds to the frequency of maximum Pitch angle (θ) [-] response to unit exciting force over a The angle. (See: Por.A condition in which ship and the waves. Pounding Roll angle (φ) [-] Described broadly as impacting between a wa. slamming or pounding the waves. Following sea . necessary to maintain thrust. between the instantaneous position of the Response longitudinal axis of a ship when pitching The reaction of the system to an excitation. the dynamic condi- ear system performing forced motion. This con- Radius of gyration dition covers the direction between a head See: Gyradius. as compared with the water at the same mean Sea direction speed. Response function eration in waves. uncou- nusoidal quantities of the same frequency. or nearly so. Beam sea . as compared with motion is sustained by energy drawn from the those in smooth water. waves as compared with the still water resis- quency of encounter fE (which see). pitching of a ship is a motion confined to op. Phase angle between output and input of a lin. A complex function of which the modulus is speed planing craft for such motions to occur in equal to the response amplitude operator and calm water under some conditions.A condition in which a ship and sociated with slapping. Bow sea . or the predominant wave compo- A local pressure experienced by a hull when nents. (See: Slamming) down). as a tion where the excitation frequency cor- function of frequency. speed in wind and waves. the argument is equal to the phase response op- poising) erator. The tion (usually per minute). body axis.

whose integral over any interval represents the Force. Sideslip. tionship between in-phase frequency com- Slamming ponents. etc. The difference between actual pressure at a advance in opposite. one dimensional (S(ω)) between a beam sea and a following sea.A complex function of See: Wave height. That part of the inertial vertical shearing force Spectrum acting on a cross section of a hull that is caused Amplitude . that property of ship which produces easy motions in a seaway. horizontal or lateral The subscript n denotes a particular component (FL) [MLT-2] amplitude. or co-spectrum. angle of. ponents. or the predominant components.A function of frequency whose by the action of waves and ship motions. or the predominant wave components. As an adjective. (See also: Pounding and of a cross-spectrum. haviour and performance of ship in a seaway. (See also: Pounding). angle of Co-spectrum .The real part of a cross- See: Drift or sideslip. the imaginary part. the Fourier trans- The steady state lowering of a ship’s position form of the cross-covariance function.A condition in which a the surface. Significant wave height Cross-spectrum . or nearly the cation for impacts less severe than those asso- same direction. Seakindliness The quality of behaving comfortably in a sea. ciated with pounding.μ)) acting on a cross section of a hull that is caused A function of frequency and wave direction by the action of waves and ship motions. waves at a constant setting of the main propul- 6-5 . This condition covers the directions Spectral density. caused directly by wind and pact between the water and the hull. Force. component waves in that interval. which is an oscillatory motion. a term signifying a ship’s abil. ship and the waves. frequency having the same energy as all the nents advance in various directions.The imaginary part shock-like blow. as compared with that in A phenomenon described broadly as light im. advance at oblique an- gles. d A ity to maintain normal functions at sea. the Fourier transform of In general. frequency expressing the mutual properties Sinkage of two random functions. advance in the same. spectrum (which see). sure corresponding to the actual distance below Quartering sea . point under a wave profile and the static pres- rections. a term covering the study of the be. to be distinguished real part. Head sea . the auto-covariance function. indicates the rela- from heaving. d A way. significant. Speed loss Slapping The decrease in speed. The of flotation in the water. normal or vertical energy contribution of all the component waves (FN) [MLT-2] of a random function in that interval. or bottom of a hull where the impact causes a Quadrature spectrum . or quadrature A phenomenon described broadly as severe spectrum.A condition in which a ship and Smith effect the waves. indicates the relation between 90° impacting between a water surface and the side out-of-phase frequency components. two dimensional (S(ω. A function of frequency whose integral over any interval represent the energy contribution of all the component waves of a random func- Seakeeping tion in that interval. integral over any interval represents the Short-crested sea squared amplitude of a wave at the central An irregular wave system in which the compo. or nearly opposite di. That part of the inertial lateral shearing force Spectral density. Whipping). smooth water. A classifi. wave shearing. wave shearing.

necessary to maintain distance between a successive crest and speed in wind and waves.The time be- The transverse oscillatory motion of a specified tween successive crests of a train of waves point in the ship. Wave Stabiliser A disturbance of the surface of a fluid that usu- Equipment to reduce the rolling (or pitching) ally progresses across the surface as the result motions of a ship. tween the longitudinal axis of the ship and ity (or origin of body axes).The angle be- fied point in a ship. usually the centre of gravity. apparent (HWV) [L ] . Swaying Encounter. tions which are found by spectral analysis to ing period. Transfer function See: Response function. or twice the [ML2T-2] wave amplitude of a harmonic wave. at a fixed an- Thrust in waves. Springing between the position of the longitudinal axis of The continuous ship-hull vibration induced by a ship at rest and the horizontal plane. such as the free vi- torque (diesel plant). to be distinguished from pitching. or circular frequency = 2π/T. the non-impulsive hydrodynamic forces acting Virtual mass on the ship hull. or the large of fi- Submergence () [L] nite wave used to approximate such an ir- The relative vertical distance of a part (usually regular sea. (See also: Added mass. necessary to maintain period = 1/T. the vibratory re. setting of the main propulsion plant in order to which is an oscillatory motion. the deviations from the mean value. Usually speed loss is determined at Transient constant power (turbine plant) or constant Irregular or non-harmonic. caused mainly by reducing the of a ship. the square Amplitude (ζA) [L] . passing a fixed point in a ship. period (TE) [T] . Speed reduction Trim The decrease in speed. The longitudinal oscillatory motion of a speci. Height (HW) [L] . See: Wave steepness ratio.) See also: Whipping.The angle be- surface. A standing wave is special case of The square root of the average of the squares of a wave that does not advance. of circular or other local motions of the fluid Standard deviation components. wave one half of the wave height . Components . tween the direction of a component wave Surging and the x0 axis.The radius of orbital root of the variance. In particular. measured about a horizontal axis. mean increase in (QAW) from wave crest to wave trough. trough. as compared with that in The steady-state longitudinal angular position smooth water. as compared with Frequency (f) [T-1] The reciprocal of wave that in smooth water. usually the centre of grav. Encounter. compose an irregular sea. speed in wind and waves. the acceleration. mean increase in (TAW) gle of encounter μ. The angle. The mean increase in torque as compared with Height. the reciprocal of the fre- [MLT-2] quency of encounter fE (which see). estimated by visual observation.The infinity of infinitesimal Stiffness waves of different frequencies and direc- The property of a ship that causes a short roll. the direction of the wave encounter. The combined effect of the mass of he ship and sponse of the ship hull girder to short waves added mass corresponding to the hydrody- with frequencies of encounter close to the namic forces in phase with and proportional to lower structural modes of vibration of the ship.sion plant. motion of a surface wave particle. opposite to emergence.The vertical distance Torque in waves. angle of (μ) [-] .The vertical that in smooth water. angle of (μ) [-] . the bow) of an oscillating ship below the water Direction. angle of (θ) [-] wind and waves. 6-6 . minimise the adverse effects ion the ship of Trim. equal to Steepness ratio. The mean increase in thrust. bration of a damped mechanical system.

shipping of water and stern slam- two successive upward crossing of zero in a ming. side of a horizontal line. record. it can be geometrically constructed Length. Speed celerity (cW) [LT-1] .The time between the pas. For ex- elapsing between the occurrence of two suc. a fluid. Instantaneous elevation (η) [L] . The angle. (See also: Springing).A profile closely approximat- between adjacent wave crests in the direc.A continuous sequence of wave surface.The ratio of wave height stantaneous elevation of a point in a wave to length. sage of two successive wave crests passed a Whipping fixed point. (Positive wave profile perpendicular to the crest in bow to starboard). Length (LW.The average apparent height of the 1/3 highest waves in W W an irregular pattern. by tracing the path of a point on the radius tal distance between adjacent wave crests of of a circle as the circle rolls along the under- an irregular sea in the direction of advance. apparent (TWV) [T] . system above the level of the undisturbed Train . estimated by visual observation. fore-bottom slamming.The time duced by impulsive excitation forces. crests and hollows. usually the 2 2 weatherdeck forward.The horizon.Height. The transient ship-hull vibration which is in- Period. space co-ordinate.The surface slope of a (which see) and its mean heading.The in. Yaw. significant (HW1/3). with respect to its liabil-        or      W ity of being wet as a result of motions of ship Period (TW) [T] . bow-flare cessive crests of an irregular sea. Steepness ratio . or between slamming. measured about the vertical body cles of a wave plotted as a function of space axis. and waves. tion of a hull about a vertical axis. Maximum wave slope of Yawing a regular harmonic or trochoidal wave is π/2 The angular component of the oscillatory mo- x steepness ratio.The elevation of the surface parti. Number (κ) [L-1] Wetness The quality of a part of the ship. λ) [L] The horizontal distance Trochoidal . 6-7 . longitudinal centreplane of a ship when yawing Slope of surface . between the instantaneous position of the in a fixed time. ample. angle (χ) [-] Profile .The phase ve- locity of a surface gravity wave in deep wa- ter. ing that of a regular surface gravity wave in tion of advance. apparent ( L WV ) [L] .

angle. Angle. (CG) of a ship advances in the first quadrant Angle. The angle of a rudder. Angle of trim The first of these terms is that most commonly See: Trim. maximum (in stop. offset from the centre- proach path. when in its zero lift or neutral position. flight path Advance maximum (in stopping) (θf) [-] The distance travelled by a ship. longitudinal centreline. The path angle is a ahead. ect. Thus AHLF. vertical path or angle. The angular displacement about the x0 axis of Aspect ratio the principal plane of symmetry from the ver. yaw Angle of attack (α) [-] See: Yaw angle The angle to the longitudinal body axis from Approach speed the projection into the principal plane of sym. ect. of attack. See: Ratio. inward toward the centreplane. ping). deadwood. It is measured parallel to the ap. downwash or sidewash vertical. [L2] Angle. See: Roll angle Angle. are included once Angle of heel or list only. projected (or angle of entrance. (See: Axes. co-ordinate in General Section). co-ordinate in 7 MANOEUVRABILITY General Section). used to define the quality which determines Angle. formerly AL) Axes. from the CG position at rudder plane. attitude and di. Angle of heel or roll. ect. AHLA. control surface axes relative to the fluid. AHLE. positive in the positive sense of rotation Centre of lateral area 7-1 . Usually areas Angle of drift or sideslip which lie abreast of one another. including the See: Downwash or Sidewash angle. area of skegs. whole body. Angle. pitch the ease with which the speed. in the direc. attack in roll) (γ) [-] AHLR. See: Pitch angle. before coming to path of the centre of gravity of a submerged rest after having executed a crash-back ma. rudder Advance See: Rudder angle and Rudder angle or- The distance by which the centre of gravity dered. See: Control surface area. about the x0 axis. tical. body or submarine in motion and horizontal noeuvre from a steady. rection of motion of a ship or body can be Angle. Lateral area can refer not only to the See: Heel or list. (See: Area. roll changed or maintained by its control devices. execute to the CG position where the ship has it does not lie parallel to that plane. of a ship when projected normally upon the Angle. (See Figure combination of the trim angle and the angle 7-2). See: Speed. it is also called Headreach. The vertical angle between the underwater tion of the approach path. The rud- changed heading by 90 degrees (See Figure der “toes in” when its forward portion points 7-1). approach metry of the velocity of the origin of the body Area. straight-line motion plane through that centre. angle of those of multiple skegs. Maximum advance is the distance. aspect. but also to forebody. meas. control surface The area of the profile of the underwater hull See: Control surface angle. angle of. such as See: Drift or sideslip. positive in the posi. toe. See also: Transfer. neutral In this section the term Manoeuvrability is See: Neutral angle. tive sense of rotation about the y-axis. Angle. run. used. To avoid am- ured parallel to the approach path from the CG biguity the terms “trailing edge out” or “trail- position at rudder execute to the tangent to the ing edge in” are often used. lateral of the hull (AHL. of an offset rudder of a turn. afterbody. path of the CG normal to the approach path.

7-2 . current and the like. See also: Rudder area. by some action other than that of the main Cross force (C ) propulsion devices of a ship. steered (ψO) [-] A relationship between the drag D of a ship The mean heading of a ship. from either linear or angular acceleration of such as control surfaces. Downwash or Induced angle (αIND. locity of the body relative to the fluid. Derivatives. It is The point in the plane of symmetry through customary to expressed it as C C = C qA . Drag coefficient (CD) [-] Course. or body and the dynamic pressure times a grees of the compass or degree of azimuth in a specified area. the body. achieved a steady-turning state. (See also: Drag and Drag coef- Crash-back A ship manoeuvre in which. The distance travelled by the centre of grav- face about its hinge or stock. defined by de. re. stability and control Coefficient of lateral area (CAL. Rotary Control devices derivatives are derived from angular velocity Control devices comprise all the various de- of the body and acceleration derivatives are vices that are used to control a body or ship. measured on the hydrofoil producing lift or thrust. body to the force corresponding to the dy- Centre of lateral force namic pressure times a specified area. diameter is equal to the transfer at 180 de- gardless of the effect this angle may have on grees change of heading. ured in a plane through the nose-tail line of This is defined by degrees of the compass or the hydrofoil and perpendicular to the hydro- degree of azimuth in a horizontal plane. while going ficient in Resistance Section). See also: Side- slip. directional. taken generally in The ratio of the cross force C on a ship or the plane of symmetry. The plan form area of any active or movable Downwash or sidewash control surface. hydroplanes The diameter of the circular arc described by and other hinged or movable devices used for the centre of gravity of a ship when it has controlling the motion of a body or ship. ect. It is customary to express it as horizontal plane (See Figure 7-6). foil axis. which the resultant force would act to produce Deadwood an effect equal to that of the total lateral hy- See: Ship geometry section drodynamic force on a vessel. for- metry). Positive hen turning path in turning through 180 degrees. C D = D qA . The deflection of a stream of fluid by any stern fins AFB or rudder AR. The static deriva- length L and a constant depth equal to draft TX tives are due to the components of linear ve- at the station of maximum area. Figure 7-6). the pro. merly ε) [-] Course made good The angle of downwash (which see) meas- The mean direction in which a ship is moving. such as that of a ity of the ship normal to its original approach bow fin δFB. AFS. Control surfaces Diameter. caused possible time. jets. δR ect) [-] Diameter. or rudder δR. ect) [L2] See: Stability. reference plane (generally the plane of sym. Control surface angle (δFB. (See.The centre of the lateral area of the immersed Cross force coefficient (CC) [-] portion of a ship or body. formerly The hydrodynamic forces and moments CLA) [-] which enter into the equations of motion are The ratio of the lateral area of the bare hull of usually classified into three categories: static. tactical (See Figure 7-1) The angular displacement of any control sur. steady-turning Control surfaces are the rudders. and acceleration. such as that of bow fins AFB. ahead at normal or some other speed. Directional stability Control surface area ( AFB. cross waves. or component of motion. a ship to the area of a rectangle having the ship rotary. thruster. AR. such as wind. Tactical in the positive sense of rotation of the ship. See: Force. See also: Rudder angle. the ship. Drift pulsion devices are reversed in the shortest That motion.

A relationship between the lift force L devel- tively. turning Force. or a sume angular dynamic motion about a verti- ship. or to provide a lift force to wind- tude and direction of motion of a body can be ward. C. maximum (in stopping). in the See: Seakeeping Section. in the positive sense of rotation about the ver. rudder oped by a ship or body and the dynamic pres- or similar device. A fixed or movable hydrofoil. sway. skidding or crabbing. as in drifting. when the secting line or plane taken as reference. ris- . coefficient relative flow. zigzagging. 7-3 . right angles to both the direction of lift and the Moment. of a hydrofoil. yaw (N) [L2MT-2] direction of drag. normal to lift and drag. added relative flow. Specifi- The angle between any characteristic line or cally. the cross force. hydrodynamic (X. The angle. See also Figure toward equilibrium and passes beyond it. It is customary to Fin express it as C L = L qA . A steady inclination of a ship about a longi- ous direction of motion of the centre of gravity tudinal axis. Z) Manoeuvring [LMT-2] The process of executing various voluntary The components of the total hydrodynamic evolutions with a ship. angle of (φ) [-] tical body axis. sure times a specified area. drag component. Heel or list. stop- force on a body or ship as resolved along its x- ping. such as starting. attached to a Manoeuvrability ship.and z-axes respectively.Drift or sideslip. Heading (ψ) [ ] Overshoot The instantaneous direction of the projection A state of motion of a body or liquid in of the forward longitudinal axis of a ship in a which. Edges. of a ship and its longitudinal axis. following a disturbance of the equilib- horizontal plane. a hydrofoil. acting per- Neutral angle pendicular to the plane of symmetry. moments or other actions on or by plane. respec. ship and its normal upright position. Related to the ing. A hydrodynamic moment due to environ- Note: This is to be carefully distinguished mental conditions acting on a ship which will from the lateral force. in the direction of the Mass. acting plane of a body or ship and any other inter- normal to the plane of symmetry.Y. diving. to Manoeuvrability is that quality which deter- improve the dynamic stability or the manoeu- minates the ease with which the speed. angle of (β) [-] Heel or list The horizontal angle between the instantane. see: Force. the body or ship have a value of zero. on the body See: Seakeeping Section. steering. atti- vrability. backing. circling. turning. added. generally in a longitudinal direction. principal plane of symmetry normal to the Mass. to be distinguished from rolling. be- 7-6. It is positive which is an oscillatory motion. y. when ship is caused to move sidewise in a horizontal the forces. dodging and the flow over the body. leading and trailing Lift coefficient (CL) [-] The upstream and downstream edges. as in the fin keel of a sailing yacht. changed or maintained by its control devices. the body or liquid returns compass or degrees azimuth. the lift component. at cal axis through the centre of gravity. sway (Y) [LMT-2] gular dynamic motion about the vertical or z- The component of the total hydrodynamic axis through the centre of the ship. force exerted by liquid on a body. propeller blade. the force developed on a ship. Force components. between a static inclined position of a See: Stability dynamic. cause of kinetic energy stored up in the sys- Headreach See: Advance. tend to produce yawing in the form of an an- Force. Moment. measured about a longitudinal Dynamic stability axis. the components are the like. defined by degrees of the rium conditions. with or without an angle of attack. D or R. L. cross (C) [LMT-2] A moment applied to a ship to cause it to as- A force exerted on a body.

See: Stability. when similarly projected. See also: primarily in clam water in which heaving mo. measured in a plane normal to the stock. placed either at the The angular component of the oscillatory mo. The Rudder angle. i. and the the rudder. total (AR.e. ing) Positive when turning in the positive sense of Porpoising rotation of the ship. depending on the lag and lost mo- Positional motion stability tion in the steering control and gear. also the out. This may differ from the rudder angle δR. body axis. The lateral area of the sole movable part of fitted generally in a horizontal plane. See also: Control surface area. ART) [L2] Profile The total lateral area of the rudder (including The outline of a ship when projected on the fixed and movable parts) measured in the ref- fore-aft vertical centreline plane. or at both ends. Rolling tion (See Figure 7-5). erence plane (generally the plane of symme- line of parts of the ship.] ship’s structure upon which the steering rud- The angle measured about the longitudinal der is hung or supported. posite direction. which by its action or longitudinal axis of a ship when pitching movement. to moved to the right or to starboard of the cen- the chord c of the hydrofoil. See also: Control surface area. Rudder stock 7-4 . pitching of a ship is a motion confined to op. stern. main portion of the rudder aft of the stock has measured at right angles to the liquid flow. Rudder area. (Positive ing of a ship in horizontal plane. ordered (δRO) [-] motion is sustained by energy drawn from the The ordered angle set on the steering control thrust.tem as it passes through the equilibrium posi. movable (ARmov) [L2] the profiles of diving planes on submarines. left the span. bow or at the stern of a ship. (Positive starboard rudder. aspect (Λ)[-] Right or starboard rudder signifies that the The ratio between the span of a hydrofoil. the aspect ratio is the span b divided or port rudder signifies movement in the op- by the mean chord c obtained generally divid. Similarly. try). controls the steering or the turn- (which see) and its position of rest. When the chord varies in length across to starboard in forward motion. between the instantaneous position Rudder span (bR) [L] of a ship when rolling (which see) and its The maximum distance from root to tip of the normal upright position. profile of the blades on a screw propeller. b2/ AP A vertical or nearly vertical member of the Roll angle (φ) [ . fixed (AX) [L2] Note: This definition also covers the contour The lateral area of the sole fixed part of the of any flat or curved surface which acts as a rudder. See also: Control surface area. tion is combined with pitching motion. to cause the ship to turn to the right or flow. examples are Rudder area. and rudder. it is possible with a high The angular displacement of the rudder about speed planing craft for such motions to occur its stock relative to the neutral position and in calm under some conditions. (See: Porpois. apparatus. down). See also: Zigzagging. Specifically. Although to apply a turning moment to the ship. The angle. Control surface angle. Rudder angle (δR) [-] eration in waves. ing the hydrofoil projected area AP into the Rudder post square of the span b. The angular component of the oscillatory Pitch angle (θ) [-] motion of a hull about a longitudinal axis. bow up) hinged or movable control-surface appendage Pitching in the form of a hydrofoil. regardless of the effect The cyclic oscillation of a high-speed craft this angle may have on the ship. such as the stem. course Rudder area. tion of a hull about a transverse axis. in the direction of treline. measured about the transverse body Rudder axis. hydrofoil or as a control surface. between the instantaneous position of the A control surface. Rudder directions Ratio.

a skeg. dinal axis of the ship. are attached. de. 7-4. parts of the ship or airplane to which they without any corrective control being applied. it returns to its original take advantage of the rotation in the slip. creased swing damping and dynamic stability Rudder types to the hull. thickness ratio A projection from or a fixed appendage ap- The ratio of the maximum thickness of any plied to the underwater hull of a ship. without any in a turn. which provides bearing sup. torque in the ahead direction. and is in the face in the form of a swinging rudder in after part of the vessel. Note: The term directional stability is also Spade: A control device in the form of a commonly used to describe the more general moving appendage which projects below case of straight-line stability (which see). flap. is placed forward of the The speed of a body or ship along the straight vertical turning axis to reduce the operating approach path. when slightly disturbed from steady motion signed to be mounted abaft a propeller to on a straight path. it returns to it original di- large pressure differentials on the fixed rection. Stability. rine can have it in the vertical plane. it resume that same motion. or to a fin which has an area large in Stability. A skeg is usually of large lateral See Figure 7-3 area compared to its transverse thickness. This type A body is said to be a directionally stable if. to tion stability. of rudder takes its name from the flaps on when slightly disturbed from steady motion airplane wing. may have a component at right an. straight-line slip.That portion of the rudder. usually fitted in a vertical plane. gener- horizontal section of a rudder to the corre. dynamic ports in front of it or below it. plane. A body is said to be dynamically stable on a Sideslip straight course or on a turn constant curvature The motion of a ship resulting from the pro. See Figure 7-4. Spoiler Compound: A control device in the form Any device ancillary to a hydrofoil or control of a fixed vertical appendage. but not nec- forces on rudder and hull or centrifugal forces essarily along its original path. both function by building up on a straight path. corrective control being applied. when slightly disturbed from a steady mo- peller thrust. in or- edge of which is hinged a movable or der to diminish the lift. A body is said to have course stability if. Contra: A rudder with a curved blade. but not necessarily its original path. See Figure gles to the vertical plane through the longitu. if. See: Downwash port and also transmits the operating torque. is Balanced or semi-balanced: A control sur. the horizontal plane does not normally exist. This is also known as positional mo- cally its entire vertical height to the hull. Course stability in the rudder. which a small fraction of the area. This is called the side. just prior to entry into a turn. Stability. hydrodynamic side tion. drag forces. angle of. board. course type. directional proportion to that of the rudder. Skeg Rudder. Stability. concentric with the Sidewash axis of rotation. See: Drift or sideslip. That is. see also: Rudder. See Figure 7-4. Directional stability in the Offset: A rudder which is offset from the horizontal plane does not exist. approach about one-fifth. swinging rudder. A body is said to have straight-line stability if Sideslip. ally to increase the lateral area an give in- sponding chord length. when slightly disturbed from steady 7-5 . but a subma- centreplane of a ship either to port or star. generally Speed. See also: Drift. path. without any corrective control being stream and to produce a forward thrust on applied. the stern of the ship without any fixed sup. angle of it is dynamically stable on a straight course. Flap: A control device in the form of a but a submarine can have it in the vertical moving rudder which is hinged for practi. to the after surface or stabiliser to disturb the flow.

of an offset rudder. a given or designated course. Trim. QFB. As distinguished The lateral offset of the centre of gravity of a from turning and manoeuvring. without any correc. is known as the “entry” Torque or moment. Figure 7-4. directional sta. diving plane. weathercock. but not necessar. pendicular to the direction of relative liquid leading end foremost when all control force motion.g. 7-6 . the term steer. that condition in which the sur- motion is that of rotation about an axis per. CG position when the body or ship has specifically. starting with the initial deviation from See: Angle. stern fin motion on a straight course. practicable to. straight line. the end of a turn terminating in trol surface (QR. generally at its after edge. See Figure 7-6. Turning duce the control force or moment by applying That phase of manoeuvring in which a body local differential pressure to the main control or ship while moving ahead or astern. into the turn.motion on a straight course. position or attitude of that surface. toe. angle of (θ) [-] Tab The angle. and course stability (which see) The path at which the centre of gravity of a is a special case of directional stability. measured later- In its general sense. tablishments. movable or fixed. See Figure Straight-line stability 7-2 See: Stability. fied point in the ship. the approach path. straight-line motion ahead. as in wind tunnel es. Also the torque That phase of the turning in which the rate of applied to the control surface through the change of heading steadies to a constant stock or actuating mechanism to change the value.) [L2MT-2] a new straight course. An unbalanced rud- direction of flow after being disturbed. measured about a horizontal axis. bility (which see) is a special case of straight. Transfer bility”. rudder Weathercock stability See: Stability. gravity. is known as the “sor- The torque applied to the stock or actuating tie”. it resumes steady torque QR. Turning. hinge or stock. steady. Track line stability. The point at which the towing force is ap- Note: Straight-line stability is a special case of plied on a ship which is towing or on a craft dynamic stability (which see). etc. steady dynamic forces acting upon it. trailing The directional or inherent stability of a body As applied to a movable appendage or con- which is so restrained that its only freedom of trol surface. torque QFS. mechanism of a control surface by the hydro. QFS. Trim Swaying The steady state longitudinal angular position The transverse oscillatory motion of a speci. to be distinguished from pitching. changes course or direction. e. der pivoted at its forward edge always trails Note: In some quarters. body or ship before coming to rest after hav- ing means keeping a vessel travelling in a ing executed a crash-back manoeuvre from a given direction in a straight line. this is also known as “static sta. the guiding of vessel in a ally from the extended approach path to the horizontal plane by a rudder on control device. ily in its original direction. Tow point tive control being applied. of a con. face aligns itself with the surrounding flow. usually the centre of which is an oscillatory motion. A small auxiliary foil. when going ahead. The lateral offset of the CG of a body or ship Steering or course keeping in the first quadrant of turn. weathercock Trail. Stability. at. See Figure 7-1. The body tends to align itself with the or moment is removed. or as close as changed course 90 degrees. keeping a vessel on. Transfer maximum (in stopping) despite various disturbances. The beginning of Toe angle of an offset rudder a turn. of a ship. ship is moving. bow fin torque QFB. to re. which is being towed. between the position of the longitudinal axis tached to a control surface such as a rudder or of a ship at rest and the horizontal plane. surface. See Figure 7-1. etc.

between the instantaneous position of the vals. See Figure 7-5. tion of a hull about a vertical axis. predetermined or specified plan. while the tive bow to starboard). in accordance with a ing (which see) and its mean heading. zagging. angle (χ) [-] A ship manoeuvre in which the course of a The angle. average course made good remains approxi- Yawing mately the same as if the ship were not zig- The angular component of the oscillatory mo. measured about the vertical body ship is deliberately changed at frequent inter- axis. or longitudinal centreplane of a ship when yaw. Zigzagging 7-7 . as a trial manoeuvre. (Posi. as a deceptive or evasive manoeuvre.Yaw.

Figure 7-1: Geometry of turning circle 7-1 .

Figure 7-2: Crash stop manoeuvre 7-2 .

a) unbalanced b) balanced (two pintles) c) balanced (upper bearing in hull) d) semibalanced (two bearings) e) balanced (spade) f) semibalanced (on horn) Figure 7-3: Rudder types. 7-3 .

Figure 7-5: Zigzagging 7-4 .Figure 7-4: Illustration of stability items.

Augment fraction. wind. as propeller. resistance quasi-propulsive. the ba- 8-5 . funnels. The S S S M M M correlation allowance depends upon the method used to extrapolate the model results to the “smooth” ship. deck erections. propel a ship at a given speed and various fac. Advance. See: Admiralty coefficient. approach. Air. appendages). still. (See: General Section under Admiralty coefficient Axes. displacement. as predicted appendages. apparent. A quasi-dimensionless coefficient used for as. where Δ is the See: Power. Area. Admiralty power. Brake power Admiralty coefficient / . where: from the model results. It is defined by a factor β. projected onto either the vertical x-z or y-z plane of the ship. Correlation allowance. This Section is concerned essentially with per. above-water projected tors and matters related thereto. wind. and like. and Efficiency. speed of Coefficient. Figure 7-6: Course characteristics Where RAP is the appendage resistance (See: 8 PERFORMANCE Resistance. masts. The propelling The area of the above-water hull. model-ship (RA) Appendage scale effect factor (β) [-] [LMT-2] A factor taking account of the effect of scale This is the addition which has to be made to the between model and ship on the resistance of resistance of the “smooth” ship. co-ordinate). quasi-propulsive See: Speed of advance. See: Efficiency. propulsive. See: Resistance. the ship length and type. See: Rudder angle and Rudder angle ordered. wind resistance Angle. ρ the fluid density. See: Resistance augment fraction. Apparent slip ratio See: Slip ratio. brake. to bring it into agree- APS APM ment with the actual ship performance deter- 1⁄ 2 1⁄ 2 mined from full scale trial or service result. V the speed and S the wetted surface. Coefficient. Approach run formance in the context of power required to See: Run. resistance sessing or comparing the performance of ship. rudder See: Resistance coefficient. V speed and P any corresponding Coefficient. superstruc- device is generally understood to be a screw ture.

mechanical (ηM) [-] A straight measured course. When such a course is power input of any machinery installation. (See Fig. gearing (ηG) [-] rate of evolution (K2) [-] The ratio of the power output to the power in- The scale effect between the rate of propeller put of a set of reduction – or multiplying – rotation of model nM and ship nS is defined by gears between an engine and propulsion de- the factor K2. M zontal plane. 24). propeller. I Course. (which see).sic shell roughness of the newly-painted ship. t is the thrust deduction fraction. ship-model. measurements were taken and scale effects on Delivered power the factor making up the model and ship pro. T the propeller thrust and VA the speed is defined by degrees of the compass or degrees of advance. V the ship The mean direction which a ship moving. The ratio between the power PT. one nautical mile in length it is often referred to S as a measured mile. DM E T H in Taylor notation where the efficiencies ηDS and ηDM for ship and T A model respectively are derived at correspond. for propeller Efficiency. The ratio between the useful work done on the ciencies of the model and ship is defined by the ship and the work done by the propeller or factor K1. effective. 1 F 1 in Froude notation Course made good Where RT is the total resistance. See: Power. Current. such that vice: P S √ ηG = S M PB where λ is the scale factor. developed by Current. defined by degrees of the compass or de. behind hull (ηB) [-] Figure 7-1 and Figure 7-2). Taylor and Froude respectively (which see). This speed. (See Figure and wF are the wake fractions according to 7-6). See: Resistance coefficient. ship-model. for Effective wake fraction model-ship correlation. such that other propulsion devices in a given time that is effective power PE and thrust power PT respec- DS tively. w of azimuth in a horizontal plane. sive or quasi-propulsive efficiency (K1) [-] Efficiency. A surface or near-surface current in a body of fouling. which is used for The ratio between the power output and the speed trials of a ship. Course measured Efficiency. where PS and PB are the shaft and brake powers Correlation factor. hull (ηH) [-] The scale effect between the propulsive effi. incremental. for propul. defined by degrees B of the compass or degrees of azimuth in a hori. pulsive coefficients. M I Course steered ( ) [-] or The mean heading of a ship. See: Wake fraction. weather conditions at the time the ship water induced by wind. delivered. or ing speed and propeller loading. effective. Effective power Correlation allowance coefficient See: Power. wind 8-1 . Correlation factor. gree of azimuth in a horizontal plane (See Efficiency. tidal the thrust of the propeller and the power PD ab- A current in the water caused by the tide and sorbed by the propeller when operating behind influenced by the coastline and contours of the a model or ship: seabed. original (ψ0) [-] where PS and PB are the shaft and brake powers The course at the beginning of a manoeuvring respectively and PI is the indicted power test. respectively (which see).

shaft torque and n rate of propeller rotation. point of self-propulsion. ηH and ηR are the open water propel. Factor. hull relative rotative shafting and or gearing efficiencies respectively (which see). Form factor (k) [-] spectively (which see). Gearing efficiency 8-2 . ηH ηR ηS and ηG are the open water C F0 propeller. See: Form factor. form and ηR are the open water propeller and rela. as already defined. standard fresh. a flat place CF0 at the same free stream Rey- nolds number. C . Q0 the torque in open wa. See where ηO. wake The shafting efficiency is a measured of the See: Wake fraction. VA speed of advance. shafting (ηS) [-] Fraction. See: Correlation factor. quasi-propulsive or quasi. frictional. load Efficiency propeller. open water (ηO) [-] See: Power prediction factor. D 2 Factor. a given fluid. Form effect Efficiency. Q See: Appendage scale effect factor. The difference between the viscous resistance propulsive coefficient (ηD) [-] of a model or a ship and the two dimensional The ratio between the useful or effective power friction resistance of a flat plate of the same PE and the power delivered to the propeller or length and wetted area and at the same speed in the propulsion device PD. It may be expressed in two E ways. S Frictional wake S See: Wake. where PD and PS are the delivered and shaft T A B R powers respectively (which see). standard D See: Water. appendage scale effect where T is the thrust. Fraction. The ratio between the total viscous resistance Efficiency. either: P H R S G B C . The ratio between the power developed by the Factor. power lost in shaft bearings and stern tube: Fresh water. resistance augment B See: Resistance augment fraction. propulsive (ηP) [-] coefficient of a model or a ship CV and the two The ratio between the useful or effective power dimensional frictional resistance coefficient of PE and the brake power PB. R Fraction. thrust deduction See: Thrust deduction fraction. and the power ab. Efficiency.CF k= V Efficiency. The difference arises because of the augmented speed of flow around the ship E form as compared with along a flat plate and D H R D the pressure resistance of viscous origin. hull and relative rotative efficiencies re. ter and n the rate of propeller rotation. also: Form factor. ler. η0 Factor.C F0 k= V where η0. relative rotative (ηR) [-] CF The relative rotative efficiency is the ratio of Fraction overload the propeller efficiencies behind the hull and in See: Power prediction factor. tive rotative efficiencies respectively. sorbed by the propeller PD when operating in Friction deduction force in self propulsion open water with uniform inflow velocity VA: test (FD) [LMT-2] The towing force applied to a model to com- T A pensate for the increased specific frictional re- D 2 sistance of the model and to achieve the ship- where T is the thrust. ship-model correlation thrust of the propeller PT. open water.

The power developed by the propeller thrust T. Power. See: Efficiency. The factor (1+x) powers respectively and ηD the quasi. Mile. defined by degrees of the corresponding model data. delivered (PD) [L2MT-3] Propulsive coefficient or efficiency The power delivered to the propeller: See: Efficiency. effective (PE) [L2MT-3] Ratio. The instantaneous direction of the projection of Power prediction factor (1+x) [-] the forward longitudinal axis of a ship in a A factor based on the correlation of ship and horizontal plane. potential. V. measured.24. where PD and PE are the delivered and effective Load fraction in power prediction (x) [-] powers respectively and ηD the quasi- D propulsive efficiency (which see). If the latter. effective contraction of the expression “geometrically power. Power. The power developed in the cylinders of a re- Ground speed ciprocating engine. means of mechanical. It is a known as the naked or bare hull.See: Efficiency. the propelling machinery. PE = R TV Geosim The power may be for ship either with or with- One of a series of models which differ in abso. in estimating ship power to allow for the Hull efficiency method of extrapolating model results to ship. hydraulic or electrical Propeller efficiency brake. determined from the pressure measured by an Heading (ψ) [ ] indicator or similar device. gearing. without its propulsive device. D Load factor (1+x) [-] D See: Power prediction factor. ditions such that: Indicated power E 1 See: Power. out appendages. it is usually lute size but are geometrically similar. propeller. Power in waves. D 1 The results of model propulsion experiments E are analysed for a propeller loading equivalent where PD and PE are the delivered and effective to the power prediction factor. brake (PB) [L2MT-3] as compared with the power in still water at the The power measured at the engine coupling by same mean speed. thrust (PT) [L2MT-3] See: Efficiency. scale effects on resistance and propulsion and Hydraulically smooth surface the effects of hull roughness and weather con- See: Surface. See: Efficiency. See also Fig. measured. mechanical. See also: Power prediction factor. at constant speed Relative rotative efficiency V in unlimited undisturbed water: 8-3 . Power. propulsive. D 2 Quasi-propulsive coefficient or efficiency See: Efficiency. as See: Speed. mean increase in (PAW) Potential wake [L2MT-3] See: Wake. Power. which is introduced compass or degrees azimuth. ground. smooth. The mean increase in power in wind and waves Power. is sometimes known as the load factor and the propulsive efficiency (which see). Mechanical efficiency Power. hull. slip The power required to tow a ship. factor x as the load fraction (which see). similar model” and was first used by Dr. usually See: Slip ratio. Overload fraction PT = T V A See: Power prediction factor. shaft (PS) [L2MT-3] Measured course The power delivered to the shafting system by See: Course. at the speed of advance VA: See: Course measured. either steam or diesel. E. indicated. indicated (PI) [L2MT-3] Telfer. propulsive.

The increase in resistance relative to that of the Resistance in waves. It is the average diame- the ship. for T-1] model-ship correlation (CA) [-] The mean absolute increase in rate of revolu- The model-ship correlation allowance RA tions (usually per minute). grass etc. wind. mean increase in (RAW) naked. It is customary to expressed it as : is determined by equating the frictional resis- tance of a surface of random roughness with AA that of a flat plate completely covered with AA sand grains of a sensibly uniform size as in Ni- Where A is the appropriate above water area of kuradse’s experiments. still air Resistance. waves as compared with the still water resis- Resistance augment fraction (a) [-] tance at the same mean speed. See: Resistance coefficient. where ρ is the water density. Resistance. [LMT-2] pendages such as bilge keels. relative rotative. and the force correspond. roughness (RAR) [LMT-2] A length dimension expressing the height of a The increase in resistance relative to the resis. stock relative to the neutral position and meas- Corrosion roughness due to breakdown of ured in a plane normal to the stock. rate of. Equivalent sand roughness is used as a conven- ing to the dynamic pressure times a specified ient measure of the roughness of a surface and area. valve openings etc. Now obsolescent. The in. rudders. or bare hull resistance. incremental. as compared with (which see) expressed in coefficient form: those in smooth water. See also: Resistance coefficient. roughness. See also: the paint film and corrosion of the shell plat. equivalent sand (KS) [L] a ship or body RAA. ordered (δRO) [-] 8-4 . ing. Resistance. resistance shell construction. rough. Resistance coefficient. The hull roughness may be average such as root mean square or mean ap- of different types such as: parent amplitude. wind. See: Wind. this is called the still air resis- tance. caused by ap. wind (RAA) [LMT-2] at speed V is greater than the resistance RT of The fore and aft component of the resistance of the hull when towed at the same speed. Rudder angle.RT tance. Fouling roughness caused by marine or- Relative wind ganisms depositing shell. mean in waves (nAW) [ Resistance coefficient. etc. necessary to maintain speed in wind and waves.R T ) is called the augment of resis. wind (CAA) [-] incremental for model-ship correlation (CA) The ratio between the air or wind resistance on Roughness. above water form of a ship due to its motion crease (T . Structural roughness caused by method of Roughness. When there is no natural wind. It is often expressed as some form of effect of roughness. See: Resistance. relative to still air or wind. waviness of plating. struts. scoops. Manoeuvrability Section. The mean increase in resistance in wind and ings. appendages (RAP) [LMT-2] See: Resistance. relative. restricted. a= Restricted water RT See: Water. A A Rough surface See: Surface. V speed and S Roughness allowance (ΔCF) [-] wetted surface. height or magnitude (k) [L] see) and ρ the air density. roughness element on a surface exposed to liq- tance of a hydraulically smooth hull due to the uid flow. Rudder angle (δR) [-] Paint roughness depending on the type of The angular displacement of a rudder about its paint as well as how it is applied.See: Efficiency. and the resistance augment fraction is: T . boss. T = (1 + a )R T Revolutions. VR the relative wind velocity (which ter of the Nikuradse sand grains. The thrust T required to propel a model or ship Resistance. Roughness.

corresponding tain a steady speed corresponding to give en. currents. that similar models. viscous and Speed loss surface tension). vance of the propeller. or vice-versa. Speed of advance of a propeller in open water. during the approach to a measured course to at. waves at a constant setting of the main propul- Shafting efficiency sion plant. gravitational. flow pattern.A Surface. or the like. This is usually less than gle δR. caused directly by wind and See: Power. water speed.V A V See: Resistance. or larities the effective pitch of the propeller (i. cal similarity (e. apparent (sA) [-] The decrease in speed. bodies or ships. The decrease in speed. standard Law of comparison: See: Water. shallow. The speed of a ship VS related to that of a gine setting. Scale effect S M√ The change in any force. This is defined by the ratio: Still air resistance Pn . ef- the steering control and gear. depending on the lag and lost motion in the ship speed V. that is: minimise the adverse effects on the ship of Pn . This is based on thrust identity. true water Pn Pn The speed of a ship relative to the surrounding Slip ratio. wind. fective). (See also: Wake fraction. increase of resistance due to the surface irregu- Speed of advance of a propeller (VA) [LT-1] larities.g.The ordered angle set on the steering control peller characteristic is termed the speed of ad- apparatus. A surface Smooth surface is called hydraulically smooth when there is no See: Surface. geometrical pitch. This may differ from the rudder an. Speed. real (sR) [-] water.e. water the ground speed id the same as the true multaneously all the relevant laws of dynami. constant power (turbine plant) or constant Shallow water torque (diesel plant). is the speed including the effects of tide and tions in performance due to differences in abso. shaft. speed VA determined from the open water pro. coefficients. sR = = 1. in which there are undulations of rela- rotation as in open water the corresponding tively large curvature. moment or pressure where λ is the scale factor. Speed. wavy When a propeller behind a ship or model is A surface. Surface. There Run approach is another corresponding speed based on torque The path taken by a ship when accelerating identity. as compared with that in Shaft power smooth water. model VM. Thrust deduction factor (t) [-] 8-5 . due to a Speed. standard salt. Usually speed loss is determined at See: Efficiency. smooth per revolution at zero thrust).V V wind and waves. according to Froude’s Salt water. which may be either smooth or producing the same thrust at the same rate of rough. advance Surface. shafting. VA is the speed of A surface free from irregularities sensible to advance and n the rate of propeller rotation. When the ship is moving through still lute size arise from the inability to satisfy si. rough Pn Pn A surface marked by sensible or visible irregu- where P is the nominal. These varia. as compared with that in This is similar to the real slip ratio (which see) smooth water. sA = = 1. smooth. Speed reduction Slip ratio. caused mainly by reducing the except that the ship speed V is used instead of setting of the main propulsion plant in order to the speed of advance VA. ground change in absolute size between geometrically The speed of a ship relative to the ground. See: Water. the touch or visible to the naked eye.

model towing. for model at ship-point of self. unlimited. The component of the wake which results from True wind direction or velocity the frictional action of the water when moving See: wind direction or velocity.t )T working behind a hull advancing at speed V and in open water at a speed of advance VA.It is logical to view the effect of the propeller V . behind the hull as causing an increase in resis. Thrust power See: Power. Wake fraction (w. and also Wake.w ). body of water. namely ship speed. manoeu- V . thrust (wT) [-] t = T A propeller will develop the same thrust T at or the same revolutions per unit time. working behind a hull advancing at speed V able to overcome resistance.VA w= and V A = V (1 .e. How- ever. The path along which the centre of gravity of a ship is moving (See Fig. attitude. corresponding rate ler are called nominal wakes. of rotation of propeller shaft. true. measured mile Wake fractions calculated from speed meas- A trial carried out on a measured mile course to ured at the propeller position by Pitot tube. power. Track This depends on identity of thrust. such that fect its resistance. n.V A ). nominal [-] Trial.VA thrust T. where This depends on identity of torque. it is also common practice to look upon Wake fraction. such that Water. when sume that of the total thrust T only RT is avail. Wake fraction. restricted speed at the position of the propeller as a frac. in the absence of the propel- a ship. frictional thrust where practicable.RT Wake fraction. V tance. i. The torque wake fraction will then be thrust” (T . when RT = (1 . wF) [-] Wake. V . shallow 8-6 .See: Resistance augment fraction. as wF = and V A = compared with the corresponding characteris- VA 1 + wF tics in an open. the water boundaries in a horizontal direction. Prin- Taylor expressed the wake speed at the position cipally. is called the thrust deduction fraction. 24). speed (V . wave or orbital The difference between the ship speed V and The component of the wake set up by the or- the speed of advance VA is called the wake bital motion in the waves created by a body or ship. A term describing a body of water in which the tion of the speed of advance. speed. potential The wake is a term used to describe the motion The component of the wake due to the potential imparted to the water by the passage of the flow around a body or ship. wQ = V t.R T ). noulli’s Theorem. determinate the performance characteristics of vane wheels. to as. with velocity and ship’s hull.VA V vring. along the solid surface of a body or ship. the same revolutions per unit time. expressed as a fraction of the V . calling this ratio boundaries are close enough to the ship to af- the wake fraction wF. This “loss of and in open water at a speed of advance VA. thrust. The thrust wake fraction will then be Towing force. T . “restricted” applies to the proximity of of the propeller as a fraction of the ship speed. etc. and other performance characteristics. It is considered to be positive if its pressure relationship in accordance with Ber- direction is the same as that of the ship. torque (wQ) [-] this increase in RT as a deduction from the A propeller will develop the same torque Q at thrust T available at the propeller.VA wT = propulsion V See: Force. n. Froude expressed the wake Water. Wake Wake.

(Positive Wind. perature of 15°C (59°F) with: Wind velocity. vertical direction to affect its resistance.00 kg/m3 (1. if any. angle (χ) [-] * See also relevant items in General Section un. ground.5 per cent salinity and a tem. ship’s motion and the true wind. Wind.) See: Resistance wind. speed. angle apparent (βAW) [-] bow to starboard).9384 lb s2/ft4.9905 lb s2/ft4) The velocity of a natural wind relative to the Kinematic viscosity ν = 1.02587 Kg/m3 (1. to a ship’s heading. The direction of the relative wind with respect to a ship’s heading. true (VWT ) [LT-1] density ρ = 1. Wind velocity. sponding characteristics in water of unlimited Wind direction (θW) [-] depth.27908*10-5ft2/s)* Yaw. 15°C (59°F) with: Wind resistance density ρ = 999. between the instantaneous position of the Wavy surface longitudinal centreplane of a ship when yawing See: Surface. The direction of any natural or atmospheric Water. It Water. if any. with respect characteristics as compared with its corre.22603 10-5 ft2/s)* The velocity of the wind relative to the ship.A term describing a body of water in which the the wind induced by the ship’s motion and the boundaries are closed enough to the ship in a true wind. (1.18831*10-6 m2/s.13902 * 10-6 m2/s. or other performance The direction of the wind . wavy. The angle. (which see) and its mean heading. relative (VWR ) [LT-1] (1. standard salt is the resultant of the wind induced by the Water having 3. angle true (βTW) [-] attitude. measured about the vertical body der “Liquid Properties and Physical Constants” axis. standard fresh wind blowing over the ground or over the sur- Water having zero salinity and a temperature of face of the sea. Kinematic viscosity ν = 1. measured from the true North. manoeuvring. The resultant direction of 8-7 . if any.

.................................. 7-1 Attached cavities ..........................................................4-2 Air disc ............4-2 Angle transverse cross section of a bulbous bow 2- advance (of a propeller blade section) .............................2-1 Analysis pitch ...............2-1 of trim......................2-1 Amplitude ............... 4-1 speed ........................ 2-1 extreme ........ 4-1 Apparent ........................................................................................... 6-1 slip ratio .... of an offset rudder .. 7-1 Base-vented flow or bodies.....................................8-5 maximum (in stopping) ...................................................................................................................... 7-1 body ......................... 7-1 midlength .....................................................8-5 hydrodynamic flow ................................ resistance ...................... 7-1 bulbous bow in longitudinal plane.... 6-1 Axes neutral.............................................8-5 angle........................................................................................... 8-5 over chines .................................2-1 of heel or roll.....................................2-1 pitch....................................................... 7-1 Active rudder . 6-1 planing bottom ...... 7-1 Baseplane ................................2-1 of wave direction..........................6-1 leeway .......................................4-2 of drift or sideslip ...... 2-1 Baseline ................................... 7-2 downwash or sidewash.............................................7-1 still.... 4-1 Area coefficient............ 2-1.......2-1 deadrise ............................ 4-2 transom ............6-1 .........7-1 coefficient........................................... 6-1...... 7-1 co-ordinate ........ effective .. resistance .................................8-5 coefficient..................................... 6-1...................................................5-1 effective advance.................... 4-1 run ...............2-2 vertical path or angle....................................................................................................................................2-2 toe.................2-1 of run ........... 5-1 expanded ............................................................................................... 8-5 maximum section ....................................................................2-1 of zero lift ............. 6-1 maximum section ...............2-1 rudder ............................4-2 content ................................ projected .................... 6-1...... 4-1 Augment fraction......................................................................................... 4-1 projected ................................................................ 2-1 Aspect ratio.... 6-1 maximum over chines ....... 4-1.. 7-1 keel..... geometric ............................................................ ideal ........................................................................................... 4-2 mean over chines .................................................8-5 Advance ..................................... 4-1 fixed ........ 3-1 (of blade)........ 4-1 Back of diverging waves ............................................................................................ 6-1....................1-1 of attack...................... 7-1.......................................................... 7-1 immersed..... 7-1 cavitation............ 4-1. Taylor’s ........................................................................................ 5-1 yaw............... 2-1 midship or midlength section....... 7-1 Bilge......9 OVERALL INDEX OF TITLES Acceleration zone .................................... 5-1 lateral of the hull .....................................4-2 content ratio......................................... 6-1 Appendage ..................... 4-1 control surface ............................2-1 Amidships .............................1-1 of attack............. 7-1 Approach angle (of propeller blade section)............................................... 4-2 Auto correlation .............. 8-5 developed ........................2-1 shaft ................................................................... 8-5 scale effect factor .......................................5-1 of entrance ............................................................................................................................................5-1 of incidence ...........................................................................2-2 of wave encounter ......................... 4-1 above-water projected..................................... 7-1 wind exposed ...................4-2 of attack...............................2-1 of heel or list ................ effective ..........2-1 ratio ............... flight path .....................2-1 Admiralty coefficient ............................................................................................. 4-1 Axial induced velocity..................................................................... 7-1 of design water line................................7-1 speed of .................................................... 6-1........................................................... 4-2 Beam.. 6-1................................................................................................................ 4-1 1 control surface .............6-1 Added mass ..............2-1 roll ..........................................1-1 of attack .................................

. 2-2 Chord ................. 5-1 of lateral area ............................ 2-2 Celerity............................................................................................8-5 bulbous bow ........................................... 4-3 of flotation ............................................................................ 2-2 Choking cavitation number ....................................................5-1 section reference point ...................................................................................................................2-3 Bossing .......1-1 flow ..........4-3 coefficient of R.....................5-1 Blade Cavitation .. 2-3 waterplane............. 5-1 4 surface stability ...... 1-2 Contrarotating propeller...............8-5 of a foil section....................... 2-2 Clearances Breakwater ...................... 4-3 of gravity.............................2-4 growth ..................5-1 section ...........................2-3 energy thickness .................................................................................... 2-2 line ..............2-4 momentum thickness .............................. 6-1 Coefficient Bubble Admiralty ................................................................................................................................................................ designed load ........................................................................ 2-2 (of a foil section).............5-2 Forebody ...................................... 2-3........................................................ 2-2 pressure ...........................2-4 Brake power ........5-2 thickness fraction ....................... 3-1 angle.................7-2 Bulb ....................... 2-2 thickness .............2-3 plan ........................ 2-2 of buoyancy ..................................................................................................... 4-2 number ........................................................... coefficient of .................................................................................................................5-2 plate ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2-2 length .......................................4-3 Cavitating Control ...........7-2 .. 4-2 damage ............ mean................................................................5-2 Blockage ......................................................... 2-2 inception .....................................................................................................5-2 Afterbody .............2-4 Camber............... 3-1 drag .......................................................... 4-2 critical .......................................................................................5-2 Body .2-3 Boss ..............................................................................................2-4 Area coefficient for ram bow ....... 5-1 maximum transverse and midship section 2- rebound............................................................................................................8-5 collapse........................ length of ............................................................. 4-3 wind resistance..........................................................2-4 thickness ............... 3-1 Choked flow .......................................6-1 Parallel middle body................................ 2-3 prismatic.................................................................................. inertia........................... 4-3 Compressibility.......... propeller..................4-3 Breadth........................6-1 ratio .2-3 Bollard pull .........2-4 Buttok ...................................... 5-1 devices .......... 2-3 waterplane............................... propeller ............................... 2-3 Coherency .............. 3-1 Chemo-luminescence ............................................. keel .................. 2-3 prismatic .................................... Froude ........................ 2-2 Centre run..........................................................4-3 layer.. 8-5 length. 2-2 Centerplane .................4-3 (phenomenon) .......................................................................... E......................... 2-2 wakes ...... 4-2 inception .........................................................................................................................5-2 Entrance....... 1-2 Cone.................................2-4 Broaching ...........................7-2 angle ........................................................................... length of ..................................5-2 Cap..2-4 Taylor sectional area coefficient for quasi-propulsive.......5-2 displacement thickness................................ 2-2 of lateral area ............................................................................................................ vertical .......................................................................... 4-3 Collapse pressure ................................................................................................................. length of ............................................................ 3-1 line ..........................................................7-2 Boundary Centrifugal spindle torque ............................................................................... 3-1 Chine ...5-1 area ratio..................................................4-3 Bowline ..................... 2-3 propeller ...1-2 Capillarity ........................................ 3-1 Cavity correction .............................5-2 Bow .............. 2-2 of lateral force .5-2 Block coefficient ........... 5-1 block ...............................................................

....... 1-2 Equipotential line ............................................................................................................................ 7-3 original .......................................... 1-1 Developed angle ................................ ship-model.. for propulsive or quasi.................................... 8-1 or sidewash .. 8-1 Downwash factor...... 2-4.............2-5 Density Equilibrium ..........................................3-1 evolution.............................. 8-1 Directional stability ..... 4-4...................................................... 3-1 Coupling .................................................................... 7-3 Critical Edges.................................................................................... 2-4 shafting ........ 8-1 hull ................................8-1 tidal. 2-4 area....2-5 Depth Expanded moulded of a ship hull....... 7-2 Diagonal ................... 8-2 angle ........................................... 5-2 advance angle........... 6-1.........................................................2-4 made good ............................................................ 5-3 Entrained gas content .......................................................4-3 force ...........................7-3 propulsive efficiency ............................... 7-2................. 8-2 Cycloidal propeller.2-4 Controllability ..1-1 Covariance .......... surface ........................... 8-1 Entrance......... 7-2 power ........................... 2-4 Electrolytic effects ................................................................. 8-2 Damping ...................................................8-2 angle at midship .. 6-1 quasi propulsive or quasi-propulsive coefficient......................... or Induced angle ............................... 3-2............................5-3 Delivered power........................................................... behind hull ................................................................................. 7-2 area ratio ....2-4 allowance......................................................................4-4 Desinent cavitation .....4-3 steered .... 7-2 wake fraction ...... 5-3 Face ......................................7-2 factor..............4-3 Cross pitch .........................................................................................................8-1 Cross-correlation......................................................7-3 cavitation number.......... 7-2 tip ................................................... Angle .............................. 2-4 Emergence ................................................................................................ 6-1 coefficient ............ 6-1 coefficient .................................................................. ship-model.................... for propeller rate of Doublet ......................................................................................................................................... 8-1 Ducted propeller ................3-2 Crash-back............................................................................................. 2-4 propeller....................................................4-3 velocity ...... 2-4............................................................................................................... 7-2 area ratio ......... 8-2 Deadrise relative rotative ....................................... 6-1 Efficiency Current gearing ..... 8-1 Drift ................................4-4 Derivatives............. 5-2 Effective pressure ................................................................................5-3 angle at transom ................7-2 Correlation tactical ............................. model-ship ............................................................................................................... 7-2 stability ................................................ 4-4............ 8-1 Dihedral.............................. leading and trailing........................7-2 allowance coefficient .................................. 2-4 propeller........... 8-1 mechanical .......................................................................................................................................8-1 coefficient.......................7-2 Counter ............... 1-1........................ 1-1 Diameter Controls ... 4-3....8-1 wind................................4-3 area ....................................................................... 1-2 Even Keel ........ 6-1.................................... 1-1 steady-turning ............................................. 7-3 Course Draught .....................6-1 Deadwood ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-2 Dynamic .........................................4-3 surfaces................ 4-3.................. 7-3 measured .4-4 Deceleration zone ... angle of ............. 8-2 Cutwater ..... 4-3.......................... 4-3 propulsive ......................................... stability and control ............................................. 4-3................................................................. 5-3 angle of attack ...3-2 weight .....1-1 mass ........................................ 8-2 Cutaway .... 7-2 area....................... open water ........... 2-4 Drag..................... 6-1 pressure ......... 8-1 or sideslip....

of heave......................................................................................................................2-5 damping.......................................................6-3 overload.................................................................... 7-3 Geosim ................... 6-2.......................................................................6-2 restoring ...............5-3 uniform ........ 3-2 ratio .......................................... rise of ................................................................................................ 8-3 factor ...... 7-3 Froude number ............. 2-5 Froude's Flare... 4-4 natural circular............ 6-5 Gyradius (radius of gyration) .......... 7-3 Group velocity ..........7-3 Fraction Heave to ..... 5-3 circular ...........6-2 wave shearing........................................... 3-2 Geometric Foam cavitation ... perfect or ideal..............................................................................................................6-7 Frame section............................ of heave......................... 8-2 of wave encounter ........ 8-2 of wave encounter... 7-3 thrust deduction ...................................................................................4-4 Fluid.....................4-4 potential..3-2 Fillet ................................................................................................................................................... 6-2 breadth coefficient ................................ circular.......................................................or deadrise ............................. normal or vertical ....... 6-3....................6-2 wave shearing...... protection by .................................................................................................... 3-2 of the saturated liquid .............. 3-2 Generator line .................................................... 8-2 of wave......................................... 3-2 Fully cavitating propeller ................................... 8-3 angle of ......................................8-3 ship-model correlation ......................................................8-3 sway .............................................................................4-4 streamline flow.............. 8-2 Heading .....6-2 Form Head ....................... 4-4 wake ......................6-2 form .................. 6-2 Gravitational acceleration..........................................6-2 magnification .............................................................................. 3-2 Gearing efficiency ...............................2-6 Flow wetted surface coefficient ...........8-3 cross .........................................................................................................................................................6-2 load ............................ pitch or roll ..4-4 Freeboard................ 6-2 Ground speed .....6-2 Factor natural....5-3 transitional... 7-3 Girth ........................................................... 6-2 vortex cavitation .....3-2 Flap ............................. 5-3 ratio ......2-5 Forefoot ........................................................................................................ 8-3 Height .....................5-3 regime............................ horizontal or lateral .............................................................................................................................................6-2 appendage scale effect ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2 content.....................................6-2 resistance augment .........................5-3 turbulent ................ 7-3.......................................................... 3-2 Gap ...........................................................................................................................4-4 components....2-2 Floor....................................... 5-3 diameter ......... 3-2 Gas secondary .6-2 pitch................... 2-5 Harmonic ... 2-5.......................... 2-5 length coefficient ................................................ 6-5 Half-siding ...................................................................................5-3 separated.............. 8-3 Heel or list...4-4 Free cavitation.......... standard ....................2-11 laminar ................................4-4 Force pitch .........................................................8-3 viscous............... 6-2 resistance.......................................................................... 6-2 Fresh water.............. 7-3 wake .3-2 effect...... 2-5................................ (of blade) .........6-2 cavitation ............................................................ pitch or roll ................................................................... 3-2 Fully developed cavity ................................. 3-2 injection.................................................5-4 gas content.......5-3 steady .......... 6-2 Green water ........................ 2-5 Hub ...... 4-4 Frequency ..............................................................4-4 reversed ...................................................................................................... hydrodynamic ........................................................ 2-5............................ 5-3 angle of attack ......5-4 ........ 6-3........ 3-2 Gaseous cavitation .... 8-3 Headreach................................................................................................................................ 8-3 Heaving .................................... 8-2 Frictional tuning .....................................................1-2 exciting .8-3 Fin .

................................................................................ 6-3.............................................. 4-5 Lift ...2-6 Hydrodynamic on waterline .......................... 7-4 Incubation zone ..................... volume or bulk ............................................................................ of planing craft ................1-2 sublayer ......................................................... 2-6 restoring or righting .2-6 fin ....................... 5-4 added. 2-5 List. 4-5 width ratio ...............4-5 axial .............................................................. 5-4 height above the baseline .......................... 4-5 pitch ...............................Hull ....... 5-4 Measured course ......................................................................................................................................................... 4-5 factor .................................................................................7-4 .................. 2-5 Microjets ................ 2-6 damping .................. 4-5 Long crested seas .........2-6 Jet cavitation....... 2-5 section coefficient .................. 3-2 height .......................................8-3 Immersion .............................................2-6 pitch........................... 5-4 Manoeuvring .............................5-4 raked .................. equipotential ........................................................................ 5-4 Mechanical efficiency ........................................................ 4-4 overall .... 2-8 Midship .......................... 4-5 Midstation plane ........................... 2-5 coefficient of Froude.................7-3 Hydrofoil ............................................................. 2-5 Metacentric radius ..................................................................................................................................2-6 pitch angle .........................................................................................6-3 Impact ...................................................... 4-4 overall submerged..2-6 flow angle...... ....................... 5-4 added .......................... of planing craft ....................................................... 5-4 Manoeuvrability..........7-3 of cavitation.................6-3 Left handed propeller ......................8-3 Internal jets........................2-7 Laminar Mile...... or length – efficiency....2-6 Keel ........................................ 8-3 displacement ratio ..................................................................................................................................4-5 Intensity damage .............8-3 ratio ..........................4-5 tangential ....................................6-3 Leeway.......................................... cavitation ..4-5 Hydroelasticity ................................................4-5 radial............................................... 7-4 Incipient cavitation ......................................................................................................2-6 span ........................................ measured....................................... 6-3 coefficient .................................................................................. 4-5 Line......... 5-4 Load Ideal angle of attack ......2-6 Hydraulically smooth surface ... 6-3 destabilising ............2-6 spindle toque ................ 8-3 Mean Induced velocity chord length ....................................................3-3 section ..........4-5 Inward rotation ................................................... 6-3 exciting ...........................................6-3 Hysteresis...................................................................................................................................................... 5-4 Median line ................................2-7 Knuckle .....................6-3 Length .2-6 cavitation number...................................6-3 turning ....... 2-5 keel wetted.............. of planing craft ...........6-3 angle .................... 4-5 Metacentre ......................... 4-5 projected chine ....................................8-3 Intermittent cavitation..............................................................................................8-3 cavitation . 2-6 stabilising ................................................................ 4-5 line .......................................6-3 Inception Maier form ........ 2-6 rolling..........................................2-6 naked ............. 4-5 Lines ................ 5-4 Mass velocity ..................6-3 between perpendiculars ............................................... 5-4 Maximum transverse section coefficient 2-6 Indicated power .......................... 5-4 Modulus of elasticity...................................................................7-3 pressure ............................................ 4-5 fraction in power prediction........................................................................................................6-3 chine wetted..................... coefficient .... 4-5 pitching .............................................................2-6 Irrotational flow ................................................................................... 6-3................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-7 Kort nozzle ...... 8-3 mean wetted.................................... 3-2 Moment Leeward side of a ship ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-3 Lurch............................

............................... 7-4 area........ 6-4........................ transverse ................................................................................... 2-7 rotation ... midstation............................................4-7 mean ........................................................ 4-6 prediction factor .................................................................. 2-8...............4-6 wave..........8-3 Froude ....... 6-4 impact ........................................ 4-5 function or Velocity potential ..............4-6 wave bending....................... principal co-ordinate ............................................................................. 6-4 coefficient................................................ 7-4 angle ..............................2-7 Moulded ................................................. vertical ........................... 5-4 Power Number brake ......................... 4-6 Profile ........ 4-5 delivered ........................................................................................... 2-7 Pitted surface appearance ............ pitch. 7-4 Positional motion stability............................................... 2-7 Centerplane or x-z plane ......................... nuclei ............ 4-6 contrarotating ..3-3 Period .......................................... vertical ............................. 7-4 analysis ....................................................................6-4 Perpendicular side ..........................4-6 yaw ........2-8 Pitch ........................................ Taylor’s (BP) . 2-7 shaft...............................4-6 aft or after ......4-6 Outward rotation ..... 6-3 variable ...................4-7 geometric................ 5-4 effective .............8-3 Outboard rotation .................... 2-7 coefficient................................................................................................................................................... 4-6 Projected angle ............................... 7-4 Pitching ..........4-7 ..................6-4 Nucleus.....................................................................2-7 Natural Plane.................................................................2-8 response operator ............................ torsional .............. 4-6 area ratio .............................................................................................................................. 2-7 total ................. 5-4 in waves..................................... 2-7 Prismatic Phase coefficient .......................... 4-5 Potential Non-stationary cavities ..................................8-3 Onset cavitation ..............................................8-4 Overshoot .................................4-7 hydrodynamic...................4-6 Reynolds .......................................................................................................................................................2-7 period of motions.. 2-7 Plane of the waterplane area............................... 4-5 wake ......................... 2-7 static ........... 6-3 ratio ....7-4 Nominal pitch ............ wave bending.............................................. 6-4 Planform....................................................................................................2-8 of inertia ......8-4 Overhang .......4-7 face ................................................................................................. 6-3 Planes............................ 5-4 dynamic................... 2-7 of symmetry ................................ 5-4 Pounding ................................. horizontal or lateral .. 8-4 Oscillator .....................5-4 of free water surface ................................................. 3-3 coefficient................................................3-3 Nozzle ................ 8-3 thrust . 4-5 loading coefficient .. 4-6 adjustable-pitch ............................................................4-6............8-3 Nucleation .2-8 Neutral Porpoising ....................................................................... 6-4.................... 3-3 coefficient..........................................4-7 effective............................ heave......................... 4-6 Propeller ........... 4-6 controllable-pitch .........................................................................................................8-3 Orange peel surface appearance........................ 6-4 Baseplane or x-y plane............................3-3 midship .................................................3-3 Nose-tail line ............ 6-4..................................8-4 Overload fraction ................................4-6 Offset ........ 6-4.......................................... 7-4 Moment of area...................................2-8 of the waterplane area...................................................................................................... or y-z plane .........................................................................4-6 Ogival section....... ship ....... projected .......3-3 Perpendiculars... Taylor’s (BU)......................... second .................................4-6 Moments transverse ........................ mean increase in ... delivered ............................................................3-3 fore or forward ........................................................ 6-4 indicated..................................... 5-4 flow .................... 2-7 stagnation .......... roll ................ longitudinal ..... 6-3 nominal .......................................................... 7-4 Pressure Partial cavities .....................2-7 Motions.........

................ 6-4............................................8-5 types ................................................................... 5-4 frictional specific ... propeller ................................................................... 8-4 span ............................................................. 1-2 post.7-5 point...8-5 Race........8-5 of gyration ............................................................................................. 4-8 Roll skew induced ............... 6-5...................................................... 4-8 roughness ..7-5 .............. of a ship ..................................... blade section .... 4-8 rate of .............................................. 4-7 in waves........... 8-4 types ......... 2-8 equivalent sand ..... mean increase in .4-8 Rate of weight loss .........................6-4 Quasi-propulsive coefficient or efficiency 8.......................... total....................................... 8-4 coefficient...................6-4 Pumpjet ......................................... 8-5 plane ..........................................7-5 appendages ........................................................... of a body .............................. 8-5 blade .......................... 8-5 propeller ...................................................................................... 4-8 residuary ........................ 4-8 still air ..................................... 4-8 angle........... 4-8 spray.............................. 4-7 frictional.................3-3 vertical axis ................... 4-8 Rolling .........................3-3 interface...............................................................................................7-5 augment fraction ..........8-4 efficiency..............................................4-8 angle ................................................................... mean in waves ........7-5 Resistance................................. 2-8 allowance .......................................................................8-4 supercavitating ....................................................................................7-5 Relative directions..................................................... movable .....................................................................................3-3 Propulsive coefficient or efficiency ........................................... 3-3 thickness ratio ........... 3-3 contra ................................................. 4-8 Revolutions Radial induced velocity...........3-3 steerable ducted ............................. cycloidal ........... 4-7 pressure ................. 7-4 Roughness fineness..................................8-4 fully cavitating ..................................................................................3-3 ring .... 4-8...............................................................3-4 Rake ................................................ 6-5.............................................................. 8-4 stock ........................................................... 4-7 correlation ............8-5 Rectified diffusion .. wind ............... 2-8 Root ............................................................................. 5-5 Rudder ....................................................................................... 7-4 total.................3-3 -hull vortex cavitation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................3-4 Protective coating .................................... 4-8 area................................. 5-5 wavemaking .................................................................................................... 4-8 area.... in waves .................................................. 4-8 angle....... for model-ship ducted ........ 4-8 viscous pressure ................................... 4-7 viscous .....8-5 Re-entrant jets . 4-8 Right handed propeller ................................... 8-4 compound ....................................... 7-5...........7-5 coefficient............................. 6-4 Reynolds number .....................................8-5 slip .................................................................................... function ...7-5 mass or weight ................................... ordered ...... incremental...................................... 5-5 cavitation.................................................................... 4-8 mean increase in rate of.4-8 line angle..5-5 Ratio Rough surface......................................................3-3 ventilated ..................8-5 aspect........................... 7-4 Ram bulb or bow .........................................................................................................................................................7-5 flap .............. 4-8 amplitude operator ....... 4-8 wave pattern ..................................................... 4-7 coefficient....................................7-5 wind.............. 7-4 Reference active .................... 5-5 Resonance .................................................6-4 Pulsating cavity ...............................................3-4 Pseudo cavitation ............. 7-4.................................................................................................................3-3 tandem ........... 5-5 Response ......... 8-4 wavebreaking . 5-5 resistance................................6-5 4 Restricted water ........................................................................7-5 rotative efficiency .................6-5 Radius...........................................8-5 slenderness...................... 8-4 height or magnitude ................................................

........................................................................................................................................................ 2-8 Sono-luminescence ......... 2-9 loss ................................................................... hydrodynamic ....... 2-8 Span....................1-2 area............ 2-11 coefficient...... 2-8 Spectral V-shaped ..........6-6 coefficients ................................... 6-5 Slipstream .4-9 Seakeeping ..........................................6-6 Set back .........................4-9 Salt water......................................8-6 Short-crested sea ........................... 2-8 Kelvin ............................................................... 7-5 index.................. 2-8 Specific ...............................................................................................................................................................6-5 beam sea ... 4-9 of advance of a propeller ...................5-5 area...................................... 8-5 ground ..........4-9 Screening effect ...............................................6-6 Shaft quadrature spectrum............... one dimensional ........................3-4 balanced or semi-balanced ........... 6-5 ratio.. 2-8 -induced rake ........................... 8-5 Skew ................................................................ 3-4 co-spectrum............................................ 6-5.....................3-4 ship shape ....... 7-5 Significant wave height....................1-1 bulb . 2-8 weight or specific gravity ............................................... maximum .................................................................................................................................................................. 8-6 Shoulder .... centrifugal ..................1-2 U-shaped ......................................................6-5 bow sea.................... 7-5 hydrodynamic ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-8 Solubility ............................... 2-9..........6-6 curve ...............4-9 Scale effect ..7-6 Shafting efficiency ............................................... 6-5 Smooth surface ...........................6-5 Seakindliness ........................ apparent ............................................................ 2-8 Skeg ......4-9 angle of.................................................................. 3-4 hump ......... 2-8 Source...........8-2 Sea direction ..........................8-5 head sea ............................................................ 6-5 Smith effect .................................................................. midship ........................... 6-6.............................................. 8-6 Sheet cavitation .............................................6-5 spade............................. standard ....................................... 2-8 volume ......... 5-5 of advance ............6-6 Sectional area density.....................................................................................................8-6 Shallow water .........................6-6 bracket or strut ............... 6-5 Slip following sea . 4-9 Spindle Side axis ..................................6-5 Run ........................................................................................................4-9 leeward ....... 2-6 torque .. 6-5 reduction ........................... real ........................................ 6-5 Slamming ..8-6 quartering sea ......................................................................................................4-9 Sidewash. 4-8 cross-spectrum .. 5-5 Skin friction Screw propeller .......................................................................... 8-5 -back ...................................... 6-6.................. offset......................................................................................... midlength ......4-9 blister........ 6-5 Slapping ............... 7-5 Singing .............. 7-5 Sinkage ..................... 2-9 Spectrum................................................................4-9 types Sink........................................................ 8-5 corresponding .................................................................................................................4-9 Sideslip ........................ 7-5 coefficient..........................................3-4 area....................................8-6 Shear stress ............. 2-8 density..................................................................8-6 Section .4-9 Scoop ..........................................................8-6 Shroud ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8-5 approach........................................................................................................................... 8-5 angle............................... 2-9 amplitude .................................. 4-8 correction in self propulsion test........ 6-5 ratio....................................1-2 peg-top or battered ........................6-6 Separation ..............4-9 windward......................................................................3-4 Sheer line....................4-9 ............................................................... 2-9 true water .................. 2-9 Speed power.................................................... two dimensional ............................................... hydrodynamic ........4-9 Shock free entry ......................... 7-5 approach ......................................................................................

.....................................2-10 Static thrust coefficient ........ 1-1 Taylor’s advance coefficient .....5-6 dynamic ......... 6-6......................................................8-6 vertical............................. 7-6 rough ...................................... 1-1 propeller ............... 4-10 ratio ............................................8-6 Static ............................................................ 2-10 rake ..............6-6 maximum area .......... of a control nuclei ......... 5-5 Sublayer.............................................................................. 2-9 Submergence ..........5-6 Stem .................. 2-9 Tab ............. 7-6 Surface straight-line ....6-6 Spread ...................................................................................................8-6 weathercock ..........................................................................................................4-11 -line ...................................... 2-10 loading coefficient ................... 1-1 wetted............................... laminar ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-10 vortex cavitation ............................................................5-6 Stiffness ..................................................................................................................................... 2-10 deduction factor .........................................................7-6 Strut Total –arm angle ...............................2-10 Station ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-5 surface .................................... 7-6 Supercavitation ..................... wave ...................................................... 7-6 midstation ....................................................................... 7-6 smooth...............4-10 Steady quasi-steady cavities .6-6 Stream index ............... 2-10 in waves............................................................................4-10 Springing .4-10 raked ............ coefficient.......................2-10 Spot cavitation ..............................7-6 Still air resistance ..................... 2-10 power ...............5-6 –arm section angle .........4-10 clipper........................................................................ 2-9 breakdown..........1-2 Standard deviation .......4-10 course ........................... mean increase in ............................2-10 Spongy surface appearance ............................................ 6-6 maximum ..............................................................................................7-6 Steady Tangential induced velocity .....4-10 zone ..............................8-6 Stacking line .. 4-10 wetted.........6-6 Step . 2-10 coefficient .........................4-10 angle ................................................. 7-6 Superventilation ...................................... 2-10 Thruster .......................................................Spoiler ......................................................................... 2-9 Suction side ....5-5 Stability ..............................................................4-10 state ...... 2-10 coefficient.............................................................. 2-10 index ..................................5-6 directional.............................. 2-9 Swaying ..............................................4-10 Steering or course keeping .................................................................................................4-11 counter or fantail .... hinge or stock..............4-11 ......................... 4-10 tension .. 6-6 flows ............................................................................................................................................................. 6-6 Supercavitating Stabiliser ............................................................ 6-6 wavy.................... 2-10 Tip Sternpost ........................ 2-9 Thrust..... 7-6 bracket.......... 6-6 Toe angle of an offset rudder ............................................ static ........... 3-4 or moment.....................................................................4-10 ram ................................................................................. 5-5 Thickness Steepness ratio..3-4 Spray – strip .................................4-11 Stock ......5-6 Sternwheel................................. 2-9 Surging ....................................................................... 2-10 gas content ............................................................................................... 5-5 Taylor’s power coefficient ................... 8-6 Torque ...............................................................................................................4-10 Steerable ducted propeller ............................................................................................................. 2-10 breakdown................................................................................... 7-6 Thoma number.....4-10 icebreaker ....................4-11 Straight-line stability .............. 2-10 cavitation............... 7-6 coefficient ................. 5-5 –vee angle ................................................................................... mean increase in ...................................................4-11 Streak cavitation ......... 2-10 Tilt ................................8-6 contra type .............................................................. 5-5 in waves..........................4-10 Stern .......................................2-11 Transom ..................

. 6-7 speed celerity .................................................................................... 7-7...................................... 6-7...... 3-4 train .........................................6-7 Ventilated length ...................................................................... 7-7 longitudinal .......................6-7 cavities ................................................ 6-7.....................................2-11 True wind direction or velocity..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-8 Viscosity steepness ratio .. 8-6 Wash-back ...............................................................................2-11 Turning ................. 5-6 period..........................................4-11 Trail.......................................................................................... 2-11 inertia coefficients ........................................ 5-6 Weathercock stability ..........................6-7 cavitation number.......................................... angle of ............. 8-7 angle apparent .................... 5-6 profile.4-11 Transfer...................8-7 Transom ......................................6-7 Vertical-axis propeller ..................... angle of.............. 5-6 amplitude .... apparent ................................................6-7 propeller ......................... 7-7 area coefficient................... 7-7 Wash-down .................................. 4-11 frequency .............................. 7-7 shallow ...... 8-7 direction .............................. 3-4 instantaneous elevation ...... significant ..............8-7 cavities ..................6-7 flow ....................... measured mile ....................... 6-7 pressure ................................................... 7-7 transverse ........................................ 8-7 Weight loss....................... 4-11 height.......... 2-11 maximum .....2-11 Trial...............................2-11 Tumblehome ................................. 1-2.5-6 self-propulsion ....... for model at ship-point of Wall nuclei ....................................6-7 Velocity height...........6-7 induced ................... 4-11 number .................................... 7-7 area...........8-5 fraction. 5-6 period .......................4-11 Track ............................................................2-11 Unsteady Wave.......................................5-7 fraction ............... 8-7 Wind frictional ...................... apparent. 5-6 Wavy surface ............................. 1-1 angle of diverging ................6-7 or transient.........................................8-8 potential... 8-6 Warp ..............................................................................................................................6-7 index ........... 8-7 Resistance ................................................................2-11 steady .......................................................................8-7 Towing force.................................................................................................................................................. nominal ...............................................................6-7 Variable pitch ................................................................................6-7 Ventilation ...... torque ........................... 6-4.............................................8-7 maximum (in stopping) ....................6-8 coefficient of dynamic .......... 1-2 encounter.................................................... 7-7 Water function ..................................................................................7-7 Wake...... designed load ........................................... 5-6 length.......................................................................... 5-6 standard salt ................... 1-2................................ 4-11 slope of surface .............................6-7 Virtual mass ......................................................6-8 Volume loss ....................................................................................4-11 Trailing vortex cavitation ............................................................. 5-6 Wash-up ........................6-8 fraction.................................................................... apparent.....................................................2-11.................................... 8-6 Waterplane .................................................. 2-11 Water jet .........................................2-11 Trim ................. trailing .................................8-8 Vortex cavitation ........2-11 angle of...............6-7 potential.. 6-7 restricted ......................................................... 8-7 Wetness ......................8-8 .......8-7 Transient .......................................................4-11 Trapped gas .........6-7 inception ..... 5-6 encounter period ...............2-11 Turtleback or turtleback deck ...........6-8 coefficient of kinematic .......6-8 fraction..... 7-7 wave or orbital .......................................................................................................................................................................6-7 Vapour direction..................... thrust .......................................................... 8-7 Whipping ....................... 6-7 standard fresh .....................................................................3-5 Vaporous cavitation ..........................................................Tow point ... 5-6 components ................................................ 3-4 trochoidal ............................. 5-6 Waterline .. 8-7 designed .......................................................................

........ 7-7 Windmilling ...................... 7-7........................ resistance ..... 8-8 velocity.... 8-8 Yawing ...................................... 8-8 angle....................................................................................................7-7 Windward side...... 4-11 Zigzagging .............................. true.... relative ..................................... 2-11 ......................... 6-8..................... 8-8 Yaw velocity...................... 6-8.........