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With Dictionary Method

Bincy Baby, Soumya D S

the image. RVIN can have any value between 0 and 255,

Abstract The image denoising is a major problem in the hence its removal is very difficult.

field of image processing. Mixed noise is the combination of Many removing techniques are used to remove either AWGN

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and impulse noise (IN). or IN [1-4]. Impulse noise is effectively removing by using

Mixed noise removal from the natural image is difficult task.

non linear filters. Non linear filters can preserve edges, and

Many mixed noise removal methods developed so far uses two

separate steps. i.e. first detect the impulse noise pixels and then

powerful than linear filters, because reducing noise levels

remove the noise. In this work, a method is proposed that uses without blurring edges. Non linear filters such as median filter

wavelet transform along with dictionary method. There is no [5] are used to remove random valued impulse noise. It is used

explicit impulse detection step and can process AWGN and IN to reduce the amount of intensity variation between one pixel

simultaneously. It achieves very good result for mixed noise and other pixel. One disadvantage of median filter is image

removal. Wavelet techniques are very effective for mixed noise local structure can be destroyed.

removal, because of its ability to capture the energy of a signal in

few energy transform value. In this paper, Discrete Wavelet To achieve better image local structure weighted median filter

Transform (DWT) and followed by KSVD algorithm and [6], center weighted median filter are used, but it cannot

weighted encoding dictionary approach is proposed. The determine the current pixel is noise or not. Another way is to

experimental result shows that denoised image has high PSNR detect IN pixels only and leave the uncorrupted pixels

value for mixed noise and the quality of image is very well. unchanged. AWGN is the important noise model in the image

processing. Linear filters such as Gaussian filtering can be

used to remove AWGN, it can smooth noise efficiently but

Index TermsDictionary method, Mixed Noise, KSVD they will destroy the fine details of image such as edges,

algorithm, Discrete wavelet Transform

texture etc. To solve this problem non linear filter such as

Bilateral filter [7] is developed. Bilateral filters can preserve

edges.

I. INTRODUCTION

Image is corrupted by noise during acquisition or Mixed noise removal is very difficult task for image

transmission. Denoising means recovery from noise, ie processing. Mixed noise is the combination of IN and

reconstruct a signal from noisy one. Noise is a major problem AWGN. The median based signal dependent rank ordered

in the field of image processing. In image, denoising means (SDROM) (8) filter can be used for mixed noise

techniques are used to eliminate noise retaining their removal. It is very important to suppress of mixed noise in an

important signal details such as edges and texture. In image, and visually unpleasant artifact can be produce by

otherwise denoising is the process of removing unwanted SDROM filter. Switching bilateral filter (SBF) is another

noise in order to restore the original image. Two types of the filter used for noise removal. Based on the method of

noise can be present in the images, namely Additive White detection and replacement SBF is used. We cannot find

Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and impulse noise (IN). In AWGN, whether a current pixel is noise or not in SBF. Fuzzy Impulse

each pixel value is characterized by a zero mean distribution. Noise Detection and Reduction Method (FIRDM) (9) filter is

the other method for mixed noise removal. IN detection step

AWGN is occurred by motion of electrons in camera sensors and noise reduction step are the two steps of FIRDM filter. It

and circuits. It can be introduced at any frequency at any time. can preserve edge sharpness. SPIN can be effectively

IN is a short noise acting on a short interval of time. It can be removed by FIRDM filter, but it is not satisfactory removing

introduced due to the synchronization error in transmission, ie RVIN, because RVIN may not produce large gradient value.

error occurs in image signal while an image is being sent

electronically from one place to another. In this each pixel of

Many mixed noise removal methods are based on the method

the image is corrupted by IN, in such a way that some portion of detection and replacement. First is the IN pixels detection

of the pixels are randomly changed while others remain and second step is eliminate noise. AWGN and IN is strong

unchanged. In general IN are mainly of two types Salt and such a two phase task will become less effective. The trilateral

Pepper Impulse Noise (SPIN) and Random Valued Impulse filter (TF) is the combination of rank order absolute

Noise (RVIN). SPIN is occurring white and black pixels. This difference (ROAD) and BF. The main advantage that does not

need separate IN pixel detection step, and also a simple

type of the noise produces sharp and sudden disturbances in

model. It can effectively remove mixed AWGN and RVIN,

but its performance in removing mixed AWGN and SPIN is

BINCY BABY, Electronics and communication Department, Kerala

University, Younus College Of Enginerring and Technology, Kollam , India

not satisfactory. In this paper, wavelet transform along with

SOUMYA D S, Electronics and communication, Kerala University, dictionary method is proposed. The proposed method can

Younus College Of Enginerring and Technology , Kollam, India.

233 www.erpublication.org

Mixed Noise Removal Using Wavelet Transform With Dictionary Method

effectively remove the mixed noise while preserving the A. Pre filtering

image information well. Using a dictionary and coding vector any image can be coded.

Before applying the noisy image to a filter, the noise content

II. WAVELET TRANSFORM WITH DICTIONARY is reduced. This process involves a prefiltering step, forward

METHODS wavelet transform, KSVD algorithm, thresholding and

inverse wavelet transform. The ability to capture the energy of

A. Mixed Noise a signal from few energy transform value is effectively

implemented using wavelet transform technique. Let m be the

Consider the image model, p is denoted an image and by observed image, and m , p R1 X R2 be the size of noisy and

and by pi,j its pixel at location (i, j). Let q be the noisy clean image respectively. Every small image can be sparsely

observation of p. For additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), represented as the linear combination of a pre-learned

each noisy pixel pi,j in q is modeled as qi,j = pi,j+ui,j, where dictionary. Threshold can be calculated using soft

ui,j is i.i.d. noise and follows zero mean Gaussian distribution. thresholding technique. After applying inverse wavelet

The most commonly used IN are Salt-and-Pepper Impulse transform, the coefficient for noise less image is obtained.

noise (SPIN) and Random-Valued Impulse noise (RVIN). This image has high PSNR value and so the clear image is

Denote by [dmin, dmax] the dynamic range of q. The SPIN obtained after the prefiltering.

noise model can be described as follows: qi,j = dmin with

probability x/2, qi,j = dmax with probability x/2, and qi,j =

pi,j with probability 1-x, where 0 x 1. The RVIN noise

model can be defined as: qi,j = di,j with probability y , and qi,j

= pi,j with probability 1-y, where 0 y 1 and di,j is

uniformly distributed within [dmin, dmax] .

The signal observation model for the mixed noise types are

described as follows

(a) AWGN mixed with SPIN Fig.2. Block Diagram of Prefiltering Technique

q i,j = dmax, with probability x/2 B. KSVD ALGORITHM

pi,j+ui,j, with probability 1-x

Pixels are selected from the input

(a) AWGN mixed with SPIN and RVIN Unused pixels are replaced with minimally

represented signal

Signals which uses kth pixels are identified

dmin, with probability x/2

q i,j = dmax, with probability x/2 k th pixels is deselected from the dictionary

d i,j with probability y(1-x)

Error coding matrix is calculated for the signals

pi,j+ui,j, with probability (1-y)(1-x)

The error matrix is minimized with rank-1

III DENOISING MODEL approximate from SVD

The denoising process is done with two filters. The filtering

Process is done in two steps. . In the first technique KSVD C. Post filtering

algorithm and discrete wavelet transform followed by a

With the help of a coding vector and pre-learned dictionary

thresholding method is utilized. In the post filtering technique

the image can be coded as

the error between the noisy image and precoded image is

calculated and the error is minimized. So that a clear image P= (1)

can be obtained as the output. The proposed method does not Where is the set of all coding vector i . The encoding model

perform impulse pixel detection and AWGN removal for AWGN is

separately but conducts the two tasks in a unified framework.

= arg min q22 (2)

The data fidelity term q22 in Eq. (2) lead to a MAP

solution for AWGN removal. The data fidelity term can be

changed by including an appropriate weight term for the

mixed noise removal.

=arg minW1/2(q-)22 (3)

where W is a diagonal matrix having elements Wii=Wi

Wii=exp (-aei2 ) (4)

The Difference between noisy pixel and error pixel can be

calculated as e = q- (5)

Fig.1.Block Diagram of mixed noise removal

The block diagram of post filter is shown below.

234 www.erpublication.org

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)

ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2015

(a) (b)

D. The Dictionary

Five high quality images (fig.4) are used for training the

dictionary. 876,359 patched are extracted from the images

and are clustered together to form 200 clusters using K-means

clustering algorithm. A local dictionary is learned for each

cluster and centroid is calculated. The dictionary associated

with the closest cluster is selected and the given patch is

encoded using dictionary.

(c)

Fig.5. Denoising result of Lena image. (a) Original image.

(b) Image corrupted by mixed noise. (c) Denoising image

Fig.4.Five high-quality image

V. CONCLUSION

E. Algorithm of Weighted Encoding Dictionary Method

Wavelet transform along with dictionary method effectively

Input: Dictionary , noisy image q;

mitigates the effect of mixed noise in images. The image

Initialize W, corrupted by mixed noise shows an irregular distribution

which is not so easy to remove. Wavelet techniques are very

Initialize e

effective and have high PSNR values. Weighted encoding

Output: Denoised image P technique reduces the noise to the minimum level. Wavelet

transform with dictionary method has to remove AWGN and

Loop: iterate on K=1,2k; IN jointly. The distribution of mixed noise is more irregular

1 Compute (k) by Eq. (2) than gaussian noise. In this paper along with wavelet

transforms ,weighted encoding dictionary , image sparsity and

2 Compute p(k) =(k)

are integrated into a single unified framework, which is called

3 Calculate the weights W by e(k) using Eq.(4) regularization process to improve the stability and efficiency

of weighted encoding model over the noisy image. The

results clearly show that output performance is better than

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT other existing methods.

The proposed method reconstructs clear image with less

artifacts and also the image edges are sharper. Thus a clean,

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

visually pleasant denoised image can be obtained as output.

Fig. 5(a) shows the original image and Fig.5 (b) shows the The authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers for

Lena images corrupted by mixed noise. Wavelet Transform their constructive comments and valuable suggestions that

with Dictionary method produces an image with better quality helped in the improvement of this paper.

compared to the existing methods. Experimental result shows

image with high PSNR value for different standard

deviations. For a given variance = 10, the PSNR value for REFERENCES

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Mixed Noise Removal Using Wavelet Transform With Dictionary Method

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Tech in ECE from Baselious second college

of engineering Kollam. Currently doing M.

Tech student in AE&I, YCET Kollam,

Kerala.

degree B.Tech in ECE from university

of engineering karyavattom. Also she

received her masters degree M.Tech in

ECE from Narayana guru College of

Eng. Mangalumude. Currently she is

working as Asso. Professor in Dept. of

ECE at Younus College of Engineering

and Technology, Kollam, Kerala

236 www.erpublication.org

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