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2011 Mid-Continent Transportation Research Symposium

,
August 18-19, 2011, Ames

Case histories of ground
improvement methods for road
or airport construction

Jian Chu
James M. Hoover Chair Professor, Iowa State University
(Formerly Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Shuwang Yan
Tianjin University, China

1

Outline
 To illustrate BRIEFLY three ground
improvement methods and their
applications using three case histories
 The three methods are
 Vacuum preloading (+ surcharge) method
for soft clay treatment for a road
 Explosive replacement method
for a highway construction
 Drainage enhanced dynamic compaction
method for a runway construction

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Vacuum Preloading
(+ Fill Surcharge)
Method

3

Principle

Vacuum Surcharge
Membrane

sand blanket

PVDs

80 kPa = 11.6 psi
4

Vacuum Preloading Procedure Install a layer of sand blanket and vertical drains 5 .

Place horizontal pipes 6 .

Install field monitoring instruments 7 .

Seal with membranes 8 .

Apply vacuum (or/and surcharge) 9 .

5 m • Borehole ⊕ Field Vane  Water stand pipe  Inclinometer + Multi-level settlement gauge ∆ Pore-water pressure transducer 10 . Case Study: a road on very soft clay     51 m ⊕ • ⊕ • + ∆ + ∆ SECTION I SECTION II 364.

5 2 0 0 0 4 4 4 8 8 8 Depth (m) Depth (m) Depth (m) 12 12 12 16 16 16 Wo PL LL 20 20 20 20 kPa = 2. LL.9 psi 11 . e c u (kPa) 0 20 40 60 80 0 10 20 30 40 0. PL and Wo Void ratio.5 1 1.

Vacuum load and settlement versus duration 12 .

0 m -0.5 m -1.5 m 7.0 9.0 -0.2 Settlement measured at Section I 13 .5 m 13.4 -0.8 2.0 m 5.5 m -1.6 0.0 m 15.2 Settlement (m) -0. Duration (days) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0.

5 m 18.0 m -20 8.5 m 11.0 m -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 Pore water pressure reductions in Section 1 14 .0 m 6. Duration (days) 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 1.0 m Pore water pressure reduction (kPa) -10 4.0 m -30 14.

0 Initial 2 30 days Pore water 60 days 90 days pressure 4 variation 6 versus uo (h) depth 8 profiles Elevation (m) 10 12 14 us 16 18 Section I 20 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Pore w ater pressure (kPa) 15 .

Undrained shear strength (kPa) Water content (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 20 40 60 80 0 0 Before 2 2 After Before After 4 4 6 6 8 8 Depth (m) Depth (m) 10 10 12 12 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 16 .

 It is essential to measure both the settlements and pore water pressures in order to calculate the degree of consolidation and evaluate the performance of soil improvement. 17 .  The effective depth of vacuum preloading is much more than 10 m. It is cheaper and faster compared to fill surcharge.Remarks on Vacuum Preloading Method  Vacuum preloading is applicable to the improvement of soft clay.

Explosive Replacement Method 18 .

19 . Basic Idea  Explosive Compaction has been a method used to compact loose granular soil for many years.  Explosive Replacement is to use explosive to remove a soft clay layer and replace it with crushed stones. It is applicable when the soft soil layer to be improved is relatively shallow and stones are readily available.

8 4~6 Section that has been 6.5 Treated replacedsection of 0.8 by crushed Soft clay the foundation stones Charge 20 .8~8. Pile of stone Crushed Profile before Profile beforeimproved crushed for filling improvement 1 stones 5~6 1 1:0 .

21 .

Profile after improved Backfill Soft Silt Clay 22 .

Installation of charges 23 .

24 .

25 .

Backfill and leveling off 26 .

8 Gravel Weathered sandstone bedrock Soil profile along a valley 27 .5 Vegetation Silty soil 8 Soft clay 1. Case Study: A Highway Project 0.

Conceptual Design for the Highway 28 .

0 Crushed stones.5 m Sandstone with top 1~2 m heavily weathered 29 . densely packed 5~6 m Crushed stone embedded in clay 8~9 m Silty gravel 9~10.

ks = 180 MPa 30 .

31 .

as part of tunneling for the same road project). It is effective when the soft soil layer to be replaced is less than 10 m. Remarks on Explosive Replacement  The method is faster than preloading and cheaper than deep cement mixing.g. 32 .  It is particularly suitable to road construction in mountainous areas where rocks are available (e..

Drainage Enhanced Dynamic Compaction (DC) Method 33 .

 The problem may be solved by installing vertical + horizontal drains in soil. 34 . Basic Idea  The dynamic compaction method has often been used for the densification of sand. It normally does not work for clay because excess pore pressures cannot be dissipated quickly.

5 m thick) on top can be used to accelerate pore pressure dissipation. Method  Vertical drains (~ 1.5 m spacing) with a sand blanket (~ 1. 35 .  Compaction energy needs to be applied from low to high: 1st round 900 kNm and subsequent 1600 kNm after 80% pore pressure dissipation.

Case Study: a Runway Project km The soil profile along the runway 36 .

0 m db = 2.5 ~ 13 m 37 . dt = 2.5 m W = 12 t =120 kN H = 7.

~ 1 day for 80% PWP to dissipate Excess pore pressure change measured at a section with PVDs. 38 .

Avoid high-energy compaction Excess pore pressure change measured during high-energy compaction in a section with PVDs. 39 .

Comparison of CPT before and after compaction 40 .

 The compaction energy applied has to be within a certain limit. Remarks on DC  The method works for cohesive soil ONLY when drains + sand blanket are used.  The method works better for soil with low plasticity (PI <15%). 41 .  The depth of improvement < 6 m.

” State-of-the-art R eport. Chu. 17th International Conf on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. pp. 5-10 Oct. and Mengé. Egypt. S. . Alexandria. U. “Construction Processes. (2009). Klotz. P. 3006-3135 (130 pages). 4. J. Varaksin. Vol.

Thank you! 43 .