0 views

Uploaded by Robert Foost

In math

- History test
- In Science Class
- Restored
- Restored.txt
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life
- Maybe You Should Talk to Someone: A Therapist, HER Therapist, and Our Lives Revealed
- Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike
- Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It
- The Library Book
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Yes Please
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate

You are on page 1of 1

**The mathematical theory of probability arose from attempts to formulate mathemat
**

ical descriptions of chance events, originally in the context of gambling, but l

ater in connection with physics. Statistics is used to infer the underlying prob

ability distribution of a collection of empirical observations. For the purposes

of simulation, it is necessary to have a large supply of random numbers or mean

s to generate them on demand.

Algorithmic information theory studies, among other topics, what constitutes a r

andom sequence. The central idea is that a string of bits is random if and only

if it is shorter than any computer program that can produce that string (Kolmogo

rov randomness) this means that random strings are those that cannot be compressed

. Pioneers of this field include Andrey Kolmogorov and his student Per Martin-Löf,

Ray Solomonoff, and Gregory Chaitin. For the notion of infinite sequence, one n

ormally uses Per Martin-Löf's definition. That is, an infinite sequence is random

if and only it withstands all recursively enumerable null sets. The other notion

s of random sequences include (but not limited to): recursive randomness and Sch

norr randomness which are based on recursively computable martingales. It is sho

wn in Yongge Wang [11] that these randomness notions are generally different

Randomness occurs in numbers such as log (2) and pi. The decimal digits of pi co

nstitute an infinite sequence and "never repeat in a cyclical fashion." Numbers

like pi are also considered likely to be normal, which means their digits are ra

ndom in a certain statistical sense.

Pi certainly seems to behave this way. In the first six billion decimal places o

f pi, each of the digits from 0 through 9 shows up about six hundred million tim

es. Yet such results, conceivably accidental, do not prove normality even in bas

e 10, much less normality in other number bases.[12]