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Chapter 7 Challenges

Questions
1. What is the frequency of the signal sent by tone(9, 38000, 8)? How
long does this call send the signal for? What I/O pin does the IR LED circuit
have to be connected to in order to broadcast this signal?
38 kHz is the frequency of the signal. Although the 8 in tone calls ms parameter
calls for a signal that lasts for 8 ms, the book said that testing indicated it lasted for
1.1 ms. The IR LED must be connected to the digital pin 8 socket for the tone signal
to make it flash on/off at 38 kHz.
2. What has to happen after the tone command to find out if the IR
receiver detects reflected infrared?
The code has to pause for 1 ms with delay(1) and then store the IR value by copying
whatever digitalRead returns to a variable; for example, delay(1) followed by irLeft
= digitalRead(10).
3. What does it mean if the IR detector sends a low signal? What does it
mean when the detector sends a high signal?
A low signal means that 38 kHz IR was detected, which means that the 38 kHz
flashing light the IR LED transmitted must have reflected off an object in its path. In
other words: object detected. A high signal means no 38 kHz IR was detected, so,
there wasnt any object to reflect the IR LEDs light. In other words: object not
detected.
4. What happens if you change the value of a resistor in series with a red
LED? What happens if you change the value of a resistor in series with an
infrared LED??
For both red and infrared LEDs, a smaller resistor will cause the LED to glow more
brightly. A larger resistor results in dimmer LEDs. In terms of results, brighter IR
LEDs make it possible to detect objects that are farther away. But it can also have
annoying side effects, like seeing the reflection of the surface it is rolling on and
misinterpreting it as an obstacle.
Exercises
1. Modify a line of code in IrInterferenceSniffer so that it only monitors
one of the IR detectors.
Lets remove the left IR detector from the code. Comment out int irLeft =
digitalRead(10) by placing // to its left. Then, change if((irLeft == 0) || (irRight ==
0)) to if(irRight == 0).
2. Modify AvoidTableEdge so that when it makes the BOE Shield-Bot back
up, it also turns a little so that it doesnt get stuck going straight back at the
same drop-off.
Remember that linear wheel speed control is in the -100 to 100 range. So -75
should be a little slower than full speed backward. With that in mind, try changing
maneuver(-200, -200, 250) to maneuver(-75, -200, 250).
Projects
1. Design a BOE Shield-Bot application that sits still until you wave your
hand in front of it, then it starts roaming.
int irLeft = 1; // Declare IR variables and
int irRight = 1; // initialize both to 1

while((irLeft == 1) && (irRight == 1)) // Wait for detection


{
irLeft = irDetect(9, 10, 38000); // Check for object on left
irRight = irDetect(2, 3, 38000); // Check for object on right
}

2. Design a BOE Shield-Bot application that slowly rotates in place until it


detects an object. As soon as it detects an object, it locks onto and chases
the object. This is a classic SumoBot behavior.
int irLeft = 1; // Declare IR variables and
int irRight = 1; // initialize both to 1

while((irLeft == 1) && (irRight == 1)) // Wait for detection


{
irLeft = irDetect(9, 10, 38000); // Check for object on left
irRight = irDetect(2, 3, 38000); // Check for object on right
}

3. Design a BOE Shield-Bot application that roams, but if it detects


infrared interference, it sounds the alarm briefly, and then continues
roaming. This alarm should be different from the low battery alarm.
void loop() // Main loop auto-repeats
{
int irLeft = irDetect(9, 10, 38000); // Check for object on left
int irRight = irDetect(2, 3, 38000); // Check for object on right

if((irLeft == 0) && (irRight == 0)) // If both sides detect


{
maneuver(200, 200, 20); // Forward 20 ms, chase object
}
else if(irLeft == 0) // If only left side detects
{
maneuver(-200, 200, 20); // Left toward object 20 ms
}
else if(irRight == 0) // If only right side detects
{
maneuver(200, -200, 20); // Right toward object 20 ms
}
else // Otherwise, no IR detects
{
maneuver(200, 200, 20); // Forward 20 ms
}
}