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# ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY

## With Picket Fences and Photogates

Izic Moate, kenzie kuntz, katelynn fields
BACKGROUND:
We say an object is in free fall when the only force acting on it is the Earths gravitational force. No other forces can
be acting; in particular, air resistance must be either absent or so small as to be ignored. When the object in free fall
is near the surface of the earth, the gravitational force on it is nearly constant. As a result, an object in free fall
accelerates downward at a constant rate. This acceleration is usually represented with the symbol g.

Physics students measure the acceleration due to gravity using a wide variety
of timing methods. In this experiment, you will have the advantage of using
a very precise timer connected to the computer and a Photogate. The
Photogate has a beam of infrared light that travels from one side to the other.
It can detect whenever this beam is blocked. You will drop a piece of clear
plastic with evenly spaced black bars on it, called a Picket Fence. As the
Picket Fence passes through the Photogate, the computer will measure the
time from the leading edge of one bar blocking the beam until the leading
edge of the next bar blocks the beam. This timing continues as all eight bars
pass through the Photogate. From these measured times, the program will
calculate the velocities and accelerations for this motion and graphs will be
plotted.

OBJECTIVE:
Measure the acceleration of a freely falling body (g) fairly precisely using a Picket Fence and a Photogate.

MATERIALS:
Computer, Vernier Photogate, Vernier Lab Pro, Picket Fence, Logger Pro, clamp or ring stand, data CD.

PROCEDURE:
1. Fasten the Photogate rigidly to a ring stand so the arms extend horizontally, as shown in Figure 1 above. The entire
length of the Picket Fence must be able to fall freely through the Photogate. To avoid damaging the Picket Fence,
make sure it has a soft surface (such as newspaper) to land on.

2. Open Logger Pro from your desktop and then open the Physics with Vernier folder and the file 05 Picket Fence.

3. Observe the reading in the status bar of Logger Pro at the top of the screen. This is
circled in red in the picture shown to the right.

Block the Photogate with your hand; note that the Gate State is shown as Blocked.
Remove your hand and the display should change to Unblocked. If not, slide open the
door inside the photogate.

4. Click to prepare the Photogate. Let it become a STOP button before you drop the picket fence. Hold
the top of the Picket Fence and drop it through the Photogate, releasing it from your grasp completely before it
enters the Photogate. Be careful when releasing the Picket Fence. It must not touch the sides of the Photogate as it

falls and it needs to remain vertical without twisting. Click to end data collection ONLY if it does not
stop automatically.
5. Examine your graphs. The slope of a velocity vs. time graph is a measure of acceleration. If the velocity graph
is approximately straight line of constant slope (diagonal line), the acceleration is constant. If the acceleration of
your Picket Fence appears constant, fit a straight line to your data. To do this, click on the velocity graph once to
select it, then click the Linear Fit button (circled in the picture below) to fit the line y = mt + b to the data. PASTE
YOUR FIRST VELOCITY GRAPH WITH THE LINEAR FIT ON IT IN THE TABLE BELOW:

## Paste velocity graph here:

6. To establish the reliability of your slope measurement, repeat the drop and readings four more times and then find
your average. Do not use drops in which the Picket Fence hits or misses the Photogate. RECORD THE VELOCITY
GRAPH SLOPES!

DATA TABLE:
Trial 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE
Slope
(m/s2) 9.697 9.770 9.862 9.685 9.809 9.76

QUESTIONS: BE SURE TO ANSWER WHILE THE GRAPHS OF THE LAST TRIAL ARE STILL
VISIBLE ON THE SCREEN!

1. Describe in words the shape of the position vs. time graph for the free fall.

## as the speed accelerates the line curves.

2. Describe in words the shape of the velocity vs. time graph. How is this related to the shape of the position vs. time
graph?

the velocity stays in a straight line. by how steady the speed is while moving.

3. Compare your average measurement to the generally accepted value of g (from a textbook or other source), by

|acceptedexperimental|
% error = accepted 100 .5097
4. Inspect your velocity graph. How would the associated acceleration vs. time graph look? To determine this, change
the upper graph to acceleration vs. time as follows...
Manually set the y axis to a minimum of -11 and a maximum of +11 by clicking on the top and bottom
numbers of the y-axis scale.
Click on the y-axis title label (right on the words) and select Acceleration.

Click the STAT button, to display the Statistics Box. This will have the MEAN number displayed.
Paste your acceleration graph in the box below and write a statement comparing the MEAN value from the
acceleration graph to the average of the velocity-time graph slopes from the data table:

## The mean of the slope is higher than

the average.

5. Would dropping the Picket Fence from higher above the Photogate change any of the data you
measured? Try it, write a statement about what you found, and paste a copy of your velocity graph:
What did you find? Paste velocity graph below:
The graph does not change.

6. Would lightly tossing the Picket Fence upward through the Photogate, change any of your
measurements? Try it, write a statement about what you found, and paste a copy of your velocity graph.
What did you find? Paste velocity graph below:
The graph changes by having a steeper slope and
going the opposite direction