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IB Biology SL Vocabulary Review

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1. 3:1 ratio - Mendel crossed 2 varietes of peas together
- Found that the offspring of F1 generation had the same characteristics as one of the parents
- Allowed the F1 generation to self-fertilize (each plant produced offspring by fertilizing its own female gametes
with its own male gametes)
- Found that the offspring of F2 generation contained both of the original parental types in a 3:1 ratio

- Each plant has 2 alleles of the gene
- Parents are homozygous (have 2 same alleles, either SS or ss)
- F1 plants are heterozygous (have 2 different alleles)
- F1 plants all have character of one of the parents because that parent has the dominant allele (S) while the other
has the recessive allele (s)
- When crossing the now heterozygous parents, 1/4 of the F2 generation are homozygous

--> 3 expressing the dominant (S) and 1 expressing the recessive (s)
2. Absorption The process of taking substances into cells and the blood. In humans, nutrients are absorbed by the epithelium.
Rate depends on the surface area of the epithelium.
3. Absorption

Shows the range of wavelengths absorbed by a photosynthetic pigment (mainly chlorophyll).

Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light most effectively. Small amounts of green light are absorbed but most is
reflected, making structures containing chlorophyll appear green.

The spectrum of visible light is the range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm that is used in human vision (violet
= shortest, red = longest). The same range is used by photosynthesis because the photosynthetic pigments do not
absorb other wavelengths
4. Acquired Characteristics that cannot be inherited/passed down to offspring, so they are lost when the individual dies
e.g. the larger muscles and bones in the right arm of a tennis player will not be passed down because the genes
that influence the size of the muscles and bones has not actually been altered
5. Action The depolarization and repolarization of a neuron due to facilitated diffusion of ions across the membrane through
potential voltage-gated ion channels.

- If potential of across membranes rises from -70mV to -50 mV, voltage-gated sodium channels open and sodium
ions diffuse in down the gradient.
- The entry of positive sodium ions causes the inside of the neuron to develop a net positive charge compared to
the outside, so the potential is reversed.

- When the membrane polarity reverses, potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse out down the
- The exit of positive potassium ions causes the inside of the cell to develop a net negative charge again compared
with outside, so the potential is restored.

6. Action spectra

The efficiency of photosynthesis is not the same in all wavelengths of light. The graph shows the percentage use of
the wavelengths of visible light in photosynthesis.

Maximum photosynthesis rates are in blue light, with another but lower peak in red light. Green light is used least
effectively, only by accessory pigments that absorb some of it
7. Active site Region on an enzyme that complements the shape and chemical properties of the substrate (reactant), thus
allowing it to bind in order to speed up the reaction in the substrate. The substrate is more quickly converted into
its products and released. More substrates can bind per second.
8. Active -Can move substances against concentration gradient (FROM region of LOWER concentration to HIGHER
transport concentration)

- Use protein pumps

- Transports only particular substances, so cells control what is absorbed and what is expelled

- Work in a specific direction (only enter on one side and exit on the other)

1. Particle enters the pump from the side with a LOWER concentration
2. Particle binds to a specific site. Other types of particles can't bind
3. Energy from ATP is used to change the shape of the pump
4. Particle is released on the side with a HIGHER concentration and the pump then returns to its original shape
9. Active -Movement of substances against concentration gradient (FROM region of LOWER concentration to HIGHER
transport concentration)
10. Active Nutrients are pumped against the concentration gradient by specific pump proteins in the membrane
11. Adaptation A characteristic that makes an individual suited to its environment and way of life
12. Adaptive Evolution of groups from a common ancestor adapted to specialized modes of life
e.g. pentadactyl limb in amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
13. Adhesive The dipolarity of water molecules makes them adhere to surfaces that are polar (therefore hydrophilic)
property of
water Helpful: adhesive forces between water and cellulose in cell walls in the leaf cause water to be drawn out of
xylem vessels, keeping the call walls moist and able to act as a gas exchange surface
14. Adipose cells Fat storage cells
15. Aerobic Oxygen: used
cellular Substrate: glucose or lipids
respiration Yield of ATP per glucose: large
Products: CO2 and water
16. AIDS - Caused by HIV
- If untreated, leads to death from infections by a variety of pathogens that would normally be controlled easily

17. Alleles Variant forms of a gene that have almost the same base sequence but differ in just one or a very small number of

Different forms of the same gene because they:
- influence the same characteristic
- occupy the same position on a type of chromosome
- have base sequences that differ from each other by one or only a few bases

e.g. the 2nd base in the 6th codon of the human gene for the beta polypeptide of hemoglobin is most often
adenine (A). However, it can also be thymine (T), which causes the genetic disease, sickle cell anemia.
18. Alveolus - 100,000,000s give a huge overall surface area in lungs for gas exchange

- permeable to oxygen and CO2
- a large surface area for diffusion
- thin, so diffusion distance is small
- moist, so oxygen can dissolve

Made of:
- type 1 pneumocytes
- type 2 pneumocytes
- blood capillaries
19. Amino acid

- Have a central carbon atom with 4 different atoms or groups linked to it

- 20 in proteins, each with different R groups

4 atom groups:
- hydrogen atom
- amine group (-NH2)
- carboxyl group (-COOH)
- R group or radical (R)
20. Amniocentesis - Method for obtaining cells of an unborn child for chromosome testing
- A sample of amniotic fluid is removed from the amniotic sac around the fetus by inserting a hypodermic needle
through the wall of the abdomen and uterus
- It is drawn out into a syringe and contains cells from the fetus
- 1% risk of miscarriage
- Small risk of infection of maternal or fetal tissues
21. Amphibians - Soft, moist, permeable skin
- Lungs with small internal folds
- Protective gel around eggs
- Larval stage lives in water
- External fertilization in water

Fruits develop from the ovaries to disperse the seeds 33. muscles for inspiration and expiration . Anaphase II . Amphipathic Part of the molecule is hydrophobic and part hydrophilic e. Angiospermophyes Flowering plants Roots.6 bonds make it a branched polymer of alpha glucose 25. halving the chromosome number (though each chromosome still has 2 chromatids) 31.g. Annelida Example: lugworm .22. Analysis of data from 1. Antagonistic muscles Muscles that cause the opposite movement from each other e.g.Spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart to opposite poles 32. which develop from ovules inside ovaries in flowers .4 bonds make it an unbranched polymer of alpha glucose 26. making chromatids now chromosomes .Segmented . Amylase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. Starch --> maltose 24.Centromeres divide.lactate . Anaphase . Calculate mean results respirometer experiments 2. Plot a graph with range bars 3.Leaves: yes .Bilateral symmetry .Seeds.Yeast . Amylose One molecule in starch 1.CO2 and ethanol 28.Stems: yes (shrubs are trees are woody) .Homologous chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles.Mouth and anus 34. Evaluate the data 29. phospholipids 23. Anaerobic cellular respiration Oxygen: not used Substrate: glucose only Yield of ATP per glucose: small Products: .Spindle microtubules pull the genetically identical chromosomes to opposite poles 30.Often bristles . monomers --> macromolecules) A form of condensation reactions (water is produced)` 27.Vascular tissue: yes Reproductive structures: . Amylopectin One molecule in starch Some 1. stems.Humans . Anaphase I . Describe the trend 4. and leaves: .Roots: yes . Anabolism Synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules (in living organisms.

Jointed appendages 43.Genes that give resistance to an antibiotic occur in the microorganisms that naturally make that antibiotic resistance in . and muscle.g. which are then linked together by peptide linkages along an mRNA strand until a polypeptide is formed. Artificial Simplest method: cloning .Tough outer coat 42.Viruses lack a metabolism and rely on a host cell to carry out metabolic processes .These resistance genes can be transferred to a bacterium by means of a plasmid. Antibiotic . Penicillium fungus produces penicillin to kill bacteria 37. the lymphocyte becomes active and divides by mitosis to produce a clone of many identical cells 5.Break up an embryo into more than 1 group of cells at an early stage when it consists entirely of embryonic stem cells. When the infection is gone.The more an antibiotic is used.g.Narrows lumen to maintain high pressures . either resistant or not . its antigens bind to the antibodies in the cell surface membrane of 1 type of lymphocyte 4. Antibody 1. Difficult method: .Exoskeleton . At this stage. Antiporter Pumps substances in opposite directions across membrane 41. which maintain high pressure between pumping cycles. Anticodon A group of three bases on tRNA molecules that correspond to amino acids.The resistant bacteria reproduce.Thick layer containing elastic fibers. Arteries Convey blood pumped out at high pressure by the ventricles of the heart. Structure (thick wall helps withstand high pressures): . don't have wings (animals with wings not similar enough in other ways to be grouped together) 44. They will each develop into separate genetically identical individuals. The antibody binds to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen and stimulate its destruction. 6.Some strains of bacteria have acquired genes that give them resistance . Antibodies are made by lymphocytes (1/2 WBCs) when stimulated by antigens production 2. Antibiotics . passing on the resistance gene.Segmented .Chemicals produced by microorganisms to kill or control growth of other organisms . Arthropoda Example: striped scorpion . more bacteria will become resistant.Work by blocking processes that occur in prokaryotic cells. but not eukaryotic cells . They carry the blood to tissues in the body. There's then variation in this bacteria type of bacterium. which contracts/relaxes to adjust the diameter of the lumen . Artificial Classifying organisms based on superficial attributions classification e. it will kill bacteria that are susceptible. so a huge number of lymphocyte types is needed. until most are eventually resistant 36.Thus. A lymphocyte can only make 1 type of antibody. Antigens Foreign substances that stimulate the production of antibodies in lymphocytes 40. and spread from person to person by cross- infection . When a pathogen enters the body. characteristics are mostly unknown. though. with the antigen-combining site projecting outwards 3. Each one puts some of the antibodies that it can make into its cell surface membrane. the lymphocytes used to produce the antibodies disappear (though some remain as memory cells that can quickly reproduce to form a clone of plasma cells if a pathogen with the same antigen enters again) 38.Somatic-cell nuclear transfer . but not those that are resistant .Bilateral symmetry . it's not possible to use antibiotics to block these processes in viruses without also harming the human cell e. 39. When they bind. These cells are plasma cells that produce large quantities of the same antibody.If antibiotic used to control bacteria.35. have wings vs.

Placed cells on a membrane and digested their cell walls. Avoiding . Atom A single particle of an element. Base substitution A mutation that replaces one base in a gene with a different base . Atmospheric Air monitoring stations measure concentrations of CO2. coli chromosomes and chromosomes Experiment: 1. When the film was developed. corn plant 51. coli in a medium containing radioactively labelled thymine.A solution of salts called isotonic saline is used for some procedures . and other gases. then rise from October to May. with the low temperatures helping to keep them in a healthy state 52. The drop is due to an excess of photosynthesis over cell respiration globally. Autotrophs Make their own food by absorbing CO2. Thin sections of cells are coated with a photographic film 2. Energy source like light is needed. coli DNA molecules. or to shrink due to gain or loss of osmosis in donor water organs . used from 1940s onwards to find where radioactively labelled substances are located in cells Process: 1. and inorganics nutrients (e. After being left in darkness for days/weeks. Coated the membrane with a photographic film and left it in the dark for 2 months 4. nitrates) from the abiotic environment to use them to synthesize carbon compounds that they need.Osmosis can cause cells in human tissues or organs to swell up and burst. When viewed with a microscope. Grew E.g. the film is developed 3. which acts like light on the film 48. Autoradiography By John Cairns to research E.45. e. consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons 47. He discovered they were circular 49. allowing the DNA to spill out over the membrane 3. so its DNA became labelled but not RNA 2. Autoradiography Combined with electron microscopy. These changes follow northern hemisphere seasons. lines of black dots showed the position of the E.Each black dot shows where a radioactive atom decayed and gave out radiation. CO2 concentrations show an monitoring annual fluctuation: drop from May to October. as the area of land greater (and CO2 concentrations are greater on land than sea) 46.Donor organs are surrounded by isotonic slush when they are being transported.To prevent this. methane. and vice versa for the rise. both the structure of cells in the section and black dots in the film are visible . Autosome All chromosomes apart from sex chromosomes 50. water. tissues of organs used in medical procedures such as kidney transplants must be bathed in a solution with same osmolarity as human cytoplasm .g.

Second name is the sepcies name (given a lower case letter) . but no teeth . Wall and plasma membrane pulled inwards so the cell pinches apart into 2 identical cells 55. too 3. but sometimes contractions can stop completely . Risks of GM crops Corn/maize is given a bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis) that codes for a bacterial protein called Bt toxin. Features: . leaves and stems would contain the toxin after harvest which could harm insect detritivores in the soil and streams) 2.Hard shells around eggs .Italics are used when a binomial appeared in a printed or typed document 56. corn borers) Benefits: 1. Higher crop yields due to less pest damage --> more food 2. Birds . Less land needed for crop production --> some could become areas for wildlife conservation 3. Production of insulin has all benefits and no harmful effects.Form if deposits of plaque rupture arteries . It gives species scientific names.Wings instead of front legs 58. Copies move to opposite ends of the cell 3. Good example of cooperation and collaboration between scientists.Feathers growing from skin . which kills insect pests feeding on the crop (esp.First name is the genus name (genus is a group of closely related species) (given an upper case letter) . making them toxic.Sometimes can do this every 30 minutes 1. Could kill insects that are not pests (maize pollen containing the toxin could blow onto nearby wild plants and affect the insects feeding on them. Binomial A universal system among scientists that has been agreed upon and developed at a series of international system congresses.An area of cardiac muscle thus receives no oxygen and stops beating in a coordinated way (fibrillation) .A heart attack coronary .Can completely block the artery .53. Insect pests of corn may develop resistance 54.Lungs with parabronchial tubes . It avoids the confusion that would result from using the many different local names.Sometimes the heart recovers.Division of prokaryotic cells into two . Transferred gene might spread to wild populations by cross-pollination. Less use of insecticide sprays. Bacterial chromosome is replicated so there are 2 identical copies 2.Beak. Biogeochemical carbon cycle 57. Blood clots in . Binary fission . But GM crops are more controversial. Benefits vs. which are expensive and harmful to farm workers and wildlife Harmful effects: 1.

Roots: no.Vascular tissue: no . which remains until the wound is healed 60. The remaining polypeptides bind to others to form long protein fibers. a semi-solid blood clot is formed from liquid blood to seal up the cut and prevent pathogens from entering .Capsule develops at end of a stalk . Bryophytes Mosses Roots.Swim bladder (for buoyancy) .Arteries .Leaves: simple .9: overweight 30. but rhizoid hairs (structures similar to root hairs) . the clot dries to form a protective scab.0-29. If exposed to air. Blood vessels .Group A . Active thrombin then converts soluble fibrinogen (a plasma protein) into insoluble fibrin (remove sections of peptide that have negative charges.Stems: simple . converting inactive prothrombin into active thrombin 3.Veins 63.5: underweight 18. A prothrombin activator is releasing.9: normal weight 25. Body mass mass in kilograms / (height in meters)2 index or use a nomogram Below 18. .Capillaries .Group B . Blood cells are caught in the mesh and soon form a semi-solid clot 6. Fibrin forms a mesh of fibers across wounds 5.Scales grow from the skin finned fish .Gills with a single gill slit . and leaves: .0 or more: obese 64.External fertilization 65.Liverworts have a flattened thallus Reproductive structures: . which set off a chain of reactions in which the product of each reaction is the catalyst of the next 2. Blood glucose Usually kept between 4 and 8 millimoles per dm3 of blood.Ensures that clotting only happens when needed and is rapid Process: 1.Group O 62. stems. Blood groups .59.Spores produced in a capsule .Group AB .Fins supported by rays . Blood clotting . Bony ray. Clotting factors released from damaged tissue cells or from platelets.When the skin is cut and blood escapes from blood vessels.5-24. Cells in the pancreas monitor the concentration and concentration secrete insulin or glucagon when levels are too high or low Too high: insulin is secrete by beta cells 61. fibrin) 4.

Catabolism Breakdown of complex molecules into simple molecules (in living organisms. The atria are collecting chambers and the ventricles are pumping chambers. macromolecules --> monomers) A form of hydrolysis (water molecules are split) 75. Coronary arteries carry blood and thus nutrients. Carcinogen Chemical substances that cause cancer 71. the atrioventricular valves open. They have permeable walls that allow the exchange of materials between the cells of the tissue and the blood in the capillary. . including oxygen. The cardiac cycle 1. The ventricles stop contracting so pressure falls inside them. The ventricle fills with blood. and opens the semilunar valves.e. Carrier Parent has a recessive allele of a gene. which provides energy for cardiac muscle contraction. It also gives them a larger surface area. Oxygen is used for aerobic respiration. Blood.Pores between cells in wall allow some plasma to leak out and form tissue fluid. pushing blood into the ventricles through the atrioventricular valves. oil. Structure: .66. Valves ensure that circulation of blood by prevent back-flow. which are open. Carbon Over last 150 years (since IR).Wall made of a single layer of thin cells so the distance for diffusion is small . to prevent back-flow. 6. 4. Cardiac muscle Muscle that makes up the walls of the heart and can contract on its own without being stimulated by a nerve. Phagocytes can also be squeezed out 67. This closes the semilunar valves. glucose) 70. The walls of the atria contract. 73. Carbon cycle 68. This closes the atrioventricular valves. atmospheric CO2 concentration has risen largely due to the combustion of emissions/global fossilized organic matter (coal. 8. 3.g. preventing back-flow from the arteries to the ventricles 7. Cell cycle Sequence of events between one cell division and the next 2 phases: interphase and cell division . to allow blood to pump out into the arteries 5. and gas) warming 69. 2. Carbon fixation Conversion process of inorganic carbon (i. flows on to fill the ventricle *Begins every time the walls of the atria contract 72. but it does not affect their phenotype because a dominant allele is also present 74. Catalysts Speed up chemical reactions without being changed themselves 76. which had been refilling while the other blood was pumping. The walls of the ventricles contract powerfully so the blood pressures rises rapidly inside them. to the heart. When the ventricular pressure drops below atrial pressure. Capillaries Carry blood through tissues.Very narrow lumen so they can fit into small spaces. CO2) to organic compounds (e.

The ACh is broken down in the cleft by cholinesterase. 87. sodium and potassium channel proteins in the membranes of neurons open and close depending on voltage across membrane to transmit nerve impulse 84. thus reducing fluidity and permeability of membrane to hydrophilic particles like Na and H ions 86. chloride channels only allow chloride ions through e. producing acetyl groups and choline.Restricts the movement of phospholipid molecules. The choline is reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron. glucose or fat) to produce ATP respiration ATP is used for a wide range of processes including active transport and protein synthesis.. The choline is reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron. Centromere Point at which sister chromatids are held together 82. .g. Cholinesterase An enzyme in the synaptic cleft that breaks ACh into acetyl groups and choline. Channel . Cholesterol . Cervix Protects the fetus during pregnancy. before being pulled apart during anaphase 81. Cell theory 1.Component of animal cell membranes . so fits between phospholipids in the membrane . which diffuses synapses across the synapses and binds to receptors n the post-synaptic membrane.77. making them STRAIGHT not curved Allows groups of cellulose molecules to be arranged in parallel. Cellular The controlled release of energy from organic compounds (e.g. Cellulose Unbranched polymer of glucose (orientation of the glucose units ALTERNATES. then dilated to provide a birth canal 83. Cholinergic Synapses that use acetylcholine. 79.g. Centrome Holds together sister chromatids during prophase and metaphase.FROM region of HIGHER concentration to region of LOWER concentration e.. Cells are the smallest possible units of life 2. It is immediately available as an energy source and can diffuse to any part of the cell and release its energy within a fraction of a second. Living organisms are made of cells 3. test 85. All cells come from pre-existing cells 78.Most of it is hydrophobic with one hydrophilic end.Control what substances pass through cell membrane proteins .Only one type of substance can pass through . with hydrogen bonds forming cross links (structures called microfibrils) Use: basis of plant cell walls 80. Chi-squared . up-down-up. The pre-synaptic neuron secretes ACh into the synaptic cleft.

Notochord .Pharyngeal gill slits (in invertebrates) .Small risk of infections in maternal or fetal tissues 91.Method for obtaining cells of an unborn child for chromosome testing (CVS) . Chromosomes DNA molecules with proteins attached to them Term for them once sister chromatids are separated during mitosis 95. Chorionic villi Fetal tissues in the placenta from which cells are removed for CVS 90.A hypodermic needle is inserted into the wall of the abdomen and uterus to obtain the cells . Build up a concentrated spot of pigment 10 mm from the end of the strip of paper 7. The diploid number is usually quoted. Tear up a leaf into small fragments 2. Circular muscle in small Contracts behind the food to constrict the gut to prevent food from being pushed back toward the intestine mouth Contracts with longitudinal muscle to mix food with enzymes . Add a few drops of propanone to dissolve the pigments 6. Transfer sample of extract to a watch glass 4. Suspend the strip in a tube with the base dipping into running solvent 6.Cells are removed from fetal tissues in the placenta called chorionic villi . Evaporate to dryness with hot air from a hairdryer 5. Homo sapiens: 46 Chimpanzees: 48 Dog: 78 Rice: 24 Horse threadworm: 4 94. Chorionic villus sampling . Chromatids Two structures that make up chromosomes in prophase and metaphase of mitosis.Dorsal nerve cord . Apart from fish. which divides at the start of anaphase.Post-anal tail *almost all have a backbone consisting of vertebrae. Chromatography 1. all these vertebrates are tetrapods with pentadactyl limbs 89. Calculate the Rf value (distance moved by spot / distance moved by solvent) 93.88.2% risk of miscarriage . as that's how many chromosomes are present in normal body cells. Grind pieces of the leaf with sharp sand and propanone to extract the leaf pigments 3. so their base sequences are identical Held together by the centromere. Each contains a DNA molecule that was produced by replication during interphase. Chordata Example: ferret . allowing the chromatids to become separate chromosomes 92. Remove the strip from the tube when the solvent has nearly reached the top 9. Chromosome number Number of chromosomes.

releasing CO2) 108. Cladograms Tree diagrams that show the most probable sequence of divergence in clades.g.Radial symmetry . artificial cloning (if more organisms with a desirable combination of characteristics are wanted) 102. asexual reproduction. Cohesive Water molecules cohere (stick to each other) because of the hydrogen bonds that form between them property of water Helpful: strong pulling forces can be exerted to suck columns of water up to the tops of the tallest trees in tubes call xylem vessels. or the corresponding amino acid sequence of a protein 98. 100. Cis unsaturated fatty acid hydrogen atoms are bonded to carbon atoms on the SAME SIDE of a double bond in a fatty acid carbon chain 97. Combustion in CO2 is produced by the combustion of carbon compounds (i. Clone Group of genetically identical organisms derived from a single original parent cell 101.Stinging cells .96. Cnidaria Example: common kingslayer box jellyfish . Codon A group of three bases on the mRNA strand that is bound to by the anticodons of tRNA 105. Community A group of populations of different species living together and interacting with each other in an area .Tentacles . Important to storing and accessing information about all species. Surrogate mother gives birth to the lamb. Cloning adult 1. Egg without a nucleus is fused with a donor cell using a pulse of electricity cells) 3. Clade A group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor Once determined by anatomical structures (but hard to distinguish between homologous traits derived from a common ancestor and analogous characteristics that have developed by convergent evolution). An unfertilized egg is taken animals (using from another sheep and has nucleus removed. forest and grassland fires that the carbon cycle burn biomass. There are branching points (nodes) that show groups of organisms which are related. Cloning Production of an organism that is genetically identical to another organism e. differentiated 2. but now by comparing base sequences. and therefore presumably had common ancestry 99. but no anus 104. Classification The process of putting species of living organisms into groups.Mouth. A cell is taken from the donor sheep's udder and cultured in a lab for 6 days. cell respiration. which is genetically identical to the sheep that donated the udder cell 103. Collagen Example of the structural function of proteins It is made of 3 polypeptides wound together to make a rope-like conformation This prevents tearing in skin This prevents fractures in bones This gives tensile strength to tendons and ligaments 107. These columns of water rarely break despite the suction forces 106.e. The resulting embryo is transferred to the uterus of a 3rd sheep (the surrogate mother) 4.

Control of . in parts.Lipids: FATTY ACIDS + GLYCEROL --> GLYCERIDES (type of lipid) (a maximum of 3 fatty acids can be linked to each glycerol to form a triglyceride + 3 molecules of water e. . Coral reefs and Over 500 billion tons of CO2 released by humans since the IR have dissolved in oceans. a 30% acidification. which develop from ovules on the surface of the scales of female cones . stems. since it is propagated first through the walls of the atria and then through the walls of the ventricles . 111. waxy cuticle .g. Marine animals like reef-building corals that deposit calcium carbonate in their skeletons need to absorb carbonate ions (which are not very soluble.It sends out an electrical signal that stimulates contraction. Conservative Both strands of the parent DNA remain together and another molecule is produced with 2 new strands replication Rejected for semi-conservative 113.g. or recently killed e.Roots: yes .Male cones produce pollen 112. Dissolved CO2 lowers levels even more because it reacts with water to form carbonic acid. deer.25 to 8.Seeds. so coral reefs begin to die.Carbohydrates: MONOSACCHARIDES (basic sub-units of carbs) --> DISACCHARIDES + WATER (and more can be linked to disaccharides to form a polysaccharide) . new calcium carbonate cannot be made and hydrogen carbonate dissolves existing calcium carbonates. Coniferophytes Conifers Roots. Peptide bonds link the peptides. vulture 114. Condensation When chromosomes become shorter and fatter during mitosis Makes them visible with a light microscope 110. alive.Sinoatrial node in the wall of the right atrium acts as a pacemaker heart rate .109. and leaves: .It sends out this electrical signal when it receives messages to do so Messages: .14. Consumers Feed on living organisms by ingestion (they take other organisms into their digestive system for digestion and absorption). causing the pH to drop CO2 from about 8. Amino acids can be linked to either end to form polypeptides.The hormone epinephrine increases the heart rate to prepare the body for vigorous physical activity 115. Thus. thus low) from seawater. which dissociates into H and hydrogen carbonate ions that convert carbonate into more hydrogen carbonate.Leaves: often narrow with thick. amino acids can be joined together to form a dipeptide by a condensation reaction.Vascular tissue: yes Reproductive structures: .Impulses are brought from the medulla of the brain by 2 nerves that cause the SA node to either speed up the rate or slow it down .Stems: woody . Organism may be whole. Condensation 2 molecules are joined together to form a larger molecule plus a molecule of water reactions Monomers become dimers or polymers Used to build up carbohydrates and lipids: .

causing chest pain disease . and D . He named them cyclins. which triggers other proteins t be active and carry out tasks specific to one of the cell cycle phases 4 main types: . making it hard and rough Likely causes: . Cyclin.Caused by a recessive allele of a gene coding for a chloride channel .High blood sugar levels (usually b/c of diabetes) .High blood pressure (hypertension) .High blood cholesterol levels . family history) 117.Caused by fatty plaque building up in the inner lining of the coronary arteries. Cystic .Recessive autosomal genetic disease fibrosis .unless they reach a threshold concentration.116. which become active and attach phosphate groups to other proteins in the cell. including oxygen. Crossing . Coronary . blood flow to the cardiac muscle is severely restricted. Cyclins A group of proteins used to ensure: . which becomes narrow artery . the cell does not progress to the next stage Discovered serendipitously by Tim Hunt.Minerals can become deposited in the plaque.Homologous chromosomes pair up .Genetic factors (i.cyclin A.Both parents are usually carriers --> 25% chance .Parts of the non-sister chromatids are exchanged between the chromosomes . Coronary They supply to the heart the blood that runs through the capillaries in the muscular wall of the heart.Smoking . He noticed a protein that increased and decreased in concentration repeatedly and also that those changes corresponded with particular cell cycle phases.During prophase I .that tasks are performed at the correct time .e. who was doing research into protein synthesis in sea urchin eggs. Branch off the aorta close to the semilunar valves. This causes aerobic respiration that provides enough energy for cardiac muscle contraction. C. 122. dependent which triggers other proteins to become active and carry out tasks specific to one of the cell cycle phases kinases 121.Produces chromatids with a new combination of alleles . B.A process in meiosis which promotes genetic variation among the haploid cells produced by meiosis over . 118. With the blood arties they bring nutrients. Covalent Bond between two atoms sharing an electron bonds 119. Enzymes that become active when cyclins bind to them and then attach phosphate groups to other proteins in a cell.that the cell only moves on to the next stage of the cycle when appropriate Bind to enzymes called cyclin-dependent kinases.As it worsens.Significant source of variation because where along the chromosomes exchange alleles is random 120.

This divides the cell into two .Bilayer of phospholipids with layers of protein on either side . suggesting a phospholipid bilayer 3.In animal cells: .Occurs after mitosis .Developed in 1930s .Proteins usually appear darker than phospholipids Process of discovery: 1. despite being very thin.A new cell wall forms across the equator . so the potential is reversed. voltage-gated sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse in down the gradient.Plasma membrane is on both sides . Evidence suggested that the plasma membrane of red blood cells has enough phospholipids in it to form an area twice as large as the area of the plasma membrane. usually irreversible) . Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm to form two cells .The plasma membrane at equator pulled inwards until meets in the center of the cell .In plant cells: . Depolarization . Experiments showed that the membranes form a barrier of passage of some substances. Denaturation When the conformation of a protein is damaged Caused by: .123. Davson- Danielli Model . .Electron micrographs showed two dark lines separated by a lighter band . intramolecular bonds break within the molecule) 127. Databases OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): finds loci of human genes GenBank: shows the base sequence of a gene (useful to then compare with the base sequences of the gene in other species to find how long ago they diverged) BLAST: GenBank database that compares base sequences of genes (useful to find mutations in other genes of the same species or find how long ago two species diverged) ClustaIX: compare a sequence with other selected genes 125.This divides the cell into two 124.Heat (causes vibrations within protein molecules that break the intramolecular bonds. . Chemical analysis of membranes showed that they were composed of phospholipids and proteins 2. and layers of protein could act as a barrier 126.pH (if increased or decreased beyond optimum of the protein by adding alkali or acid.If potential of across membranes rises from -70mV to -50 mV.The entry of positive sodium ions causes the inside of the neuron to develop a net positive charge compared to the outside.

or substrate concentration on enzyme activity enzyme experiments Independent variable: only one.128. pH. with small particles. 134. Once a pathway of development has begun. pH 1-14). Diabetes When the control of blood glucose does not work effectively and the concentration can rise or fall beyond the normal limits.g. Designing Aim: to investigate the effect of temperature. does not. Differentiation A cell uses only the genes that it needs to follow its pathway of development. or "committed.g.g.Some alternatives give the next numbered stage of the key to go to . it's fixed.Consists of a series of numbered stages .Eventually identification of the species will be reached 135. must be in SI units. Dextrinase Enzyme in the membraneS of microvilli on the villi that digests dextrins into glucose 131. must be quantitative and accurate Control variables: other factors that could affect activity (e.g. diffuse through the tubing. wax moth larvae. Dichotomous Used in species identification keys Features: . genes for making hemoglobin are only expressed in developing RBCs. Water outside it tested to see if substances in the cola have diffused through the dialysis tubing.g. and feces) by internal digestion. Detritivores Obtain organic nutrients form detritus (dead material from living organisms.Each stages consists of a pair of alternative characteristics . with larger polymers of sugar. if testing pH. Dialysis tubing Used to model absorption by the epithelium cells of the small intestine. 133. need a wide range to show all trends (e. quantity of product formed after a certain time). Caramel. how long it takes for substrate to be used up. e. leaving other genes unused. e. Expected result is that glucose and phosphoric acids. roots." . parts of animal corpses. which feed on wax comb made by honeybees 130. each level must be maintained as accurately as possible Dependent variable: measurement taken to assess activity (e. Dextrins Fragments of amylopectin containing the 1. control temperature at constant 20 C using a water bath) 129. including dead leaves.6 bonds that amylase can't digest 132.

136. Diffusion - Passive process

- When particles are unevenly spread (higher concentration in one region than another), this occurs

- Passive movement of particles FROM a region of HIGHER concentration to a region of LOWER
concentration (as result of random motion of particles)

- Can occur across membranes if there is a concentration gradient and membrane is permeable to the particle

e.g. membranes are permeable to 02, so lower concentration of 02 inside than outside, so diffuses into the

e.g. not permeable to cellulose, so it does not diffuse across
137. Digestion in the Enzymes digest most macromolecules (including proteins, starch, glycogen, lipids, and nucleic acids; not
small intestine cellulose) in food into monomers.

These enzymes are secreted by pancreas into SI:
- lipase (for lipids)
- endopeptidase (for polypeptides)
- amylase (for starch)
138. Digestion of 2 types of molecule in starch:
starch - Amylose (1,4 bonds make it an unbranched polymer of alpha glucose)
- Amylopectin (some 1,6 bonds make it a branched polymer of alpha glucose)

1. Amylase breaks 1,4 bonds in amylose into chains of 4+ glucose monomers, so doesn't become glucose but
2. Amylase can't break 1,6 bonds in amylopectin (because of the specificity of its active site), so becomes
DEXTRINS (fragments containing the 1,6 bonds that amylase can't digest)
3. Maltase and dextrinase (enzymes in the membranes of microvilli on villus epithelium cells) digest maltose
and dextrins into glucose
4. Protein pumps in the membranes of microvilli absorb the glucose
5. Blood carrying products of digestion flow through villus capillaries to venules in the submucosa
6. The blood is these venules is carried via the hepatic portal vein to the liver, where excess glucose can be
absorbed by liver cells and converted to glycogen for storage
139. Digestive system

140. Diploid Two chromosomes of each type (i.e. pairs of homologous chromosomes)
141. Dipolarity Polarity only on two poles

e.g. water molecules

142. Disaccharides - Pairs of monosaccharides linked together by condensation

e.g. maltose, lactose, sucrose

(glucose + glucose --> maltose + water
glucose + galactose --> lactose + water
glucose + fructose --> sucrose + water)
143. Discovery of - William Harvey less successful in this area than blood circulation
reproduction - Aristotle's "seed and soil" theory - male produces a seed that forms an egg when mixed with menstrual blood
- Tested this by slaughtering open deer immediately after mating
- Expected to find eggs developing in the uterus, but only found things developing 2+ months after mating season
- Concluded that Aristotle is wrong, but claimed that mating does not create offspring, which is also wrong
- Didn't have effective microscopes to see games, process of fertilization, and embryo development
144. Discovery of By Crick and Watson using model making
the structure 1. Used cardboard shapes to represent bases in DNA and found that A-T and C-G base pairs could be formed
of DNA with hydrogen bonds between them; the base pairs were equal in length, so they'd fit into a molecule between
two outer sugar-phosphate backbones
2. X-ray diffraction data showed DNA to be helical, causing the realization that the strands had to run in opposite
3. Used metal rods and sheeting held together with small clamps. All was to scale.
145. Dispersive Every molecule produced by DNA replication has a mixture of old and new sections in both of its strands
Rejected for semi-conservative
146. DNA ligase Enzyme used for GMO process by making sugar-phosphate bonds to link nucleotides together and form
continuous strands of nucleotides
147. DNA Links nucleotides to the template strands to form 2 new strands
148. DNA profiling 1. A sample of DNA is obtained (can't be contaminated with the DNA of any other organism)
2. DNA from a selection of STR loci is copied by PCR (often the DNA between the 11-13 loci because it's unlikely
for 2 people to have the same number of repeats at each of these loci)
3. The copies of STR alleles made by PRC are separated by gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern of bands. 2
individuals are unlikely to have the same patterns of bands unless they are twins.
149. DNA 1. Helicase unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the strands by breaking hydrogen bonds
replication 2. DNA polymerase links nucleotides together on the template strands to form new strands
3. The daughter DNA molecules rewind into double helixes. They are identical in base sequence to each other
and the parent molecule because of complementary base pairing.
150. DNA vs. RNA DNA:
Pentose: deoxyribose
Bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Structure: two strands; antiparallel (each strand opposite each other) and linked by hydrogen bonding between
the complementary base pairs)

Pentose: ribose
Bases: adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
Structure: one strand
151. Domains - Archaea (AKA archaeans)
- Eubacteria (AKA bacteria)
- Eukaryota (AKA eukaryotes)

152. Double

Pulmonary: circulations for the lungs; the right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the
pulmonary artery, and oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart via the pulmonary vein

Systemic: circulations for other organs of the body; the left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood via the
aorta to all organs (other than lungs), and deoxygenated blood is carried back to the right side of the heart via
the vena cava
153. Down Syndrome due to non-disjunction in the formation of the sperm or the egg causing trisomy 21, or the presence of
syndrome 3 chromosomes of type 21 instead of 2
154. Ecosystem A community and its abiotic environment.
155. Effect of CO2 Below 0.01% CO2, the enzyme used to fix CO2 (rubisco) is not effective and in many plants there is no net
concentration photosynthesis.
photosynthesis Between 0.01%-0.04%, the concentration of CO2 is often the limiting factor because the rate of successful
collisions between CO2 molecules and the active site of rubisco is lower than the other steps of photosynthesis.
ATP and high energy electrons are not used as rapidly as they are produced, which restricts further photolysis
and therefore O2 production.

At very high CO2 concentrations, some other factor is limiting
156. Effect of
on enzyme

At low substrate concentrations, enzyme activity increases steeply as substrate concentration increases because
random collisions between substrate and active site occur more frequently

At high substrate concentrations, most of the active sites are occupied, so an increase in substrate concentration
has little effect on enzyme activity

even though it has not been denatured. all the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of CO2 into carbohydrates work slowly on photosynthesis Below 5 C.the rate of photosynthesis and therefore O2 production is limited by the amount of light absorbed photosynthesis . with the low rate of use of ATP and high energy electrons restricting further photolysis and therefore O2 production At intermediate temperature. The efficiency of The percentage use of light of a wavelength in photosynthesis photosynthesis . the acidity denatures the enzyme) Enzyme activity decreases as pH increases above the optimum because the conformation of the enzyme is altered more and more (above a certain pH.some other factor is limiting photosynthesis Unless heavily shaded or the sun is rising/setting. there is little or no photosynthesis in many plants Above 30 C. enzymes denature (*separate card) and stop working 160. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity Enzyme activity increases as temperature increased (often doubles with every 10 degree rise) because collisions between substrate and active site occur more frequently due to faster molecular motion At too high temperatures. not usually the limiting factor 158. rubisco is decreasingly effective. the alkalinity denatures the enzyme) 159.157. Effect of pH on enzyme activity Enzyme activity decreases as pH decreases from the optimum because the conformation of the enzyme is altered more and more (below a certain pH. some other factor is limiting 161. Effect of light At low light intensities: intensity on .since light energy is used for the production of ATP and high energy electrons (which help convert CO2 into glucose) low light intensities limit the production of glucose these things At high light intensities: . Effect of temperature At low temperatures. Temperature is therefore the limiting factor at both low and high temperatures.

After 2 minutes. so aerobic respiration must be used and high-intensity exercise can't be continued. Endocytosis Small droplets of fluid are passed through the membrane by means of vesicles (absorption method) e. It produces lactate and hydrogen ions. Emphysema Main causes: . supplying both itself and the larger cell with energy as ATP. smaller cell is kept alive to perform a function for the larger cell .grow and divide like cells . properties e.Air pollution Cilia that line the airways and expel mucus are damaged and cease to function. Microscopic alveoli are replaced by large air sacs with thicker and less permeable walls. like prokaryotes . It's used in muscles carrying out vigorous exercise like sprinting or weight lifting. This maximizes muscle contractions. A cell that respired anaerobically took in a bacterium that respired aerobically. so oxygen saturation of the blood falls. Mucus in lungs causes coughing a wheezing.g. making it an autotroph. so the smaller cell is inside a vesicle in the cytoplasm of the larger cell . like prokaryotes . Lungs lose their elasticity. Endopeptidase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. each cell in a tiger is a unit of life with distinctive properties (such as sensitivity to light in retinal cells). so mucus builds up in the lungs. so it supplies ATP at a faster muscles overall rate for a short time because it's not limited by how fast oxygen can be supplied. but all cells combined to give additional properties (such as ability to hunt and kill) 163. 164. It lasts for 2 minutes.Instead of being digested. . A heterotrophic cell took in a smaller photosynthetic bacterium. Toxins from causes cause inflammation and damage to WBCs that fight infections in the lungs. causing infections. Endosymbiosis . Consequences: The surface area for gas exchange reduces.have naked loop of SNA. making exhaling difficult.synthesize some of their own proteins using 70S ribosomes. The aerobic bacterium gradually evolved into mitochondria and the larger cell evolved into heterotrophic eukaryotes like animals 2.g. which supplied it with organic compounds. triglycerides and cholesterol in lipoprotein particles 166.162. making exercise more difficult. It gave the larger cell a competitive advantage because aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic. causing breakdown of alveolus walls. Polypeptides (proteins) --> shorter peptides 167. A protease is released from these inflamed/damaged cells and WBCs that digests elastic fibers in the lungs.Smaller cell divides as often as the larger cell so that one or more of them are inside vesicles in the new larger cells Happened at least twice during the origin of eukaryotes: 1. hydrogen ion concentrations make the pH of the blood too low. Emergent Properties that arise from the interaction of the component parts of a complex structure. Endocytosis Fluidity of the membrane allows small pieces of it to be pinched off to create a vesicle containing some material from the outside 165.have double membranes (as expected when cells are taken into a vesicle by endocytosis) 168. The photosynthetic prokaryote evolved into chloroplasts and the larger cell evolved in photosynthetic eukaryotes like plants Explains characters of mitochondria and chloroplasts: .Smoking . Energy for Anaerobic respiration produces fewer molecules of ATP per glucose than aerobic.A larger cell takes in a smaller cell by endocytosis.

Some organisms die before being eaten by the next organism in the food chain (e.cell respiration 172. Can catalyze its reaction many times per second.e. Lost by: . Epithelium The single layer of cells forming the inner lining of the mucosa 177. This reduces the energy needed for them to be converted into its products. less food is available and therefore less chemical energy. so it converts soon and is released from the active site. so they are egested in feces 171. Energy losses At each successive stage in the food chain. Energy sources Plants. Some parts of organisms are indigestible (e. bones. Eppendofs Small tubes in which DNA is copied using polymerase chain reaction . 173. Energy loss due All organisms release energy from carbon compounds by cell respiration and use the energy for essential to cell processes like muscle contraction and active transport.Energy is lost at each level (by being passed on to detritivores or through cellular respiration). and saprotrophs: obtain energy from their food.g. Energy used this way is converted into heat that is lost respiration from the organism (it can't be converted back into chemical energy.g.g.being passed to detritivores and saprotrophs . and some bacteria: absorb light energy and convert it into the chemical energy in C compounds (i. so energy content per gram of the tissues of each successive trophic level is not lower. so its lost from the ecosystem) Why need an energy source to replace energy lost 170. 174. Enzymes Biological catalysts in living organisms that speed up and control the rate of reactions of metabolism Globular proteins When substrates (the reactant) are in a liquid (thus in continual random motion).Biomass is lost at each level (when C compounds are broken down by CR and CO2 is excreted.169. and gall bladder) 3. or when waste products of metabolism like urea are removed). which has chemical energy in it. Energy pyramids Diagrams that show how much energy flows through each trophic level in a community Amounts of energy show per square of area occupied by the community and per year (kJm-2 year-1) Pyramid shaped because less energy flows through each successive trophic level: . 175. hair. detritivores. so less remains . They bind with them. they collide with the active site on the surface of the enzyme. algae. producers) Consumers. cellulose in foods eaten by humans). Some parts of organisms are not eaten (e. Epididymis Stores sperm until ejaculation 176. Energy loss due 1. some rabbits die of disease) and saprotrophs 2. not all rabbits are eaten to detritivores by a fox in a community.

Smooth ER .Nuclear accident at Chernobyl (the accident that caused explosions and a fire in the core of a nuclear effects of reactor.Compartmentalized (allows enzymes and substrates in a process to be concentrated in a small area in the cell.Stem cells are extracted from this fluid and stored by freezing them (since adult.Stem cells are returned to the body.Vesicles and vacuoles Organelles with double membrane: . Ethical . only have potential for producing more blood cells) . Is it necessary to use animals in the experiment. Evolution Occurs when heritable characteristics of a species change Happens in populations of organisms and over many generations 182.Golgi apparatus .Mitochondrion . multiply. uterus. malformation. and no other enzymes that might disrupt the process) .Nucleus .Type of cancer in which abnormally large numbers of WBCs are produced in the bone marrow . Examples of Stargardt's macular dystrophy: therapeutic stem .Fly larvae or other invertebrates are sometimes used in the experiments implications of respirometers Must ask: 1. . if so. which broke six tonnes of uranium and other radioactive metals in the fuel into small particles that radiation were able to escape) .A large needle is inserted into a large bone (usually pelvis) to remove fluid from the marrow . where they re-establish themselves in the marrow. or could a different organism be used (e.Embryonic stem cells injected into eyes attach to the retina and remain there. so it loses its ability to produce blood cells . Will the animals suffer pain or any other harm? 2. contact with the alkali)? 3. Will the animals have to be removed from their natural habitat and. can they be safely returned to it and continue to live natural lives? 4.g.g. germinating seeds)? 180. and vision improved Leukemia: . Are there unacceptable risks to the animals (e. other optimum conditions. and vagina) During puberty.High dose of chemotherapy is given to kill all the cancer cells in the marrow. raised levels cause development of secondary sex characteristics (growth of breasts and pubic hair) 179. and begins to produce RBCs and WBCs .Chloroplast 181. Examples of . so photoreceptive cells degenerate and vision worsens.Membrane-bound organelles Has: Organelles with single membrane: .178. Eukaryotic cells .Due to recessive mutation of ABCA4 gene. causing a membrane protein used for active transport in retina cells to malfunction.Develops in children 6-12 cell use .Nuclear bombing of Hiroshima (atomic bomb that caused cancer and mutations that led to stillbirths.Rough ER . with pH.Lysosomes . or death in survivors) 183. Estrogen A steroid hormone that causes pre-natal development of female reproductive organs if testosterone isn't present (oviduct.

3. Estimating Osmolarity 0.4. and 0. Only one limiting factor should be investigated at a time 2.184.the initial and final mass of tissue samples should be measured with the same electronic balance that is accurate to 0. 0. Exocytosis Vesicles move to the plasma membrane and fuse with it.01 grams (10 mg) 188. Prepare series of solutions with a suitable range of solute concentrations. Giant algae . This is the factor that is nearest to its minimum. moving the ribcage down and in Abdominal muscles: contract. releasing the contents of it outside the cell 187.made up of muscle fibers that are enclosed inside a membrane (like a cell). but usually only once of these is actually limiting limiting factors in photosynthesis the rate at a particular time.2. which means that the osmolarities are the same Accuracy: . but are larger than most cells and have 100s of nuclei 2. but many nuclei 185.can grow to the length of 100 mm (so expected to have many small cells). EXPERIMENT 1.made of thread-like structures called hyphae that are not divided into sub- units containing a single nucleus.CO2 concentration .initial mass) / initial mass) x 100 7. 0. Either: . An accurate method should be chosen for measuring the rate of photosynthesis (usually a measure of oxygen production per unit time) 4. Experiments investigating Photosynthesis is affected by various factors. pushing the diaphragm into a dome shape Volume of thorax: decreases Pressure inside thorax: rises above atmospheric pressure Air flow: from lungs to outside the body until the pressure falls to atmospheric pressure 186. Exhaling (muscles) Internal intercostal muscles: contract. Methods must be devised for keeping other factors constant. Aseptate fungi . Cut potato tissue into samples of equal size and shape 3. A suitable range for the IV should be chosen.5 moles/liter 2.temperature Remember for experiment: 1. like 0. using an electronic balance 4. 0.the volume of the water used for making solutions should be measured with a volumetric flask .1.light intensity . Bathe tissue samples in each of the range of solutions for long enough to get measurable mass changes. Find the mass of each sample.0. Read off the solute concentration which would give no mass change. . usually between 10 and 60 minutes 6. Plot the results on a graph 8. Exceptions to cell theory 1. Calculate percentage mass change using the formula: ((final mass . but contain a single nucleus 3. Skeletal muscle . from the lowest level to a level when it's no longer limiting 3.

When substances are unable to pass between the phospholipids .Cells control whether substances pass through their membranes by the types of channel proteins inserted in their membranes . hydrophilic nutrients like fructose 192. Some individuals are better adapted 5. Facilitated diffusion Nutrients pass down the concentration gradient through specific channel proteins in the membrane (absorption method) e.g.g. and frequency of others decreased. Some individuals survive and some die in the ensuing struggle for existence deductions) 3. so species change and become better adapted 190. Facilitated diffusion . while less-well- adapted individuals tend to die and produce fewer offspring (so each generation has more better- adapted offspring) 6.Use channel proteins .pH . Species tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support (observations and 2.substrate concentration .Temperature activity . Factors affecting enzyme . The frequency of characteristics that make individuals better adapted increases. sodium and potassium channel proteins in the membranes of neurons open and close depending on voltage across membrane to transmit nerve impulse 191. The better-adapted individuals tend to survive and produce more offspring. Explaining natural selection 1.FROM region of HIGHER concentration to region of LOWER concentration e.189. chloride channels only allow chloride ions through e.g.Passive process . Individuals that reproduce pass on characteristics to their offspring 7. Natural populations have variation between individuals 4.Only one type of substance can pass through .

unbranched hydrocarbon chain (-CH2-(CH2)n-CH3) Types (i. vary in number of carbon atoms and bonding of atoms to each other and hydrogens) .Bladder . At another stage in the life cycle. Fibrillation Uncoordinated muscle contraction of cardiac muscle due to blood clots in the coronary arteries 198.Large intestine 196.Vagina .Polyunsaturated .Unsaturated .Vulva . thus holding as much hydrogen as possible Two parts: .Saturated with all carbon atoms in molecules are linked together by a single covalent bond. Fibrin Fibrinogen that has had negatively-charged peptides removed from it to make it insoluble.Ovary reproductive .193. Fibrinogen Soluble plasma protein that is converted into fibrin for blood clotting . which has twice as many chromosomes as the gametes. Fertilization A male and female gamete fuse together to produce a zygote. Fatty acids . Female . Remaining polypeptides bind to others.Make up triglycerides (with glycerol) and phospholipids (with glycerol and phosphate group) . Feedback The level of a product feeds back to control the rate of its own production systems 195. the number of chromosomes per cell must be halved so that each generation doesn't have twice as many chromosomes as the previous one 197.Cis unsaturated .Monounsaturated .Trans unsaturated 194.Uterus system .Cervix . forming long protein fibers that form a mesh of fibers across wounds that catch blood cells and form a semi-solid clot 199.Oviduct .e.Saturated .carboxyl group (-COOH / -C=O-OH) .

and leaves: .There was a strong event with heavy rains .Roots: yes .300 to 300 .Population decreased from 1. soft seeds . few small. which bring droughts . and cold temperatures.The climate is very variable because of the oscillation of warm ocean temperatures. Can't be much more because of the theories of energy flow and energy loss. peripheral proteins are attached to the outer surface.Stems: non-woody . while larger. An example of how populations of different species in a community interact with each other .Leaves: curled up in bud and often divided into pairs of leaflets (pinnae) .Also by Singer and Nicolson (1966) .There was severe drought . 206.Rains produce more small.Droughts produce more large. Fluxes Transfers of carbon in the cycle cycle 204.When they began to breed again.There is variation in beak size. Filicinophytes Ferns Roots. Food chain Made up of 3-5 trophic levels. Food chain Producer: grass example Primary consumer: grasshopper Secondary consumer: rat Tertiary consumer: snake Quarternary consumer: hawk 207.Mean beak size of the finches who lived was much higher than those who died (the larger beaks were better adapted to feed on the larger seeds) . some having larger beaks .Sporangia usually produced on underside of the leaves 201. which bring heavy rains.200. the mean beak size remained higher 1983: .Daphne Major is a small island in the Galápagos archipelago .Vascular tissue: yes Reproductive structures: .There's a population of medium ground finch that feed on seeds with a wide range of sizes . hard seeds are produced 1974-1977: .Spores produced in sporangia . Follicle A fluid-filled sac in the ovaries in which oocytes mature during the menstrual cycle 205. glycoproteins have sugar units attached to the outer surface of the membrane) 203. Only about 10% of energy and biomass is passed on from 1 trophic level to the next.During droughts. Fluid Mosaic Model .Made of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins in a range of positions in the membrane (integral proteins are embedded in the bilayer. Finch beaks . hard seeds . Food web The complex network of feeding relationships in a community. soft seeds are available.The larger seeds are more difficult to crack open . stems.Mean beak size dropped 202.

WHICH LOWERS ESTROGEN.. which are then charged. The sequences organisms appear matches their complexity 210. Gel electrophoresis Method of separating mixtures of proteins or fragments of DNA. FSH Stimulates follicle development (which contain an oocyte and follicular fluid) and the secretion of estrogen by the follicle wall. LOWER ESTROGEN RAISES FSH. Rises to a peak before and during menstruation.The alleles from 2 different parents are brought together ..Oil and gas 209. oxygen for carbon dioxide) 216.During fertilization . WHICH RAISES FSH. Functions of life .Peat and coal . The fossil record Strong evidence for evolution because organisms that have been discovered no longer exist.Fertilization is a random process (any male gamete can fuse with any female gamete) 213.Promotes genetic variation in the zygote . Genetic modification The transfer of genes from one species to another 220.Response (reacts to stimuli) . WHICH INHIBITS FSH. Process: 1.synthesizes mRNA and proteins and organelles 214. depending on if they're positively or negatively charged 3.208. Particles move toward one or the other electrodes.Homeostasis (keeps internal conditions within limits) .Excretion (expels waste products of metabolism) .growth and prepartion for division . Gene Heritable factor that consists of a length of DNA and influences a specific characteristic 218.Growth (increases in size and dry mass) . which acts like a molecular sieve 2. Placed on a thin sheet of gel. G1 phase (of interphase) "Growth 1" . and existing organisms do not have fossils.lower SA:V ratio so that the cell can get bigger 215. WITH ESTROGEN (I. Genetics The study of variation and inheritance .E. Fossil fuels . WHICH STIMULATES ESTROGEN.e.) 211. Fusion of gametes .Metabolism (carries out chemical reactions in cytoplasm) .growth/increase in size . Rate of movement depends on the size of the molecules (smaller move faster) 217. Genetically modified Organisms that have had genes transferred to them organisms (GMO) 219.Reproduction 212. G2 phase (of "Growth 2" interphase) . Gas exchange Process of swapping one gas for another (i.Nutrition .

Because it's insoluble. Genome The whole of the genetic information of an organism. restriction endonuclease) 5. purified. Much dispute over whether global warming is due to greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. DNA copies of the mRNA are made using reverse transcriptase (1 strand --> 2 strands) 3. Gene transfer Desired gene: using plasmids 1. coli: 5 million bp D.18 million bp E.e. linked by complementary base pairing between the Gs and Cs 7. mRNA coding for insulin is extracted from human pancreas cells that make insulin 2. The insulin gene and plasmid are mixed. which is extracted. Global Without the greenhouse effect. more than amylopectin. The recombinant plasmids are mixed with the host cells. coli are cultured in a fermenter 10.6 linkages. so obvious that climate is influenced by greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. methane. Sticky ends are made by adding extra G nucleotides to the ends of the gene Vector (i. It varies greatly. The E. melanogaster: 140 million bp Homo sapiens: 3. 224.Sugar units attached on the outer surface of the membrane . meanwhile): 4. making it more branched Use: animals store glucose in liver and muscle cells. The modified E. It can be measured in millions of base pairs (bp) of DNA.000 million bp Paris japonica: 150.000 million bp 223. so that the host cells absorb them 9. large amounts can be stored. Plasmids are cut open using restriction enzymes (e. The size is therefore the total amount of DNA in one set of chromosomes in that species.g. Glycogen Branched polymer of glucose 1. change Human activities are also causing increases in CO2. It is actually more than 30 C warming/climate higher. temperature at the Earth's surface would be -18 C. Glycoproteins . and other greenhouse gas concentrations.221. and used by diabetics 222. Sticky ends are made by adding extra C nucleotides to the ends of the cut plasmid Combined: 6. where if glucose was stored it would cause water to enter the cells by osmosis. coli bacteria start to make human insulin. T2 phage: 0. DNA ligase seals up the nicks in the DNA by making sugar-phospate bonds Transfer: 8. thus a danger of bursting 225.Used for cell-to-cell communication .

heat) . plants/algae e.Crossed varieties of pea plants that had different characteristics . Greenhouse The gases that trap the radiation being re-emitted into space from the Earth's surface.Depended on quantitative.e. e.e. so don't get hemophilia. Heterotrophs Can't make own food.Father of genetics . Helicase Unwinds the DNA double helix Separates the strands by breaking hydrogen bonds 231. not just qualitative data 229. gametes such as the sperm and egg cell 230. father: XH Y) All female children inherit the father's XH chromosome. sons: 50%) 232. 50% chance they are carriers (if inherit mother's Xh) There's a 50% chance the son is hemophiliac because he inherits either the mother's XH (and is thus unaffected) or mother's Xh (and is thus affected) --> overall chance is 25% (daughters: 0%.Deduced the principles on which inheritance is based . starch) must be digested before they be absorbed and used. causing warming. i. converted to heat.g.g. Some obtain carbon compounds from other organisms. ghost orchid.g.g. 227. so they obtain them from other organisms.g. Heterotrophic Most. dodder. heat). but there's less of it in the atmosphere) Most significant: carbon dioxide and water vapor Less significant: methane and nitrogen oxides Not significant: stratospheric ozone (absorbs incoming short-wave radiation.g.its concentration in the atmosphere (e. a lot of this longer wavelength is absorbed by the atmosphere.Recessive sex-linked condition The mother is a carrier of the condition. which re-emits the radiation back to the surface of the Earth. Before it passes into space. but not all plants and algae are autotrophs.226. not outgoing long-wave radiation) 228. which feed on the stems of other plants e. methane causes much more warming per molecule than CO2. The other 75% thus reaches Earth's surface. Hemophilia . gases Impact of a gas depends on: . Many carbon compounds (e. wood mouse . where it's absorbed. which lives entirely underground except when it flowers and obtains C compounds from fungi living on roots 233. the father doesn't have it (mother: XH Xh. proteins. Greenhouse About 25% of short wavelengths from the sun are absorbed in Earth's atmosphere. Gregor Mendel . ozone absorbing much of effect the UV.its ability to absorb long-wave radiation (i. and re-emitted as much longer wavelengths (mostly infrared. Haploid One chromosome of each type e.

these lymphocytes are destroyed .Thus. there are 23 different chromosome types. High energy Includes X-rays.g. All the chromosomes chromosomes of one particular type are homologous. or intestine during sex. Hypertonic Surrounding solution has higher solute concentration. a protein with an unknown function . across the placenta from mother to child. Homologous In humans. so unlikely for a child to have 2 dominant alleles --> 50% chance 241. penis.This causes AIDS . explaining the use of sweat as a coolant .e. mouth. Hydrolysis A large molecule is broken down into smaller molecules. Hydrogen An intermolecular bond that forms between the positive pole of one water molecule and the negative pole of bond another Energy is released when the bond is made. antibodies can't be produced . when placed in water. 238. Homologous Evolved from same part of a common ancestor and have similarities of structure despite differences of function structures 239. Hydrophilic Substances that are more attractive to water and form intramolecular bonds with water molecules 244. Polypeptides + water --> dipeptides or amino acids Polysaccharides + water --> disaccharides or monosaccharides Glycerides + water --> fatty acids + glycerol 243. Hypotonic Surrounding solution has lower solute concentration. meaning they carry the same genes although not the same alleles. Hierarchy of When species are classified into a series of taxa.Caused by dominant alleles of the gene coding for huntingtin.evaporation of water from sweat removes heat from the body 242. water molecules are used up and broken reactions down into -H and -OH groups. Host cell The cell that receives the recombinant plasmid 240. HIV .234. so they are insoluble 245.Dominant autosomal genetic disease disease .Manifests usually during adulthood (so might already have had children and passed it down) . In the process. Huntington's . do not overcome the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.Gradually. e. it's a mutagen) 236. each of which includes a wider range of species than the previous taxa one Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 235. through cuts during childbirth. each of which carries a different group of genes. Involves transfer of body fluids (through small cuts in the vagina. in traces of blood on hypodermic needles shared by drug abusers. transfused blood) 237. and gamma rays and alpha particles from radioactive isotopes that radiation increase the rate of mutation (i. Hydrophobic Substances that. The -H and -OH groups are used to make new bonds after a bond in the large molecule has been broken.Does not survive long outside the body and can't pass easily through the skin. in milk during breastfeeding. and cell has lower solute concentration HYPER in reference to surrounding concentration 247. when a water molecule evaporates.Infects a type of lymphocyte that plays a vital role in antibody production .Usually only one parent has the disease. Hypertension High blood pressure 246.g. Heat energy is used to do this. and energy is used when the bond is broken e. hydrogen bonds between it and other molecules must be broken. and cell has higher solute concentration HYPO in reference to surrounding concentration . short or medium wave UV.

g. Immobilized enzymes Enzymes that have been attached to other materials or into aggregations to restrict their movement and be used industrially Methods: . IA.Enzymes can be reused (which saves money) transport of calcium ions e. and i) . IB.e. insulin receptor . Inhaling (muscles) External intercostal muscles: contract. Inheritance of blood . alginate) .Catalysis can be controlled by adding or removing enzymes from the reaction mixture .Produces varying phenotypes (IAi x IBi = IAIB. moving ribcage up and out Diaphragm: contracts.They have joint effects on a heterozygous individual .Enzyme concentrations can be higher .immobilized enzyme embedded in membrane to which cytochrome c binds on the outside e. nicotinic acetylcholine receptor .Involves codominance and multiple alleles groups Codominance: . becoming flatter and moving down Volume of thorax: increases Pressure inside thorax: drops below atmospheric pressure Air flow: into lungs from outside the body until the pressure inside rises above atmospheric pressure 251. calcium pump . Intermolecular Weak bonds between molecules forces . allowing the cell to absorb glucose to lower blood glucose concentration 253. ii) 252.trap in a membrane or gel (e. they both affect the phenotype (inherited if IAIA x IBIB) Multiple alleles: . Integral proteins Embedded in phospholipid bilayer e.Enzymes are resistant to denaturation over greater ranges of pH and temperature . IBi.If IA and IB are present together.1 mm in diameter Benefits: .aggregation: bond enzymes together into particles of up to 0.248.Products are not contaminated with enzymes 249.g. IAi. Immunoglobulins Example of the antibody function of proteins It binds to antigens on pathogens A wide range can be produced with different types of binding sites to have specific immunity against different diseases 250.adsorption: attach enzyme to surfaces like glass . cytochrome oxidase .g.hormone receptor that protrudes off both ends e.receptor for neurotransmitter and channel for facilitated diffusion of Na ions 254.When there are more than 2 alleles of a gene (i. Insulin Example of the hormone function of proteins It is carried dissolved in the blood It binds to insulin receptors in body cell membranes.g.

Very active phase in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur . DNA replication in nucleus.G2 . cell respiration) . In vitro 1.cell replicates all genetic material (so after mitosis both new cells have complete genetic code) . Karyogram A photograph or diagram in which the chromosomes of an organism are shown in homologous pairs of decreasing length Uses: 1.g. 1+ embryos are placed in the uterus when they are 48 hours old. using up water) lactose into galactose and glucose .woman takes a drug each day that stops her pituitary gland from secreting FSH or LH. It will root in either water or a factors solid medium. Egg retrieval and fertilization .255. Embryos implant and grow.growth and preparation for division 256. A micropipette mounted on an ultrasound scanner is passed through the uterus wall to wash eggs out of the follicles. fertilization Secretion of estrogen and progesterone therefore also stops.000-100. vitamins. Lactase Hydrolyses (breaks down. protein synthesis in cytoplasm (though some occur during mitosis.000 sperm cells in sterile conditions in a shallow dish and incubated at 37 C till the next day) 4. they are stimulated to mature by an injection of hCG.G1 phase . Increases the area of the epithelium layer of the small intestine by a factor of 10 to increase the rate of absorption. 257. Diagnose conditions due to chromosome abnormalities (if there are more or less than 2 chromosomes for each pair. a hormone that is normally secreted by the embryo. Investigating A new plant will be cloned from another one if roots develop from a stem cutting.g.if fertilization is successful.when follicles are 18 mm in diameter. 259. and monomers formed by digestion like glucose.intramuscular injections of FSH and LH are given daily for 10 days to stimulate follicle development. To investigate it: cuttings IV: the temperature the cuttings are kept in DV: whether roots form CV: same species of plant 258.synthesizes mRNA and proteins . or 1 X and 1 Y chromosome) 2. Down syndrome is due to having 3 copies of chromosome 21) 261.Numbers of mitochondria increase as they grow and divide 3 phases: . Because the woman hasn't had a menstrual cycle. Absorb mineral ions. finger-like projections of the mucosa on the inside of the intestinal wall. e. Isotonic Surrounding solution and cell have same solute concentration 260. This suspends the normal menstrual cycle to allow doctors to control timing and amount of egg production in the ovaries 2. Down regulation . Intestinal villi Small. The FSH injections give much higher concentrations than normal.g.S phase . Deduce sex of an individual (either 2 X chromosomes. Superovulation . Each cell is mixed with 50. affecting rooting in stem Many factors affect if it will form roots. Interphase .e. Establishing pregnancy . too. Karyotype The number and type of chromosomes present in a cell or organism 262. so many more follicles develop (12-20) 3. e. extra progesterone is given as a tablet placed in the vagina to ensure that the uterus lining is maintained.

Their appetite declined. Lactose. WHICH STIMUALTES PROGESTERONE. Light Light energy energy in --> energy in organic matter in producers (by photosynthesis) the ecosystem --> energy in organic matter in saprotrophs and detritivores (by the death of the producer. as ovulation begins. a yeast that grows in milk. energy expenditure increased. These organisms absorb calcium and carbonate ions and secrete them as calcium carbonate. Leptin and .263. so less sugar needs to be added to sweet foods with milk in them (e. Rises to a sudden and sharp peak after the follicular phase.) 267.add free lactase to milk . Advantages: .Mice with 2 recessive alleles.bacteria ferment glucose and galactose more quickly than lactose.But the body mass lost by highest dose group varied greatly.12 patients with the placebo lost average of 1. which allows it to burst open and release the oocyte (ovulation).lactose crystallizes during ice cream production. It binds to receptors in the membranes of these cells and cause long-term appetite inhibition and reduced food intake. LH Stimulates the completion of meiosis in the oocyte (which is still in the follicle) Stimulates the partial digestion of the follicle wall.many people are lactose-intolerant. (so they didn't have a gene for the synthesis of leptin) were injected with leptin obesity . but to resistance to leptin in the target cells in the hypothalamus (so injections can't control obesity) 266. Rainwaiter contains carbonic acid. Promotes the development of the wall of the follicle after ovulation into the corpus luteum. STIMULATES PROGESTERONE. thus remain dissolved.use lactase that has been immobilized. If the limestone reacts with acid. . WHICH INHIBIT LH.g.. free milk Lactase is an enzyme that hydrolyses lactose in glucose and galactose. milkshakes or yogurt) . Or. and lost weight quickly regained after trial . lactase. WHICH LOWERS PROGESTERONE. glucose and galactose are more soluble than lactose.1 kg of body mass . Lactose is a sugar (disaccharide) in milk that is hydrolysed into glucose and galactose by the enzyme. and body mass dropped by 30% in 1 month . which consist of limestone).3 kg of body mass . so yogurt and cottage cheese production is faster 264. It can be immobilized by adsorption (on a surface). Its target is a group of cells in the hypothalamus that help control hunger. It can be obtained from microorganisms like Kluveromyces lactis. This reduces the lactose concentration and raises the glucose concentration.Most obesity cases are not due to insufficient leptin secretion. Limestone in Limestone is mostly calcium carbonate and often contains fossils like mollusc shells (who fall to the sea bed when the carbon they die and become part of the limestone rock) and hard coral skeletons (which accumulate over time to build cycle coral reeds. giving it a gritty texture.. they can't consumed more than 250 mL of milk a day . which secretes estrogen and progesterone.Clinical trial carried out on 73 obese volunteers to see if leptin injections would control obesity in humans . so the energy passes to them when they digest it) OR --> energy in organic matter in primary consumers (by the primary consuming eating the producer) OR --> heat (by the release of energy by cell respiration for use in the producer) 268.E. 265.8 patients with highest dose lost average 7. WHICH RAISES LH. giving it a smooth texture . it releases the carbon.Injections reduced skin irritation and swelling . Leptin A protein hormone secreted by adipose cells (fat storage cells). Method: . it can be immobilized by making alginate (a gel) beads that contain lactase and putting them in milk. ob/ob.galactose and glucose are sweeter. Its concentration increases when the amount of adipose tissue in the body increases. so neither researcher nor participant knew) . WITH PROGESTERONE (I.Injected with either doses of leptin or a placebo (and double-blind.

Magnification size of image / size of specimen calculation (make sure in same units) .thus.Chest pain .Air pollution (sources include diesel exhaust fumes.thus. Lipids --> fatty acids and glycerol 270. Lipids Carbon compounds made by living organisms that are mostly or entirely hydrophobic.Appetite loss . Lipids vs. especially granite) .important because we have to carry out energy stores with us.Smoking (tobacco smoke contains many mutagens that cause tumors) . and smoke from wood and coal fires) . lipids are actually 6 times more efficient in the amount of energy that can be stored per gram of body mass .Weight loss 275.Asbestos and silica (dust from these cause cancer is deposited in lungs) Consequences: . Lipase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine.Fatigue . Locus The locus of a gene is its particular position on homologous chromosomes 273. nitrogen oxides from vehicles.Passive smoking (exhaled breath from smokers passes carcinogens on to others) .fats form pure droplets in cells with NO WATER associated.triglycerides . Identified if have 2-3 hydrocarbon chains or quadruple ring structure of steroids (zigzag lines or hexagons/pentagons) Three types: . and even better for animals like bats and birds that fly 272.Persistent coughing . the same amount of energy stored as lipid rather than carbohydrate adds half as much to body mass .the amount of energy released in cell respiration per gram of lipids is DOUBLE the amount released from a gram of carbohydrates . Lung cancer Main causes: .phospholipids . . Longitudinal Contracts where the food is located to move it along the gut muscle in small intestine Contracts with circular muscle to mix food with enzymes 274.Coughing up blood .humans have glycogen stores in the liver and muscles of fat in adipose tissue storage Lipids better for long-term storage: . while glycogen us associated with 2 GRAMS OF WATER .Radon gas (leaks out of rocks.Difficulties breathing .269.steroids 271.plant seeds have starch or oil energy .Both used by living organisms as stores of energy carbohydrates .

Sperm duct system . so melanic moths camouflage better now . 283.Partially permeable (allow some substances to diffuse through but not others) 284. During the cycle. . making them haploid. Melatonin and jet Regulates circadian rhythm.g. the peppered moth. Ratios of hydrogen isotopes in the water molecules can find global temperatures. an oocyte (egg) matures inside the follicle (a fluid- filled sac in the in the ovary).Mammary glands secrete milk 279.Soot from coal burning blackens the pale-colored lichen on tree branches. but became common in 19th century England when industry developed. global 2.Peppered moths were found and eaten more in industrialized areas. Melanism Dark varieties of typically light-colored insects e. Maltase Enzyme in the membranes of microvilli on the villi that digests maltose into glucose 278.Peppered moths fly at night to find a mate and reproduce . Bubbles of air trapped in the ice extracted and analyzed to find CO2 concentrations. causing evolution 282. concentrations 280. .Scrotum .Give birth to live young . Mammals . Ganglion cells in the retina detect it it's light or dark and send impulses to the lag supra-chiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus.Penis . The egg is released when the follicle bursts open during ovulation.Teeth of different types .Seminal vesicle . Explanation: . Secretion changes depending on time of day and declines with age. Negative and positive feedback are both used.276. The melanistic variety was originally rare.The DNA is not replicated between the 1st and 2nd division . Meiosis The process that halves chromosome number and allows a sexual life cycle of fusion of gametes. jet lag occurs.Lungs with alveoli .Hair growing from skin .It's the separation of pairs of homologous chromosomes in the first division that halves the chromosome number 281. The peppered variety became rarer.The DNA of the chromosomes is replicated before the first division so that each chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids .During the day they roost on tree branches . which has built up over thousands of years.A diploid nucleus divides twice to produce 4 haploid nuclei . Membrane .Epididymis . impulses from the ganglion cells to the SCN readjust the body. Menstrual cycle A cycle controlled by the hormones FSH and LH (produced by the pituitary gland). peppered moths camouflage well against pale-colored lichen . Male reproductive .Testis 277. SCA neurons control melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. The SCN and pineal gland continue to set circadian rhythm to times of point of departure not destination. and estrogen and progesterone (produced by the ovary).In unpolluted areas. so a higher proportion of melanic moths survived to breed and pass on the dark wing color.Urethra . Measuring past 1.Prostate gland . temperatures/CO2 3. When the circadian rhythms are disrupted b traveling rapidly across time zones. In a few days. Columns of ice drilled in the Antarctic.

In following generations. . which boosts estrogen production (positive feedback) DURING MENSTRUATION 3. They then abruptly transferred the bacteria to a medium with the less dense 14 N isotope 3. which allows it burst open and release the oocyte (ovulation) DURING OVULATION 6. After 2 generations. Estrogen stimulates the repair and thickening of the uteran lining (endometrium) after menstruation AFTER MENSTRUATION 4. When it reaches high levels. Progesterone and estrogen levels fall is no embryo is formed. Estrogen stimulates an increase in FSH receptors in the follicles. estrogen stimulates LH secretion and inhibits FSH secretion. and 1 at 14N. Progesterone levels rise in the days after ovulation. 1 still at 14N/15N. AFTER OVULATION 10. Caesium ions are heavy and tend to sink. Menstrual 1.Autotrophs (produce C compounds and regenerate O used in CR by organisms inside) and saprotrophs (decompose dead organics matter and recycle nutrients) are essential . After 1 generation.Consumers and detritivores are not essential . ecosystems only require a supply of energy (usually light) to continue. The DNA shows up as a dark band in UV light 6. and the 14N/15N became weaker. Spun samples of the DNA collected from the bacterial culture at different times after the transfer to the 14N isotope. FSH rises to a peak and stimulates follicle development (which each contain an oocyte and follicular fluid) and the cycle secretion of estrogen by the follicle wall stages DURING MENSTRUATION 2. coli bacteria for many generations in a medium where the only N sources was the 15N isotope. Cultured E. Eventually. the DNA was intermediate in density between 14N and 15N (1 old strand and 1 new strand). there were 2 equal bands. making them more receptive to FSH. It stimulates the completion of meiosis in the oocyte and partial digestion of the follicle wall. A solution of caesium chloride was spun in an ultracentrifuge at 45. 287.000 revolutions per minute for 24 hours. the less dense 14N band became stronger. as long as nutrients are recycled. which secretes estrogen and progesterone AFTER OVULATION 7. Demonstrate that. LH rises to a sudden and sharp peak. so this created a gradient with the greatest caesium concentration and therefore density at the bottom. they're low enough to allow FSH secretion again. so the N in the bases of the bacterial DNA was 15N 2.285. starting the menstrual cycle again 286. FSH levels rise again. And any substance centrifuged with the solution becomes concentrated at the level of its density. High progesterone and estrogen levels inhibit FSH and LH secretoin (negative feedback b/c FSH and LH stimulate progesterone and estrogen secretion) AFTER OVULATION 9. leading to a fall in estrogen secretion AFTER MENSTRUATION 5. Meselson Found strong evidence for semi-conservative DNA replication after Crick and Watson's model and Stahl Experiment: 1. 4. promoting the thickening and maintenance of the uteran lining (endometrium) AFTER OVULATION 8. LH also promotes the development of the wall of the follicle after ovulation into the corpus luteum. 5. Mesocosm Small experiment area set up in an ecological research program.

Metaphase . Metastasis Spreading of cells to form tumors in a different part of the body 294. initial substrate --> intermediate substance --> intermediate substance --> intermediate substance --> intermediate substance --> end produce/substrate 289. Methane in the carbon cycle Methane is produced naturally by a group of prokaryotes called methanogenic archaeans.288. or vice versa) . Modes of heterotrophic nutrition . It's a relatively stable substance in the atmosphere. pulling one to one pole and one to the other 292.g. Metaphase I . Metaphase II . Methods for obtaining cells of . but is eventually oxidized to CO2.Used by doctors to predict how rapidly a tumor will grow and therefore what treatment is needed (high index indicates fast-growing tumor) 300. There are 2 possible orientations for each chromosome (one side can face the one pole and one side face the other pole. Methods of absorption .Detritivores 301.Chorionic villus sampling chromosome testing 297.Consumers . but sometimes cycles of reactions e. These anaerobic conditions happen in swamps. Methanogenic archaens Prokaryotes that naturally produce methane by breaking down organic matter in anaerobic condition and releasing the methane as a waste product 296. The methane may accumulate in the ground or diffuse into the atmosphere. Molecular biology Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances involved .Endocytosis 298. and other sites where dead organic matter is not fully decomposed by saprotrophic bacteria and fungi.Random orientation: the pairs of chromosomes line up at the equator. which break down organic matter in anaerobic conditions and release methane as a waste product. so concentrations in the atmosphere remain low 295.Spindle microtubules from both poles attach to each centromere from opposite sides 291. Mitotic index Ratio between the number of cells in mitosis in a tissue and the total number of observed cells .Spindle microtubules from the poles attach to different chromosomes in each pair.Active transport . Metabolism Web of all the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell or organisms Metabolic pathways consist of chains of reactions.Facilitated diffusion . but there are also some cycles 290.Saprotrophs .Nuclear membrane is broken down . bogs. Metabolic pathways Most often chains of reactions.Chromosomes align at the equator .Simple diffusion .Chromosomes line up at equator .Spindle microtubules attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids 293. Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 299.Amniocentesis an unborn child for .

or triple covalent bonds E. mustard gas used as a chemical weapon. hydrogen cyanide Bonds: Hydrogen . mRNA The RNA copy of the base sequence of the gene that codes for a polypeptide. hydrogen.Mouth and anus 304.3 bonds Carbon . and benzene. Mutagens Chemical substances that increase the chance of mutations and thus the risk of tumor formation (oncogenesis) 311. fructose 306.1 bonds Oxygen .Deduce by how much lung volume decreased or increased with each ventilation 305. which is carried to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm to give them the information needed to synthesize a polypeptide Why it's called "messenger RNA" 308.Often a shell . Myogenic Contraction that is not stimulated by a nerve. Monosaccharides . trachea. classification Allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species in a group and help species identification . pathogens get caught in the sticky mucus. Molecule A group of two or more atoms held together by single.No visible segmentation . an enzyme in the mucus . CO2.Deduce the ventilation rate and relative size of ventilations Monitor tidal volumes: .g.Place an inflatable chest belt around the thorax and pump air in with a bladder . ethanol. and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1 e. double.Contain only atoms of carbon. Natural Classifying organisms based on one common ancestral species from which the species in a group have evolved. vagina. Mutation Random changes to the base sequence of a gene Source of genetic variation Mutation rate increased by 2 types of mutagens: .Do not form strong physical barrier.Muscular foot and mantle . nitrosamines in tobacco. and cilia push the mucus and bacteria up and out 309. Monounsaturated Fatty acid carbon chain with only 1 double bond fatty acid 307. and membranes urethra) .high energy radiation . nose.Sugars that consist of a single sub-unit (monomer) . Mutagenic For example.Monitor ventilation rate and tidal volume at rest and then during exercise ventilation in humans Monitor ventilation rate: .2 bonds Nitrogen .In the trachea. but performed on own contraction 313.Mucous membranes are soft areas of skin that are kept moist with mucus (e.g.302. Mollusca Example: Burgundy snail .mutagenic chemicals 312.Use a differential pressure sensor to measure pressure variations inside the chest belt due to chest expansions . galactose. Mucous .Use spirometer .g. that increase chemicals the rate of mutation 310.4 bonds 303. Monitoring . ribose. glucose.Breathe through a tube into the bell jar of the spirometer to measure expired volume . but many bacteria killed by lysozyme.

a base (rectangle) The pentose sugar of one nucleotide is linked to the phosphate of the next by covalent bonds . but ingests any pathogen if it is stimulated to do so immunity e. Non-separation of chromosomes in the first or second divisions of meiosis disjunction Thus.g. Non-specific Immune response that does not distinguish between pathogens. When blood glucose concentrations rise. the pancreas secretes more insulin to lower glucose levels 315. A rise in levels feeds back to feedback decrease production and thus reduce the levels. trisomy) or too few (usually die quickly) 319. they block synaptic transmission.g.a phosphate group (circle) . so it has a stabilizing effect. Nucleotide chain Sub-units of nucleic acids Made of: . the gametes produced have either one chromosome too many (e. Thus. Nerve An action potential that travels along the axon of a neuron from one end to the other impulse 317. killing the insect. so they remain bound to the receptors. A decrease in levels feeds back to increase production and thus raise the levels. Neurons Nerve cells that carry messages at high speeds in the form of electrical impulses. control of insulin levels. e. Non. Nucleic acid Polymer of sub-units called nucleotides 321. 316. Myelinated nerve fibers have a myelin sheath with small gaps (nodes of Ranvier) that allow the nerve impulse to jump from node to node (saltatory conduction) 318.314. phagocytes 320. Neonicotinoid Bind to ACh receptors in the post-synaptic membranes of cholinergic synapses in insects. Cholinesterase does not pesticides break down these pesticides. preventing ACh from binding.pentose sugar (pentagon) . Negative A change in levels causes the opposite change.g.

200 Fruit fly: 14. nitrogen. but lost through heat and replaced with energy from light.Before cells today. which matures inside the follicle in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle 328. the matter is only partially decomposed. used by living organisms.000 E. so risk is high) Anything that increases the chance of mutation will increase risk (e. coli: 3. Oocyte Egg cell. Nutrient recycling in Energy is not recycled.Bacteria have fewer genes than eukaryotes . mutagens) 327.Plants may seem less complex than humans. which suggests that life evolved from the same original cells 329. The silt is converted into shale. and other essential nutrients are absorbed from the environment.500 Rice: 41. Because of formation anaerobic conditions. Oil and gas Silt is deposited alongside the remains of dead marine organisms on the beds of shallow seas. cell divides uncontrollably to produce a mass of cells called a primary tumor Mutations must occur in several oncogenes in the same cell for control to be lost (chance is very small. ecosystems Nutrients are recycled. but body has billions of cells.g. Numbers of genes Humans: 23. and then returned. Oncogenes Genes involved in the control of the cell cycle 326. apart from minor variations. there was only non-living material on Earth cell . Carbon.Some animals have fewer and some more genes than humans . Origins of the first .000 Trends: .322. 325. with compounds from the organic matter becoming oil or gas trapped in pores in the rock. phosphorus. Oscilloscope traces Measure the changes in membrane potential in axons during action potential . Oncogenesis Formation of tumors that starts with mutations in oncogenes (genes involved in the control of the cell cycle) When control of cell cycle lost.64 codons of genetic code have same meanings in all cells of all organisms. 324. but some have more genes 323.000 Puffer fish: 25.

g. provides a site for fertilization. so disproved it 5. Contraction of circular muscle behind the food constricts the gut to prevent food from being pushed back towards the mouth. Placed samples of broth in flasks with long swan necks and melted the glass of the necks to bend them into different shapes 2. Peristalsis Waves of muscle contract that pass along the intestine.Can be hypotonic. or to shrink due to gain or loss of water 332. hypertonic. then moves the embryo to the uterus 334. then higher osmolarity . Boiled the broth in some of the flasks to kill any organisms present. Pathogen An organism or virus that causes disease 337.Different from diffusion because water is a solvent . Peripheral Attached to outer surface of the membrane proteins e. or isotonic .Attractions between solute particles and water molecules are reason for water moving to regions with HIGHER solute concentration . allowing penetration of the vagina so that semen can be ejaculated near the cervix 339.Number of moles of solute particles per unit volume of solution . estrogen.Greater concentration of solutes. Fungi and other organisms appeared in the unboiled flasks but not the boiled ones (even after a long time) 4.Moves due to concentration of solutes. Peptide Links amine group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of the next amino acid bond 341. reptiles. climbing. Ovary Produces eggs.Can cause cells in human tissues or organs to swell up and burst. not water . Peat and Saprotrophs can't break down dead leaves and other organic matter in acidic and/or anaerobic conditions. and progesterone 333. Penis Has erectile tissue that becomes enlarged and hard. but that didn't occur. limb Amphibians. and digging). cytochrome c (electron transport) that binds to the outside of cytochrome oxidase 342. The broth in the flasks was in contact with air (which had been suggested was needed for spontaneous generation). Pentadactyl The basic bone structure of the forearm. Partially decomposed plant matter thus accumulates to form thick deposits (peat) formation Peat was crushed and converted into coal long ago. and left others unboiled (controls) 3. Ovulation When the follicle wall bursts open to release the oocyte 335.Pure water has osmolarity of 0 331. swimming. Must have all shared an ancestor that had a pentadactyl limb. Concluded that the swan necks prevented organisms from the air getting into the flasks and that no organisms appeared spontaneously 336. jumping. though use it for different things (e. Osmolarity . birds. Osmosis . Oviduct Collects eggs at ovulation. but groups evolved and adopted different types of locomotion. walking. Contraction of longitudinal muscle where the food is located moves it along the gut. 338. .Verified principle that cells can only come from pre-existing cells experiment 1. Snapped necks of some of the flasks to leave a shorter vertical neck. and mammals all have it. Contraction of both layers of muscle mixes food with enzymes in the small intestine.330.g. water will move by osmosis FROM solution with LOWER osmolarity to HIGHER osmolarity . which coal are in bogs and swamps.Passive movement of water FROM region of LOWER solute concentration to HIGHER solute concentration . 340. Pasteur's .If two solutions with different osmolarity are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. and organisms were soon apparent and decomposed the broth 6.

Phosphate head is hydrophilic and 2 fatty acids tails (composed of hydrocarbon chains) are hydrophobic . 1 phosphate group. 3. Photosynthesis Production of carbon compounds in cells using light energy and simple inorganic substrates In plants.Amphipathic (part of the molecule is hydrophobic and part hydrophilic) . The electrons produced are used to convert CO2 into a carbohydrate in photosynthesis.Basic components of cell membrane . Phagocytes .They can ingest pathogens in the blood . Energy is needed to do this. 2.They also squeeze out through the walls of blood capillaries and into tissues to sites of infection. Energy is obtained in the form of light.343. and hydrophobic tails facing inward away from the water .The pathogens are then killed and digested inside the cell by enzymes from the lysosome .When mixed with water. and some bacteria CO2 + water + light energy --> glucose + oxygen Stages: 1. CO2 is converted into carbohydrates and other carbon compounds. algae. It produces oxygen as a waste product.Gives us non-specific immunity to diseases (doesn't distinguish between pathogens. The light is absorbed by photosynthetic pigments.Ingest pathogens by endocytosis . Phospholipid . 347. where they ingest the pathogen causing the infection (large numbers form pus) . they form bilayer. the splitting of water molecules. which produces oxygen as a waste product. Photolysis The splitting of water molecules. and 1 glycerol Partly hydrophobic and form the basis of membranes 346. but ingests if stimulated to do do) 344. They are obtained by photolysis. Electrons are needed to convert CO2 into carbohydrate. with hydrophilic heads facing out and making contact with water.The attraction between the hydrophobic tails in the center and between the hydrophilic heads and surrounding water makes them very stable 345. . Phospholipids 2 fatty acids.

Makes larger amounts for forensic analysis 356.O2 levels rose from 2% to 30% and then back down to 20% . Phyla Plants: . there can be 100. thus one part of the molecules has a slight positive charge and another part has a slight negative charge e.Platyhelminths (flatworm) .Angiospermophytes (flowering plants) . Uses: . Photosynthesis 3. so 2 hydrogen atoms have slight positive charge and oxygen has slight negative charge (has two poles.Filicinophytes (ferns) .2 billion years ago: .Flat bodies .O2 content in atmosphere rose from very low to 2% because of photosynthesis . By the end.Gymnospermophytes (conifers) Animals: .000 copies in a 0.Chordata (fish) 350. Platelets Small cell fragments that circulate with red and white blood cells in blood plasma and plays an important role in blood clotting 353. water molecules (hydrogen nuclei are less attractive to nuclei than oxygen nuclei. electrons are not shared equally.5 billion years ago: first organisms released O2 into the air and the atmosphere 2.4-2.Porifera (sponges) . but no anus 354.Mouth. Plasmid Smaller extra loops of DNA in prokaryotes that act as vectors for GMO 352. it can be carried out at high temperatures using Taq DNA polymerase.g. Polymerase Consists of a cycle of stages carried out again and again to produce many copies of a DNA molecule chain reaction DNA polymerase is used to copy a DNA molecule over and over again.Unsegmented .2 mL eppendorf (small tube). Polypeptide An unbranched chain of amino acids coded for by the base sequences in the DNA of a gene 1+ make up proteins Usually between 50-2.Annelida (earthworm) .Makes many copies of a desired gene for a gene transfer procedure . Platyhelminths Example: tapeworm .increased above 2% were probably because of the evolution of multicellular algae and land plants. a special type of heat- stable DNA polymerase.Bryophytes (mosses) .this caused dissolved iron in the ocean to precipitate as iron oxide.Arthropoda (scorpion) .000. doubling the quantity with each cycle. To speed it up. which raise global photosynthesis rates 349. so DIpolarity) 355.000 amino acids (< 40 is usually just called a peptide) .348. Pinnae Pairs of leaflets that divide the leaves of filicinophytes 351. sinking to the bottom and forming rock deposits called banded iron formations 750 million years ago: . when the nucleus of one atom is more attractive to the electrons than the other.Bilateral symmetry . Polarity In a covalent bond.Cnidaria (jellyfish) .Mollusca (Burgundy snail) .

who live in the same area at the same time 360. Potassium .Pores on and through its body .Closed when the axon is polarized.On the axons of neurons channels . Polysaccharides . it is the 6th bond. feedback e.A numbering system for carbon atoms in glucose is used .No clear symmetry .No mouth or anus 361.Allow K+ ions to exit by facilitated diffusion. Polyunsaturated Fatty acid carbon chain with 2+ double bonds fatty acid Position to the CH3 (end opposite -COOH) is important. it's the 3rd bond. so it leads to sudden rises and falls. uterine contractions during birth until the baby is out/there's no more stimulus 362.357. Positive A rise or fall leads to further rises or further falls. which repolarizes the axon . but open in response to depolarization of axon membrane .6 glycosidic bonds. cellulose.Only remain open for short time before globular sub-units block the pore and closes again .Basic linkage between the glucose subunits is a glycosidic bond from C1 of a glucose to C4 of the next (but some also have 1. In omega-3 fatty acids. and starch 358. In omega-6 fatty acids.g.Used during action potential .g.Monosaccharides linked together . giving them a branched structure) e. 359. glycogen.Attached to a surface . Porifera Example: purple vase sponge . Population A group of organisms of the same species.

then goes back down (explained because contracts to open it) Left ventricle: Peaks ginormously when semilunar valves open. but can become malignant if cells become detach and are carried else in the body. an enzyme in the mucus . Progesterone A steroid hormone that prepares the uterus during the menstrual cycle for the implantation of an embryo by thickening and maintaing it. Has important roles in supporting a pregnancy.circular DNA molecule . and urethra) . pathogens get caught in the sticky mucus.linear DNA molecule chromosomes .Form barriers preventing entry of pathogens defense Skin: . the gene that codes for human insulin insulin is transferred from humans to the bacterium E. 367. too. and the aorta during the cardiac cycle Left atrium: pressure consistent. spikes just as semilunar valves open. to become secondary tumors (called metastasis) 366.naked (not associated with a protein) . vagina.associated with a histone protein . Prokaryote Eukaryote: vs. eukaryote .plasmids often present (extra) . Because of the universality of the genetic code.In the trachea.Soft areas of skin that are kept moist with mucus (e.g. Primary .363. which make the surface of the skin acidic . the amino acid sequence of the insulin produced in the bacterium is the same as that in humans. and cilia push the mucus and bacteria up and out 365. nose. trachea. Pressures in the cardiac cycle In the left atrium.1 chromosome only . Production of Human insulin is a protein with just 51 amino acids. but many bacteria killed by lysozyme. then goes back down when they close and the atrioventricular valves open (explained because contracts powerfully to pump the blood out.Do not form strong physical barrier. coli. the left ventricle. 368. Primary Mass of cells as the result of repeated uncontrolled divisions of cells with a mutation in an oncogene tumor Often benign because they go not grow rapidly and do not spread.This prevents growth of pathogenic bacteria Mucous membranes: .Sebaceous glands in the skin secrete lactic acid and fatty acids.Outer layers are tough and form a physical barrier .no plasmids . To produce it in order to treat diabetes. but then pressure must fall to atrial pressure so the atrioventricular valves can open again) Aorta: Peaks when semilunar valves open.2+ different chromosomes Prokaryote: . then goes back down (explained because the blood being pumped out from the ventricles at this point is being pumped through the aorta) 364.

Antibody (e. Proteome All of the proteins produced by a cell. .2 new haploid cells after telophase II . Prophase .Structural (e.Nucleoid (region containing naked DNA) . Pulmonary Blood circulation for the lungs circulation The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. Prostate At the start of ejaculation. and oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart via the pulmonary vein 379.Pili . Quadrat 1.Nuclear membrane will break down soon 373. Propagation The action potential of one part of an axon triggers an action potential in the next part. which is carried dissolved in the blood and binds to insulin receptors in body cell membranes to allow them to absorb glucose and lower blood glucose concentration) . and give tendons and ligaments tensile strength) 377. secretes an alkaline fluid that is added to the sperm to help sperm swim gland 375. which bind to antigens on pathogens and can be produced by the immune system with different types of binding sites that allow specific immunity against different diseases) .70S ribosomes .g.Not compartmentalized . Protein A protein's 3D structure. Repeat with as many as possible . Prophase I .Enzyme (e. Protein .Spindle microtubules extend from each pole toward the equator 372.g.Flagellum 370. Prophase II . tissue. It is due to the diffusion of of nerve sodium ions between a region with an action potential and the next region that's still at resting potential by impulses changing the voltage across the membrane from -70mV to -50mV. Mark out gridlines along 2 edges of an area sampling 2. immunoglobulins.g. it's variable because different cells in an organism make different proteins Can be extracted from tissue and separated by gel electrophoresis 378. mitochondria. or organism Unlike the genome.Cell wall . collagen.Spindle microtubules grow .Spindle microtubules grow from each pole toward the equator . which causes more voltage-gated sodium channels to open 371. Place quadrat on these corners 4.Pigment (e.Each chromosome now consists of two identical chromatids formed by DNA replication in interphase and held together by the centromere .Plasma membrane . Quadrat A square sample area used in ecological research 380. which makes the rod cells in the retina light-sensitive and has a non-amino acid part called retinal that absorbs a photon of light that causes the rod cell to send a nerve impulse to the brain) . Chromosomes in each pair are homologous.369.Crossing over: parts of non-sister chromatids are exchanged . rhodopsin. or membrane-bound organelles within nucleus Has: . fractures in bones.Chromosomes pair up. Use a calculator or tables to generate 2 random numbers to use as coordinates 3. Prokaryotic .First cells to evolve cells .Cytoplasm . stabilized by intramolecular bonds between the amino acids in the polypeptides brought conformation together by the folding process Determined by the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide (most are folded to produce a globular shape) 376.Chromosomes becoming shorter and fatter by supercoiling .No nucleus.New spindle fibers grown from the poles to the equators 374. Record the presence/absence of each species of interest or record the number of individuals in the quadrat 5. rubisco.g.Hormone (e.Replicates by binary fission . insulin.g. which has 3 polypeptides wound together in a rope-like conformation to prevent tearing in skin. which catalyzes the photosynthesis reaction that fixes CO2 from the atmosphere) functions .

2 existing families were found to contain species that shared common ancestry with the figwort family.Soft shells around eggs . Reaction for glucose + galactose --> lactose + water lactose Condensation reaction 383. Recombinant A plasmid with a gene from another species inserted into it plasmid 387. impermeable skin . 388.There are 2 possible orientations (one sister chromatid facing one pole. Depends on the wavelength of the rays used to form the image (shorter wavelength. So. electrons have shorter wavelength than light. one sister chromatid facing the other pole. higher resolution. Others were moved to 2 new families.Internal fertilization 389.381. .Because this is random and doesn't influence other pairs.1 type of teeth . Random . Reptiles . 386. Reclassification Evidence from cladistics shows that classification of some groups based on structure did not correspond with of figworts the evolutionary origins of a group or species Species in the family did not all share a recent common ancestor.The exit of positive potassium ions causes the inside of the cell to develop a net negative charge again compared with outside. so electron microscopes have higher resolution than light) .Dry. Resolution The ability of the microscope to show 2 close objects separately in the image.A process in meiosis which promotes genetic variation among the haploid cells produced by meiosis orientation . potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse out down the gradient. or vice versa) .The pairs of homologous chromosomes from prophase I line up at the equator . scaly.When the membrane polarity reverses. Also. different combinations of chromosomes (thus different combinations of alleles) are produced 382. so the potential is restored. Repolarization .During metaphase I . some genera were moved to the plantain and broomrape families. Reaction for glucose + glucose --> maltose + water maltose Condensation reaction 384.Lungs with extensive folding . so they were merged. lindernia and calceolaria. Reaction for glucose + fructose --> sucrose + water sucrose Condensation reaction 385.

Thus. Scrotum Holds testes at lower than core body temperature . Other cells are stimulated to absorb glucose and use it glucose in CR instead of fat. Rhodopsin Example of the pigment function of proteins It makes the rod cells in the retina light-sensitive It has a non-amino acid part called a retinal that absorbs a photon of light The rod cell then sends a nerve impulse to the brain 397. Protein. potential It is maintained by the concentration gradient of sodium and potassium.e. Granules of glycogen are stored in these cells.A capillary tube connected to the container containing fluid that allows the volume of the air inside to be monitored 391. and other carbon compounds are digested externally and then absorbed) e. It stimulates the liver and muscle cells to absorb glucose and convert it to high blood glycogen. there's voltage across the membrane (usually -70mV) 394. human pancreas cells that make insulin) Remember: backward process of transcription 396. Respirometer Any device used to measure respiration rates Parts: .An alkali (e. It stimulates liver cells to break glycogen down into glucose and release it. fungi 400. Saprotrophs Obtain organic nutrients from dead organisms by external digestion (i. Saltatory When the nerve impulse jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next around the myelin sheath to speed up the conduction transmission 399. Response to Glucagon is secreted by alpha cells. Restriction Enzyme used for GMO process by cutting DNA molecules at specific base sequences endonuclease 395.g. Resting Voltage (electrical potential) across the plasma membrane of a neuron when it is not conducting a nerve impulse. Response to Insulin is secreted by beta cells. Saturated all of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid carbon chain are connected by SINGLE COVALENT BONDS so the number fatty acid of hydrogen atoms bonded to the atoms CAN'T BE INCREASED 401.g.Sealed glass or plastic container to place the tissue/organism in . Sodium is pumped out and potassium is pumped in by active transport through sodium-potassium pumps. animals.390. cellulose. Rubisco Example of the enzyme function of proteins It catalyzes the photosynthesis reaction that fixes CO2 from the atmosphere 398. wood. concentration 392. potassium hydroxide) that absorbs CO2 produced by cell respiration. or feces. The inside of the neuron develops a net negative charge compared to the outside because of the present of chloride and other negative ions. low blood glucose concentration 393. The volume of the air inside should thus be reduced as a result of oxygen being used in CR by the organisms inside . Reverse Enzyme used to make DNA copies of the mRNA (1 strand --> 2 strands) extracted from human cells with desired transcriptase genes (e. Scanning electron Produce an image of the surface of structures microscope *know structure 402. they secrete digestive enzymes into materials like dead leaves.g. bacteria.

Embryonic gonads all initially develop in a similar way so they can become either ovaries or testes. This can cause red blood cells containing the altered hemoglobin to become sickle-shaped. hemophilia. 409.New polymers of nucleotides are assembled on each of the 2 strands (the "template strands") .The hormone epinephrine increases the heart rate to prepare the body for vigorous physical activity .g.The two strands of DNA are separated by breaking the hydrogen bonds between their bases. so the sex of the child depends on whether the sperm is carrying an X or a Y chromosome. Seminal vesicle At the end of ejaculation. secretes an alkaline fluid that contains proteins that make semen sticky 407. thus that amino acid is different 3. but can give resistance to malaria 412.The new strands have the same base sequences as the old strand that was taken away. no longer benign but now malignant (now called cancer) (detachment called metastasis) 404. If embryo is XX. a gene regulation protein that stimulates the expression of the genes for either male or female testis by binding to specific DNA sites. Secondary tumors When cells detach from the primary tumor and are carried elsewhere in the body. Short tandem Loci in the chromosomes where instead of a gene consisting of a long sequence of bases. if embryo is XY. while the Y chromosome has very few genes Patterns of inheritance of these genes differ in males and females because females have 2 Xs and males have 1 X --> only females can be carriers of recessive alleles of sex-linked genes because these alleles are much more frequent in males e. 1. Base substitution of A for T in the 2nd base on the 6th amino acid of the beta polypeptide hemoglobin. They carry oxygen less efficiently. SRY is present so testes develop. changing the allele HbA into HbS 2.Thus. semi-conservative because has 1 new strand and 1 strand from the parent molecule. there are much repeats (STR) shorter sequences of 3-5 bases that are repeated many times There are many different possible alleles that vary in the number of repeats Used in DNA profiling 411. Tim Hunt and cyclins in sea urchin eggs 408. so varies develop. thus the molecules produced are identical to each other and the parent molecule . SRY is absent. red-green color-blindness 410.403. Occurs in HBB. Sex determination All egg cells carry an X chromosome. which codes for TDF (testis determining factor). the gene for the beta polypeptide of hemoglobin. Signals to SA . Serendipity Making happy and unexpected discoveries by accident e. Sex-linkage The association of a characteristic with the sex of the individual. One says to node slow it down. One codon in the mRNA is different now. Rejected theories of conservative replication and dispersive replication 406.g. replication .Impulses are brought from the medulla of the brain by 2 nerves. One says to speed up heart rate. Decided by the presence or absence of the SRY gene. Selective breeding Selecting individuals of a species with desirable traits and breeding from them (AKA artificial selection) 405. Sickle cell A genetic disease that demonstrates how a single base substitution mutation can have very significant anemia consequences. because the gene controlling that characteristic is located only on a sex chromosome Usually due to genes on the X chromosome because it's relatively large and has important genes on it. Semi-conservative . Since only on Y chromosome. .

so stabilize their structure . Fusion of cells with membrane proteins tagged with different colored fluorescent markers showed that these proteins can move within the membrane as the colors became mixed within a few minutes of cell fusion when they became 1 cell 416. Simple diffusion Some substances move between phospholipids molecules in the membrane 414. Sister The two parts of the chromosome chromatids Term for it before separated during mitosis 418.Falsified by evidence Polar amino acids: . Freeze-fracture electron micrographs show globular proteins present in the center of the phospholipid bilayer 2.Sebaceous glands in the skin secrete lactic acid and fatty acids. Singer-Nicolson .Developed in 1950s and 1960s Model .Cause proteins to remain embedded in membranes Process of discovery: 1.On the surface of proteins. so make them water soluble . positively charged R groups allow negatively charged ions through and vice versa. . Analysis of membrane proteins showed that parts of their surfaces were hydrophobic (so they'd be positioned in the bilayer and sometimes stretch to both sides) 3.Outer layers are tough and form a physical barrier .Cause parts of membrane proteins to protrude from the membrane (transmembrane stick out in 2 spots) Non-polar amino acids: .413. hydrophobic nutrients like fatty acids and monoglycerides 415. Simple diffusion Nutrients pass down the concentration gradient between phospholipids in the membrane (absorption method) e. Skin as defense .In the center of water-soluble proteins. Size of specimen size of image / magnification calculation (make sure in same units) 419. Sinks Methods of carbon storage in ecosystems 417. which make the surface of the skin acidic .This prevents growth of pathogenic bacteria .g.Create channels through which hydrophilic substances can diffuse.

and there's access to the binding sites from the inside and a stronger attraction to Na+ (so K+ discharged into the cell) . so water is the medium of metabolic reactions 427.Pump an antiporter because pumps substances in opposite directions across membranes In the center of the pump there are 2 binding sites for K+ and 3 for Na+. Smoking Positive correlation between cigarette smoking and death rate due to cancer Although does not by itself prove smoking causes cancer. More difficult method of cloning an adult animal by removing the nucleus from an egg cell and replacing it with a cell nucleus from a differentiated somatic (body) cell nuclear transfer 428. Eventually. Sodium. Sources . causing their characteristics to diverge more and more.Energy required for active transport/pumping is obtained by converting ATP to ADP and phosphate. Species A group of organisms with similar characteristics. Solute Dissolved particles 425.Sexual reproduction (the fusion of male and female gametes produces offspring with a combination of alleles from 2 different individuals) 429. Solubility Ionic compounds and substances with POLAR molecules are HYDROPHILIC. thus they are INSOLUBLE 424.Meiosis (produces new combinations of alleles by breaking up existing combinations in the diploid cell through variation crossing-over and random orientation) . they are so different that they can't interbreed anymore even if they inhabit the same area. there's evidence that chemicals in tobacco smoke are mutagenic and therefore carcinogenic 422. which can potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring 431. . Species Finding out what species of organisms there are in the area being studied in an ecological investigation identification . Solvent Liquid in which particles dissolve 426.420. Solvent Many substances dissolve in water due to its polarity.Concentration gradient created by this transport is needed for transmission of nerve impulses in axons 423. Small intestine layers (From inside to the outside) Villi Mucosa Submucosa Longitudinal muscle layer Circular muscle layer 421.Mutation (produces new alleles. The pump has 2 alternate states: there's access to the binding sites from the outer of side of the membrane and a stronger attraction to K+ (so Na+ discharged from cell). Speciation Populations of a species sometimes become separated and are therefore unable to breed with each other. 430. but water molecules are more attracted to each other than to the NON-POLAR molecules of the substances. Now.One ATP provides enough energy to pump 2 K+ ions in and 3 Na+ ions out . including those composed of ions or polar molecules property of water Helpful: most chemical reactions take place with all of the substances involved in the reaction dissolved in water. and thus SOLUBE in water because their in water ions or molecules are more attracted to water than to each other HYDROPHOBIC substances are not repelled by water. Then are then able to evolve differently. Somatic. so it an ATPase Potassium (Na+/K+-ATPase) Pumps . which enlarges the gene pool of a population) of . they're new species.

440. S phase (of Synthesis interphase) .4 linkages. 439.DNA replication . so branched) Use: plants store glucose in an insoluble form that does not cause osmotic problems. and estrogren hormones 441. so testes develop. and liver. Therefore. estrogen.Amylopectin (1. so unbranched) . Stem cells Cells that have the capacity to divide and to differentiate along different pathways. TDF is present. If embryo is XX. Embryos are entirely stem cells in their early stages. Steroid Testosterone. SRY gene A single gene that codes for TDF (testis determining factor) and resides on the Y chromosome.Amylose (1. kidney. and testosterone .No evidence today that shows that living cells can be formed by anything except division of pre-existing cells 436. if embryo is XY. giving the polymer a HELICAL shape) Two forms: .occurs in nucleus 435. Spontaneous . Other tissues like the brain. giving tissues powers of regeneration and repair. Small numbers persist in the adult body.6 linkages. since there are more points on starch molecules to which glucose can be added or detached 438. it can become its cuttings own plant. cholesterol. skin. so ovaries develop.g. progesterone. Steroids Four fused rings e. Spectrum A range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation 433. progesterone. TDF is absent. Sperm duct Transfers sperm during ejaculation 434. and heart don't have stem cells so can't repair themselves. but gradually the cells commit themselves to differentiation. Stem Short lengths of stem that are used to clone plants artificially. Starch Polymer of glucose (all of the glucose subunits in the SAME orientation.19th-century belief that life could appear in non-living material generation . 437. usually in human tissues like bone marrow.432. Being branched allows glucose to be added or taken away more rapidly. If roots develop from the stem.

Other molecules do not fit or are not attracted to it. Surface area to As a cell grows larger. Synapse A junction between 2 neurons or junction between neurons and receptor or effector cells. Supercoiling Complex process of coiling that causes condensation (when chromosomes become shorter and fatter during mitosis) of chromosomes 445.The theory of vitalism predicted that urea could only be made in living organisms because it was an organic compound. 443. Synaptic cleft The narrow. Substrate.442. it decreases.In 1828. The depolarization passes down the post-synaptic neuron as action potential 7. Surfactant A natural detergent in type 2 pneumocytes in the alveolus wall that reduces surface tension between alveoli to prevent the sides from sticking together 447.Falsified theory of vitalism . the first time that an organic compound had been synthesized artificially . A nerve impulse reaches the end of the pre-synaptic neuron 2. 444. Sodium ions diffuse into the post-synaptic neuron. Translation: The copy is carried to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm to give them the information needed to synthesize a polypeptide. causing them to be chemically specific attracted to each other and fit together. Transcription: Make an RNA copy of the base sequence of the gene that codes for the polypeptide 2. Synthesis of . so it's called mRNA 452. Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea artificially using silver isocyanate and ammonium chloride. which are separated by the synaptic cleft. The receptors are transmitter-gated sodium channels that open when the neurotransmitters bind 5. So: .Urea was discovering in human urine in the 18th century urea .methanogenic archaeans break down the organic matter with methane as a waste product 448. Synthesis of The base sequences of polypeptides is stored in a coded form in a gene proteins 1. The active site matches the shape and chemical properties of the substrate. Converted into its products and released from active site. Symbiosis Two organisms living together 449. so saprotrophs can't break down dead leaves and other organic matter (they just bogs can't do that). Substrate Reactant in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. causing depolarizing of the post-synaptic membrane 6. volume ratio Surface area: determines rate at which substances enter or leave a cell Volume: determines rate at which substances are used or produced by a cell 446. releasing it into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis 3. Neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft is rapidly broken down to prevent continuous transmission 450. and thus needed a "vital force" .partially decomposed plant matter accumulates to become peat . fluid-filled gap that separate the plasma membranes of neurons 451. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors in the post-synaptic membrane 4. Swamps and Have anaerobic conditions. Messages in form of neurotransmitters are passed across Process: 1. Depolarization of the pre-synaptic membrane causes vesicles of neurotransmitters to move to the pre- synaptic membrane and fuse with it.

Testis Produces sperm and testosterone 463.Chromosomes arrive at each pole . Systemic Blood circulation for other organs of the body circulation The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood via the aorta to all organs (other than lungs). but the antibiotic ran out . so polymerase its enzymes are active at temperatures that would denature proteins from other organisms Used in PCR so that it can be carried out at higher temperatures to produce many copies more quickly 455. stimulates sperm production 464. such as species or genus 456. It causes pre-natal development of male genitalia (penis.Nuclear membranes form around the chromosomes . and prostate gland).453.5 other patients were tested. Taxon A group of organisms. TDF Testis determining factor. During puberty.All chromosomes have reached the poles . including the artificial synthesis of urea . sperm duct. Telophase II . Coded for by the SRY gene. a bacterium adapted to living in hot springs.Spindle microtubules break down .Tested small quantities of a relatively impure penicillin on a man close to death with a bacterial infection. who were infected with a bacterium that causes fatal pneumonia .Developed as an antibiotic by Florey and Chain in late 1930s penicillin . Telophase I . Taq DNA A heat-stable DNA polymerase obtained from Thermus aquaticus. Telophase .First test on 8 mice. Testing . penis. Taxonomists Biologists that specialized in classification 457.Each nucleus now has only half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell 461. 458.Chromosomes uncoil and are no longer individually visible .All 4 treated mice recovered. Theory of .The cell membrane begins to pull inwards again to divide the 2 cells into 4 haploid cells . and deoxygenated blood is carried back to the right side of the heart via the vena cava 454. 4 untreated mice died .Falsified by a series of discoveries. stimulating development of secondary sex characteristics (growth of testes.Theory that living organisms were composed of organic chemicals that could only by produced in living vitalism organisms because a "vital force" was needed . He started to recover. A gene regulation protein that binds to specific DNA sites to stimulate the expression of genes for testis development. it increases. Testosterone A steroid hormone produced by developing testes in the fetus. and pubic hair) After puberty.Membrane will soon be pulled in to divide the cell into 2 haploid cells 460. and were cured 462.The cell divides (cytokinesis) to form 2 cells with genetically identical nuclei 459.

Tidal volume Volume of air taken in or out with each inhalation or exhalation . so all cells need to respond . methane) Methane: -182 C Water: 0 C Explanation: ice melts at much higher temperatures . making it suitable for living organisms .hydrogen bonds restrict the movement of water molecules and heat is needed to overcome this Specific heat capacity: Methane: 2.hydrogen bonds restrict the movement of water molecules so more energy is stored by moving molecules of water than methane Latent heat of vaporization: Methane: 760 J/g Water: 2257 J/g Explanation: water has a much higher heat of vaporization .The high heat of vaporization makes it an effective coolant in leaves and sweat 467.much heat energy is needed to break hydrogen bonds and allow a water molecule to evaporate Boiling point: Methane: -160 C Water: 100 C Explanation: water's boiling point is much higher . water has high melting and boiling points. high latent heat of vaporization water and high specific heat capacity Helpful: . Thyroxin A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland in the neck that regulates the body's metabolic rate Contains 4 atoms of iodine (unusual) --> Prolonged deficiency of iodine in the diet prevents the synthesis of thyroxin Almost all cells in the body are targets (unusual) . vasodilation of skin arterioles.It regulates the body's metabolic rate.The high specific heat capacity makes its temperature change relatively slowly so it's a stable environment .2 J per g per C Water: 4.These thermal properties cause water to be liquid in most habitats on Earth. reduced respiration in brown adipose tissue --> normal body temperature Normal body temperature --> hypothalamus detected reduced body temperature --> thyroid gland secretes more thyroxin --> increased metabolic rate.g. liver.Higher metabolic rate increases generation of body heat (by shivering and CR in brown adipose tissue. vasoconstriction of skin arterioles. Thermal properties Melting point: (water vs. stimulate by cooling) Normal body temperature --> hypothalamus detects raised temperature --> thyroid gland secretes less thyroxin --> reduced metabolic rate. muscle.The most metabolically active cells (e. and brain) are the main targets . Thermal property of Due to hydrogen bonding.Higher metabolic rate supports more protein synthesis and growth .465. shivering (increased respiration in BAT) --> normal body temperature 468.heat energy is needed to break hydrogen bonds and allow water to change from liquid to gas 466.2 J per g per C Explanation: water's heat capacity is higher .

positive correlation between saturated fats and coronary heart disease.animal fats and some vegetable oils . snack food. This gradually creates a chain of amino acids until a polypeptide is formed. RNA polymerase binds to a site on the DNA at the start of a gene and moves along the gene. but CHD is rate. The bases on the codon and its corresponding anticodon are linked by hydrogen bonds. and cheese . packaged baked goods. 4. The amino acids carried by the tRNA molecules are bonded together by a peptide linkage. 471. The DNA strands pair up against and twist back into a double helix 470. Translation The synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes using mRNA and tRNA Steps: 1.positive correlation between trans-fats consumed and rates of coronary heart disease (patients who died. Trans-unsaturated: unsaturated . RNA polymerase then assembles RNA nucleotides along 1 of the 2 DNA strands (it follows the same rules as normal replication. There are 3 binding sites for tRNA molecules on the large sub-unit of the ribosome.vegetable fats saturated fatty . but only 2 bind at once. The ribosome moves along the mRNA to the next codon. . attached to the tRNA on the right. tRNA molecules are present around the ribosome. and another tRNA binds to it. fatty deposits in diseased arteries contained high concentrations of trans-fats) Saturated: . mRNA binds to a site on the small sub-unit of the ribosome. Trans.artificially produced fatty acids vs. A dipeptide is formed. Transcription The copying of the base sequence of a gene by making an RNA molecule Steps: 1. but not all populations fit the correlation (Maasai of Kenya have a diet of foods rich in them. separating the DNA into 2 single strands 2. pork. lamb.fatty beef. It contains a series of codons consisting of 3 bases that each code for 1 amino acid. Transmission Used to view ultra-thin sections electron microscope 472.margarine. The RNA strand separates from the DNA strand as it is produced and is released completely when the end of the gene is reached 5. The tRNA on the left detaches. 2. and frying acids . They have anticodons that read the codons on the mRNA and carry the amino acid corresponding to the anticodon 3. RNA polymerase then links the RNA nucleotides together by covalent bonds between the pentose sugar (ribose) of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next 4. Trans unsaturated fatty acid hydrogen atoms are bonded to carbon atoms on OPPOSITE SIDES of a double bond in a fatty acid carbon chain mostly artificially produced 473. thus its possible CHD is correlated to another factor of saturated fats like low of amounts of dietary fiber) . except adds U instead of T) 3.469. butter.naturally occuring .

a zygote is produced with 3 chromosomes of one type instead of 2 e.474. low carbohydrate diets control it Risk factors: diets rich in fats.g. secondary consumer. Uterus Provides protection. Unsaturated the fatty acid carbon chain contains 1+ DOUBLE BONDS between carbon atoms in the chain. Vector A vehicle used to transfer genetic material from a donor organism to a recipient organism e. so MORE hydrogen fatty acid CAN BE BONDED to the carbons if DOUBLE BOND REPLACED BY SINGLE BOND 483.g. Type 1 Extremely thin and permeable alveolar cells that are adapted to carry out gas exchange. which are flexible and can change position Condensation reactions make them e. 480. and provides a birth canal 486. Gases only have to diffuse a very short distance to pass through them. Trisomy After fertilization. Type 1 Onset: during childhood diabetes Cause: immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas so the amount of insulin secreted is insufficient Treatment: blood glucose levels measured regularly. Type 2 Onset: after childhood diabetes Cause: target cells become insensitive to insulin Treatment: insulin injections don't work. Type 2 Cells in the alveolus wall that secrete fluid to keep the inner surface of the alveolus moist and allow gases to pneumocytes dissolve. Vasoconstriction The constriction of blood vessels that increases blood pressure so that more blood is carried from the core to the skin. Vasodilation The dilation of blood vessels that decreases blood pressure so that less blood is carried from the core to the skin. food. insulin injections. diets low in fiber. Vagina Stimulates penis to cause ejaculation. When the tRNA binds with the mRNA through hydrogen bonding.g. oxygen. Trophic An organism's position in the food chain levels Producer. reducing heat loss (when raised body temperature) 488. primary consumer. tRNA Molecules present around the ribosome with a special triplet of bases (anticodons) that correspond to amino acids.due to non-disjunction during formation of sperm of egg 476. giving it heat (when reduced body temperature) 487. often before meals. and genetic factors that affect fat metabolism 481. control glucose levels Control: diet alone cannot control it 479. plasmid . A single layer of these pneumocytes thin cells make up most of the wall of the alveolus. and removal of waste products for the fetus during pregnancy 485. 477. obesity due to over-eating and lack of exercise. Down syndrome (trisomy 21) . etc 478. Triglycerides 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol Have 3 hydrocarbon tails. The fluid also contains a surfactant that prevents the sides of the alveoli from sticking together by reducing surface tension 482. Urethra Transfer semen during ejaculation and urine during urination 484. fats and oils 475. the amino acids are linked together until a polypeptide is formed.

Thin layers of tissue with few to no elastic fibers or muscles since blood flow is not pulsatile .The rate of flow through major vessels is far too high for blood to be consumed in the body after being pumped out by the heart . too. pumped out by the heart.Heart pumps blood out in the arteries and in through veins .Amphibians . and consumed in the other organs of the body Harvey said: .. Ventilation . . Ventilation of Muscle contractions cause the pressure changes inside the thorax that force air in and out of the lungs to the lungs ventilate them.Fluidity of the membrane allows parts of it to be pinched off to create a vesicle containing some material from outside the cell (endocytosis) .Mammals 495. Ventilation rate Number of inhalations and exhalations per minute 493. Voltage Electrical potential 497. so it depends on concentration gradients of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and blood flowing in adjacent capillaries 491.Happens by diffusion in the alveoli of the lungs..Oxygen is needed for CR and carbon dioxide is produced.Can fuse with plasma membrane and release contents outside the cell (exocytosis) . 492. Water polarity (Specifically dipolarity) Hydrogen nuclei are less attractive to nuclei than oxygen nuclei. Vesicles . Vulva Protects internal parts of the female reproductive system 498.489.Thin outer coat since there's no danger it will burst 490. Water molecule . William 17th century Galen said: Harvey . Structure (thin wall allows the vein to be pressed by adjacent muscles.Bony ray-finned fish . Veins Collect blood at low pressure from the tissues of the body and return it to the atria of the heart. 499. Different muscles (antagonistic) are required for inspiration and expiration because muscles only do work when contracting.Move materials from one part of the cell to another (move proteins from rough ER to Golgi apparatus) 496.Reptiles .Small vessels link arteries to veins in the tissues (capillaries) . so 2 hydrogen atoms have slight positive charge and oxygen has slight negative charge 500. Venules Very small veins that collect blood from capillaries 494. Vertebrates . Water Cohesive properties Adhesive Thermal Solvent 501. slow-flowing blood. Valves are present at intervals to prevent back-flow.Birds .Blood flow through vessels is unidirectional with valves to protect backflow .Bringing fresh air to the alveoli and removing stale air .Wide lumen to accommodate low-pressure.Blood was produced by the liver. helping to move blood): . so humans must take in oxygen from their surroundings and release carbon dioxide (gas exchange) .

and giving it a light texture that's more appetizing . increasing volume.CO2 forms bubbles that make the dough rise.ethanol is also used as fuel . Yeast Carbon dioxide and the baking industry: .502.Uses up all oxygen present in the dough rapidly .most of the CO2 bubbles out into the atmosphere .Used in baking bread . decreasing density.Produces ethanol and CO2 by anaerobic respiration .the ethanol evaporates when the bread is baked Ethanol and the brewing and biofuel industries: .used to produce ethanol by fermentation .cultured in a liquid containing sugar and other nutrients that aren't oxygen. so that is respires anaerobically . causing fermentation to end .the ethanol concentration of the fluid around the yeast cells can rise to approximately 15% by volume before it becomes toxic to yeast.