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# Chapter 4 Challenges

Questions
1. What direction does the left wheel have to turn to make the BOE Shield-Bot go forward?
What direction does the right wheel have to turn? the right wheel is clockwise , the left wheel is
counterclockwise
2. When the BOE Shield-Bot pivots on one wheel to the left, what are the wheels doing?
What code do you need to make the BOE Shield-Bot pivot left?The right wheel is turning
clockwise (forward), and the left wheel is not moving.

3. If your BOE Shield-Bot veers slightly to one side when you are running a sketch to make
it go straight ahead, how do you correct this? What command needs to be adjusted and what
kind of adjustment should you make?Slow down the right wheel to correct a veer to the left, and
slow down the left wheel to correct a veer to the right. Slow down a wheel by changing its
servos write Microseconds us parameter, using values closer to 1500. Start at the appropriate
end of the linear speed control range (14001600), gradually move towards 1500 in increments
of 10, and go back in smaller increments if you overshoot.

4. If your BOE Shield-Bot travels 11 in/s, how many milliseconds will it take to make it
travel 36 inches?it should take about 3727 milliseconds to travel 36 inches
5. Why does a for loop that ramps servo speed need delay(20)Without that 20 ms
(1/50th of a second) delay between each repetition of the loop, it would ramp from 0 to 100 so
quickly that it would seem like the BOE Shield-Bot just stepped instantly into full speed. The
ramping would not be apparent
6. What kind of variable is great for storing multiple values in lists? an array
7. What kind of loops can you use for retrieving values from lists? for loops and do while
are examples from this chapter
8. What statement can you use to select a particular variable and evaluate it on a case-by-
case basis and execute a different code block for each case?switch/case
9. What condition can you append to a do-loop? do(...)loop while (condition)
Exercises
1. Write a routine that makes the BOE Shield-Bot back up at full speed for 2.5
seconds.servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1300);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(2500);

2. Lets say that you tested your servos and discovered that it takes 1.2 seconds to make a
180 turn with right-rotate. With this information, write routines to make the BOE Shield-Bot
perform 30, 45, and 60 degree turns.// 30/180 = 1/6, so use 1200/6 = 200
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(200);

// alternate approach
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(1200 * 30 / 180);

## // 45/180 = 1/4, so use 1200/4 = 300

servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(300);

## // 60/180 = 1/3, so use 1200/3 = 400

servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(400);

3. Write a routine that makes the BOE Shield-Bot go straight forward, then ramp into and
out of a pivoting turn, and then continue straight forward.// forward 1 second
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(1000);

## // ramp into pivot

for(int speed = 0; speed <= 100; speed=2)
{
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1500);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1500+speed);
delay(20);
};

## // ramp out of pivot

for(int speed = 100; speed >= 0; speed-=2)
{
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1500);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1500+speed);
delay(20);
}

// forward again
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700);
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1700);
delay(1000);

Projects
It is time to fill in column 3 of Table 2-2. To do this, modify the us arguments in
the writeMicroseconds calls in the ForwardThreeSeconds sketch using each pair of values
from column 1. Record your BOE Shield-Bots resultant behavior for each pair in column 3
Once completed, this table will serve as a reference guide when you design your own custom
BOE Shield-Bot maneuvers.
Circle-
// BOE Shield-Bot navigates a circle of 1 yard diameter.

## Servo servoLeft; // Declare left and right servos

Servo servoRight;

## void setup() // Built-in initialization block

{
tone(4, 3000, 1000); // Play tone for 1 second
delay(1000); // Delay to finish tone

## servoLeft.attach(13); // Attach left signal to pin 13

servoRight.attach(12); // Attach right signal to pin 12

## // Arc to the right

servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1600); // Left wheel counterclockwise
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1438); // Right wheel clockwise slower
delay(25500); // ...for 25.5 seconds

## servoLeft.detach(); // Stop sending servo signals

servoRight.detach();
}

## void loop() // Main loop auto-repeats

{ // Nothing needs repeating
}

2.The diagram shows two simple courses. Write a sketch that will make your BOE Shield-Bot
navigate along each figure. Assume straight-line distances (the triangles sides and the diameter
of the circle) are either 1 yard or 1 meter. Triangle-
// BOE Shield-Bot navigates a triangle with 1 yard sides and 120
// degree angles. Go straight 1 yard, turn 120 degrees, repeat 3 times

## Servo servoLeft; // Declare left and right servos

Servo servoRight;

## void setup() // Built-in initialization block

{
tone(4, 3000, 1000); // Play tone for 1 second
delay(1000); // Delay to finish tone

## servoLeft.attach(13); // Attach left signal to pin 13

servoRight.attach(12); // Attach right signal to pin 12

## for(int index = 1; index <= 3; index++)

{
// Full speed forward
servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1700); // Left wheel counterclockwise
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1300); // Right wheel clockwise slower
delay(5500); // ...for 5.5 seconds

## // Turn left 120 degrees

servoLeft.writeMicroseconds(1300); // Left wheel counterclockwise
servoRight.writeMicroseconds(1300); // Right wheel clockwise slower
delay(700);
}
servoLeft.detach(); // Stop sending servo signals
servoRight.detach();
}

## void loop() // Main loop auto-repeats

{ // Nothing needs repeating
}