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Shot Blasting is a surface treatment process using high velocity steel abrasive. Shot
blasting is method through which it is possible to obtain excellent cleaning and surface
preparation for secondary finishing operations.
In general shot blasting concentrates abrasive particles at high speed (65-110 m/second)
in a controlled manner at the material thereby removing surface contaminates due to the
abrasive impact. Initially in the 1930s the shot blasting process used compressed air for
propelling the steel shot. This method remains in use today for cleaning metal frames and
welded elements. Shot blast production lines, both manual and automated systems,
became possible with the introduction of centrifugal wheel blast machines.
When it comes to finishing and cleaning operations, the shot blasting surface treatment
technique is a highly effective option. The high speed controlled shot blast creates an
abrasive impact which removes surface contaminates, thereby making it an effective
method for cleaning iron, steel, forgings, machine parts, fixtures etc..This method
remains in use today for cleaning metal frames and welded elements. Shot blast
production lines, both manual and automated systems, became possible with the
introduction of centrifugal wheel blast machines. The high speed controlled shot blast
creates an abrasive impact which removes surface contaminates.

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2.1 Basic subsystems of Shot Blasting Machine:

1) Abrasive delivery method:

a. By Compressed Air.

b. By Centrifugal turbines.

2) Abrasive recovery and cleaning.

3) Dust collection.

4) Blast Cabinet.

5) Part movement and support system.

6) Controls and instrumentation.

7) Abrasive Flow Control Valve

Figure 2.1: General representation of Shot Blasting Machine

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2.1.1 Abrasive delivery method

There are two ways of accelerating the steel shot:
A) By compressed air:
This system is suitable for lower production applications
where maximum flexibility is needed. These systems are
very flexible in that the shot can be delivered horizontally
through a rubber hose and nozzle assembly. This enables
uses in finishing operations of steel frames and weld
elements thereby replacing hand tools. Because of this,
an air blasting machine for a production line is expensive
compared to the centrifugal wheel blasting machine.
For example to deliver shot at a rate of 1100 kg per minute a 1650 HP compressor and 33
workers are needed using 10 mm diameter nozzles delivering 6.5 kg/cm2. On the other
hand the same task using centrifugal wheel turbines only requires a total of 100 HP
distributed to between one or a multitude of turbines housed in the same machine. Only
one or two operators are needed for such a shot blasting machine.

B) By centrifugal turbine: Centrifugal wheel blasting is the more common blast

cleaning technique as well as the most economical and environmentally friendly method.
The turbine delivers abrasive shot by centrifugal force in a specific and controlled
direction, speed and quantity. Function of the turbine is similar to that of a fan or
centrifugal pump. Shot blasting machines may use one or a multitude of turbines
positioned in such a way that the abrasive blast pattern covers the entire surface of the
material to be shot cleaned. The shape and size of the parts determine the number of

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turbines used in a machine. Power of the turbine
motor is based on degree of cleaning needed and
throughout speed of the material.

2.1.2 Abrasive Recovery and cleaning

Recirculation and cleaning the abrasive shot is
required to maintain a consistent cleaning operation.
In conventional shot blasting equipment after the shot hits the part the abrasive falls into
the collection hopper under the machine.
The shot is then carried by gravity or screw conveyor to a bucket elevator. The elevator
carries the shot, removed oxides and other contaminates to an air wash separator located
in the upper portion of the machine. A combination of baffles, strainers and plates
separate these contaminates which are ineffective during the shot blast operation. The
cleaned abrasive is contained in an upper hopper (feeding-box) and is subsequently fed
into the shot turbine by gravity.

2.1.3 Blast Cabinet

The machine cabinet contains dust and abrasive. A machine mounted dust collector
reduces air pressure inside the machine thereby preventing dust from escaping into the
shop environment. Material access openings in the entrance and exit of the shot blaster
must be designed and protected to prevent abrasive spillage. Cabinets are built from low
carbon steel with an inner shell made of abrasive resistant materials including high
strength alloy plates and thick rubber compounds. In the areas that are subject to direct
high velocity shot, alloy steel plates (64 RC hardness) are used which have much more
abrasion resistance.

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2.1.4 Dust collector system
Dust produced during shot blasting is withdrawn from the machinery cabinet and
continuously re-circulating abrasive by a dust collector. Typical dust collector design uses
baffle filters or cartridges.
The dust collector not only evacuates dust within the machine but also keeps the
surrounding area clean and dust free. Changes in airflow will reduce collector efficiency
and therefore result in lower dust extraction, loss of the cleaning power, and contribute to
dust in the immediate production area. A properly designed and sized dust collector is
therefore critical to the ongoing performance of the shot blasting system

2.1.5 System for holding and transporting parts for shot blasting
Handling and transporting parts through the shot blast process will depend on
several factors.
For materials in large quantities (brake, pulleys, screwdrivers, etc.) tumbling blast
machines are used. For larger and heavier pieces, (motor blocks, bicycles frames, bunch-
welded parts, etc.) spinner hanger machines are used. For the shot peening of gears and
other special components, tables and multi tables machines are used. For cleaning pipes,
plates, bars, wire continuous machines are used.

2.1.6 Controls and instrumentation

The system providing the control and instruction for the starting and stopping all
functions such as, elevators, dust collectors, turbines, part handling system, ammeters and
time meters for the turbine motors are all placed in a central console.
The control panel is designed with sequential startup to assure the different systems
are energized in the proper sequence. All systems can be automated for continuous

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processing that will increase production, reduce operator interaction and consistently
maintain a particular surface specification.

2.1.7 Abrasive Flow Control Valve:

The abrasive flow to each wheel is regulated to match the mechanical
capacity of the abrasive reclaiming system and must stay within the
Amperage capacity of Electric Motor. Enclosed air operated Sound-
abrator reduces noise level, which is below 85 dB and prevents leaking
of shots and it is easy to maintain.

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3.1 Shot Blasting machines containing centrifugal wheel

3.1.1 According to type of conveyor
A. Shot Blasting machine with endless horizontal conveyor (tumble blast)
In this type of machine the component are placed on continuously moving
horizontal conveyor.The belt is located at the point near the blast cabinet. The belt is
made of efficient rubber material.

B. Shot blasting machine with overhead belt conveyor

This type of machine contains belt at the top head of the machine which convey the
products on it. The belt is continuously moving and carry the components on it.

3.1.2 Shot blasting machines with rotating table

This machine contains the rotating table inside the blast cabinet. This table is
continuously rotating in the cabinet. The product is placed on this table and the shots are
blast on the component. Because of continuous rotation the shots cover all the surface
area of the component. This machine allows the small components on it

3.1.3 Shot blasting machines for shot peening

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This shot peening machine is used for blasting the shots in internal spaces between the
gear teeth, spiral springs. In short, shot peening is used for finishing of intricate surfaces
of the components.
3.2. Pressure Blasting Machines other than Wheel blasting

Blast cabinets are ideal when a variety of small parts is to be treated. The cabins can be
equipped with turntables, rotary baskets, blast nozzles, pressure blasting systems, oscillators
and other special auxiliary equipment, making them very versatile. The full-width front-opening
door provides clear access to the complete blast chamber, and the special design prevents blast
media spillagewhen opened. Pressure and injector blasting cabins are used for:

1. cleaning
2. de burring
3. surface finishing
4. decorative blasting

The range of shot blast media that can be used covers all non-hygroscopic media from very
abrasive materials (e.g. aluminum oxide or silicon carbide) to plastic media and corn cob.

3.3 Rotary Indexing Satellite Table Machines

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Rotary indexing table machine, gentle finishing of different

kinds of components with no part-on-part contact is
possible. The entire spectrum of blasting applications
ranges from delicate de-burring to shot blasting. The
installation is particularly interesting for applications in
which the entire surface of the components need not be
blasted, but only specific sections. It is a modular system and it can be equipped with 6,
8, 10 or 12 satellites, operating completely automatically. The machines can be equipped
with either injection or pressure blasting systems.

3.4 Injection Blasting

The core component is a highly wear-resistant, perforated

and fabric reinforced transport belt, made from rubber.In a
continuous process, the components are treated by a total
of 24 injection nozzles all together, which are fixed on an
adjustable support frame.Due to the vertical lifting
movement of the frame and the free adjustment of the nozzles, all-round blasting of parts
with complex geometric shapes is possible.All commercial blast media can be used.

3.5 Turn Table shot blasting machines

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Burs from grinding the surfaces of synchronous rings

can efficiently and completely be removed using this
shot blasting machines. The swing table with two
satellites accepts interchangeable holders for
differently sized rings. The swing table keeps the time
required for parts handling to a minimum. Automated
handling can be integrated with this system.

3.6 Tube Blasting Machines

These specialized blast machines allow
comprehensive and uniform shot blast treatment of
tubes and round bars in a continuous process. Ideal for
integration into an existingproduction facility.

3.7 Plate Cleaning Machine

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3.8 Automated Blasting

3.8.1 Robot Shot Blasting

The operating scope of this high performance blasting system

"Robo-blaster" with one arm robot comprises de-burring, surface
finishing, as well as shot peening of impact sensitive components
of various dimensions. Every user of shot blasting technology that
is using or planning a certain degree of automation in his
company, should think about having a system like this with Rob
handling. The robblaster system comprises definition of the size, the performance and the
technical parameters of the robot to be used, as well as determination of the design of
transport systems. The Roboblaster is tailored to suit the needs to the needs of the

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The Rob blaster concept has been implemented a number of ways. One example is the
de-burring and surface-finishing of cylinder heads made of aluminum die castings for a
car manufacturer.The robot places its docking plate on the shot-blasting machine aperture
and seals it. This ensures shorter cycle times and less wear, without any mechanical
locking mechanisms.

The mini version of the Rob blaster for very small aircraft components.The main body of
the shot blasting system is adapted to the component size and geometry, passage aperture,
number of shot-blasting wheels or compressed air capacity. The weight capacity of the
robot and the type and sizing of the patented grippers are dependent on the component

The Rob blaster was designed for automatic processing of cylinder heads for five-
cylinder as well as four-cylinder engine blocks. This dual usability is possible due to the
special design of the robot gripper.

Design characteristics for automated shot blasting

horizontal oscillating pressure blast gun

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highly wear-resistant boron carbide blast nozzle
shotblasting procedure is controlled by the component recognition device
front access lift door with safety switch
parts transport by means of a flat, wear-resistant special rubber belt with
infinitely adjustable drive speed
bucket elevator with wear-resistant buckets, bolted onto a special bucket elevator
belt (optional)
separate shotblasting media recirculation equipment with air flow separation,
vibration sieve device, shotblasting media supply hopper, and pressure blasting
chamber (optional)

4. Effectiveness of the shot blasting processes

The analysis of effectiveness of the cleaningtreatment reveals that shots hitting the
targeted object play the double role: they clean it both byhitting and abrasive action. The
difference in hypotheticalimpacts produced by the stream of shots hittingthe castings
surface results from the differencesin the speed v of shots or grain and the incidenceangle
_ (Fig. 1). It is recommended that the rotorsshould be used that should blast the cleaning
agentat different angles.The extent of surface impacts and their quantitativedescription is
provided by the theory of J.G.

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Figure 4: Schematic diagram of abrasive grain impacting on the surface to be cleaned

Bitter, dealing with erosion wear and based

onmechanics of elasticity and plasticity of solids.
Erosionwear involves both abrasive action
associatedwith the impacts produced when shots hit
the surfaceat small angles (micro-machining) and crushing andchipping caused by shots
bombarding the surface atlarge angles.For machining wear experienced when
abrasivegrains scratch the surface forming micro- chips,referred to as small angle
impacts. For machining wear experiencedwhen abrasivegrains machine-cut the surface
tearing off microchips.
Fig. Component functions of the erosion treatment for soft materials, according to

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Cleaning effects are achieved both through cutting
and chipping of contaminants from the surface by
the impacting grains. The efficiency of shot peening
treatment of casting products is evaluated basing on
the mass loss in relation to the process parameters
and parameters of the treated material and of the
cleaning grain. The comparison is also made of the
surface conditions (surface roughness). As regards
shot peening, it is required that the stream of shots
should be well concentrated so that the process should be restricted to local impacts
applied normal to the surface of the treated products, prompting the change of surface
conditions and the conditions of the sub-surface layers.
The stream of shots ejected by jet rotors forms a scattered beamaccording to Bitter and, in
consequence, hits the surface under different angles. That is the consequence of the
nature of the stream of shots, which is dispersed because individual shots leave the rotor
blades at different times and their velocities, mass and shapes may differ, too. The stream
of grain is dispersed both in sandblasting and shot peening processes, both are used to
meet specific surface condition requirements. Dynamic surface treatment of metal
products causes the surface condition to change [1,2,8,9]. Compressive stresses are
generated to compensate for stresses induced by manufacturing processes. Internal
compressive stresses will appear because the deformed layer tends to increase its volume
and this process must be counteracted by elastic, deeper-situated layers of metal. The
mechanism generating the compressive stresses in the surface layer is associated with the
properties of treated materials. In the case of hard materials (HV>600), these stresses are
generated by forces acting normal to the treated surface. The maximal tangent stresses
_max due to normal stresses are situated underneath the surface, at the depth of z = 0:47 _
a (Fig. 4a). In the case of plastic (low-hardness) materials, such as aluminum alloys (HV
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6300), considerable plastic strains are generated near the surface. The increase of the size
of the shot-peened layer A is counteracted by the layer B, which in consequence produces
the internal stress distribution (Fig 4b). The maximal value of compressive stress is
registered on the surface of the worked product. Thus generated state of stress will cause
the changes inthe structure of the surface layer, depending on the type of the worked


1 Alloy wheel etching

The blasting process provides fast and even light etching to remove only the chipped
lacquer on virtually new wheels, or it can etch right back to bare metal if required. And,

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unlike traditional disc sanders, it allows both easy penetration of the
blast media stream between the spokes and also very precise
localized etching.

2 De-burring
Blast finishing can speedily remove lightly attached burrs from
complex machined components and can be more effective than hand
or machine de-burring in areas with poor accessibility. Non-
abrasive de-burring media leave even fragile materials untouched.

3. De-scaling
Use bead or grid to quickly remove heat scale, surface discoloration,
oxides, rust, weld scale or corrosion. Restore a component's looks
and remove surface problems that interfere with painting, plating,
coating, drawing and other processes.

4. Shot peening
It is the process in which the shots are forced on the difficult
parts that is the internal parts for example between the teeth of
gears, between the springs coil etc. The angle of blasting the
shots in this process is 90 degrees.

4.5 Rapid prototype finishing

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If the objective of your rapid prototyping work is to get the model as near as possible to
the finished article for evaluation, testing, or actual short run work, then blast
equipment delivers the finish you require. Blast finishing can smooth out step lines,
create the right cosmetic finish, and provide a keyed surface for painting.With our blast
finishing equipment you can achieve that essential finish that makes your products stand
out from the crowd. Choose for that critical finish on Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
prototypes: used often on automotive components, resin and the latest stereolithography
bluestone resin prototypes. Guy sons range of blast finishing equipment is also
increasingly being utilized for providing a range of cosmetic
finishes after the additive manufacturing process.

5. Medical and dental blast finishing

Many medical prosthetic implants, such as hips and knee joints
and dental implant screws, are blasted to produce a precise
keyed surface topography which improves adhesion of special
coatings such as Hydro to aid their integration into the bone
surrounding the implantation site.Additionally grit blasting is
often used to produce a glint free satin finish to surgical instruments such as scalpels,
forceps and scissors and by dental technicians for casting investment removal and micro
de-burring dental structures

6. The scope of the research program and methodology

The influence of the process parameters on the efficiency of cleaning treatment of casting
products is investigated by the collaborating research teams from the Laboratory of
Mechanization, Automation and Design of Foundry Plants at AGH-UST and the PPP
Technical company, the domestic manufacturer of sand blasting and peening machines.

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The research data will be used by the manufacturer and the
users for the purpose of optimization of the technical and
parameters of sand-blasting and peening processes to
improve the efficiency of theapplied treatment and to help
define the process conditions to achieve the required effects.
The purpose of this study is to define the surface condition
requirements in relation to the process parameters: intensity of the abrasive grain and the
treatment time. The evaluation procedure involves the surface condition and the
properties of the outerlayer. Testing was done on a in the table - type airless shot blasting
machine OWS-1000. Worked products are placed on a rotary bench of diameter 1000
mm. The stream of shots is ejected by two rotors: the upper and the side ones (Fig. 5).
The rotors rpm speed during the tests can be varied between 1500 and 3000 rpm and the
shot feeding rate may range from 50 to 150 kg/min. The shots used in the tests are made
of cold rolled spring steel, grain size d =(1_2) mm, dr=1.45 mm. The
strips(76_0.2_19_0.1 mm) are fixed in holding fixturesand their curvature becomes the
measure of the shotpeening intensity. Type A and C strips are used inthe testing.


Shot-blasting and shot peening methods are used for aesthetic reasons and to
modify the surface conditions. Under the action of the abrasive grain, the properties of
the surface layer of the treated product are changed, so its functional and endurance
parameters are vastly improved. The methodology outlined in this study enables us to
find the extent of the covered surface layer in the function of process parameters (rotor
rpm speed and the treatment time). Results of testing done on shot-blasted castings are

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further utilized to determine the requirements for the hardening of elements exposed to
fatigue hazard. When the rotor blades made of high-chromium cast iron are shot-blasted,
the hardness of their active surface is enhanced from 47 to 67 HRC.Most manufacturers
of the castings do notpresent all advantages of shot blasting and shotpeening treatment,
though they should perhaps emphasizethat castings cleaned by those methods havethe
surface layers of very good quality. The improvedsurface condition is achieved alongside
theimproved state of stress, improved corrosion resistanceand enhanced hardness of the
surface layers,which have a beneficial effect on functional qualityof casting products.In
order to meet the surface condition requirements,the process parameters have to be
preciselycontrolled: intensity of the shot stream (measuredwith the use of control strips)
and the treatmenttime. It is required that process conditions should remain stable, which
necessitates the regular monitoringand control of process parameters and the condition of
the cleaning agent.


1.S. B ai k e r i in., Shot Peening. A dynamic applicationand its future.Metal Finishing

News (MFN).1st Edition. Wetzikon, Switzerland, 2006.
2. Principlesof control of structure and property of metalsand materials. 2007
3. Efficiencyof shot peening treatment, 2010. PPP Technical, (2010).
4. Methodologyfor evaluating the shot-peening intensity basingon the Almen test.
Archives of FoundryEngineering

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5. Characteristics of theabrasive stream depending on design features and operational
parameters of athrowing unit in an airlessshot-blasting machine. Archives of
Metallurgyand Materials. (2007).
6. New approach tosurface layer characterization after mechanical andthermo-chemical
treatment of high nickel austeniticalloy. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 50,
7.Application of the Bitters theoryto evaluation of materials used to
manufacturemachine components subjected to abrasive wear(2005).
8. Dynamicsurface treatment. Shot peening. Institute Mechanics.Institute of High-
Precision MechanicsWarszawa 2002.
9.Influence of shot peening process parameterson surface quality. 2010.

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