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ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS

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Contents
Passive sign convention 1
Simple Resistive Circuits 7
Resistors in Series 12
Resistors in Parallel 18
Circuit Analysis Quiz 1 23
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 25
Kirchhoff's Current Law 30
Nodal analysis 35
Mesh Analysis 41
Circuit Analysis Quiz 2 47

References
Article Sources and Contributors 49
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 50

Article Licenses
License 51
Passive sign convention 1

Passive sign convention

Wikiversity Electrical Engineering SchoolThe Lessons


in
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS COURSE
Passive sign convention 2

Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis

Lesson #1:
Passive sign
convention You are
here

Lesson #2:
Simple Resistive
Circuits

Lesson #3:
Resistors in Series

Lesson #4:
Resistors in Parallel

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis Quiz
1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's Voltage
Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's Current
Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis Quiz
2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis -
Lab1
Passive sign convention 3

Introduction
This is the first of eight lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis. This course is a pre-requisite course
to most Level 2 courses in this school. As such it is imperative that a student gains insight into
the methods and theory introduced and explained in this course.
There are plenty of worked examples and an exercises at the end of the lesson. Work through the
exercise on your own, and only then you can compare your results with the solutions given on a
linked Sub-page.

Lesson Preview
This Lesson is about Passive sign convention. This Lesson introduces a student to Circuit
Components which will be encountered in Electric Circuit Analysis. The student/User is
expected to understand the following at the end of the lesson
Active Components
Passive Components
Passive Sign Convention
Guidelines for Passive sign Convention
Remember that Open Learning is all about you. You can set your own pace in this course and
you will be helped to evaluate your self along the way.
Passive sign convention 4

Part 1: Electric Circuit Part 2: Passive Sign Convention


An electric circuit is a connection of The concept of passive sign convention comes directly from the definition of voltage.
components (Voltage/Current sources, Voltage is a difference of charge between two places in space. Not an absolute quality. You could
Resistors, Inductors and Capacitors) such think of it in terms of depth and height.
that there is some power supplied and
Something has an elevation or height only with respect to something else such as sea level. Likewise
dissipated. This means that if you connect a
depth, something is only deep compared to some level, again such as sea level.
resistor to a battery using conductor wires,
then you have created an electrical circuit. There is one difference between depth and height. We consider height to be positive and depth to be
negative. One of the reasons why we do this is because we usually deal more with height then depth,
and we wish to minimize the amount of subtraction that we perform.
The passive sign convention is the same concept. It is an algorithm to decide what is adding
potential energy to the system and what is taking it away.
Here are some basic ground rules:
All resistors are either positive or negative uniformly. Which means that if you consider one
resistor to be positive (which is the common case) then all the resistors are positive.
Figure 1.1: Active components
At least one source is the opposite sign of the resistors. If only one is present then that is the one.
Always start by making your loop.
Active Components:
All components that Supply electric power
Why do we use this Passive sign convention?
are called Active components. the following One of the most important ideas of an electric circuit is that there is a source of power and a
picture shows circuit symbols used to depict dissipator of power. As circuit connections become more intricate this basic idea becomes more
a Voltage Source and a Current Source. blurred. In some cases there are more than one power supply at different circuit locations, such that
Notice that the components show a general simple addition of their power magnitudes is not possible. We need to know which direction power
orientation of where the direction of supply and consumption is. The next examples will illustrate this.
conventional current.

Figure 1.2 and 1.3: Passive components

Passive Components:
All components that Absorb or Dissipate
electric power are called Passive
components. the following picture shows
circuit symbols used to depict a Resistor.
Figure 1.2 is generally the preferred symbol
of a resistor and will be used throughout this
course.
Please note that capacitors and inductors are
beyond the scope of this course as they
introduce complex resistance where real and
reactive power complexities come in.
Passive sign convention 5

Part 3 Explanation of Part 3


This simply means that an electrical charge Q at point A will easily move to point B if a path
is set up (i.e Points A and B connected by a conductor.) Thus the resistor loses electric
potential and the electric charge is evenly spread. If electric charge is forced to point A from
point B, then point A gains electric potential.
Thus for -V ; -I and +V ; +I cases The Electrical charge will lose electric potential by
effectively moving from high electric potential to low electric potential.The resistor has
effectively absorbed power from the electric charge to enable it to move to a low potential
point. Hence, the resistor, a passive component, absorbs power in this case.
Figure 1.4: Passive Sign Convention scenario 1
Thus for -V ; +I and -V ; +I cases the electrical charge will gain electric potential by
effectively moving from low electric potential to high electric potential. The resistor has
Here is what we can deduce from figure 1.4. Points
effectively powered the electric charge to a high potential point. Hence, the resistor, a passive
A and B are physical end points of Resistor R. A is
component, supplies power in this case.
more positive than B thus electrical charge at point
A is higher than the electrical charge at point B. It is therefore important to understand the flow and direction of conventional current in order
This creates electric potential. to correctly apply passive sign convention. This becomes important later on in the course
when we treat Mesh and Nodal Analysis.
The following examples are related to the lesson. The answers to the exercise questions are
given as a link to a sub page. Attempt the problems before viewing the answers.

Example 1.1 Example 1.2

Figure 1.5: Example 1.1 Figure 1.6: Example 1.2

Figure 1.5 shows a simple Figure 1.6 shows a simple


resistor with the following resistor with the following
parameters. parameters:
, ,
Find and Determine if
this resistor is supplying Find and Determine if
power or dissipating it. this resistor is supplying
Solution: power or dissipating it.
Solution:

.
.

Since power is positive this


resistor is absorbing power. Since power is negative this
resistor is supplying power.
Passive sign convention 6

Example 1.3 Exercises


1. From Figure 1.5 given current is 4 Amps and the Voltage across the resistor is 4 Volts how much power is
being produced or consumed?
2. From Figure 1.5 given current is 1.5 milli-Amps and the Voltage across the resistor is -1.5 Volts how much
power is being produced or consumed?
3. From Figure 1.7 given current is 15 Amps and the Voltage across the resistor is 15 Volts how much power is
being produced or consumed?
4. From Figure 1.5 given current is -20 milli-Amps and the Voltage across the resistor is -1.5 Volts how much
power is being produced or consumed?
Figure 1.7: Example 1.3
Answers to Exercise 1

Figure 1.7 shows a simple


resistor with the following
parameters.
,

Find and Determine if


this Resistor is Supplying
power or Dissipating it.
Solution:

Since Power is Positive this


Resistor is Dissipating power.
Surprised?
Well let's look at figure 1.7
again. If Voltage is Given as
-6V it means that despite the
given sign convention of the
resistor, Point A is More
Positive Compared to point B.
The Current is shown entering
Point A but by the fact that
current is -3A it means that the
current is in fact leaving at
point A. Thus The resistor is
effectively Dissipating power.
Refer to part 3 & 4 of this
lesson.
Try the exercises.

Completion list
Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail your course
[1]
co-ordinator your name and score *Click Here .
1. Ozzimotosan -- 75% & Corrected
2. Doldham -- 75% & Corrected
3.
4.

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Passive sign convention 7

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Simple Resistive Circuits

Wikiversity Electrical Engineering SchoolThe Lessons


in
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS COURSE
Simple Resistive Circuits 8

Lesson Review: Lesson 1 Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis


The first Lesson was about Passive sign convention. The Lesson introduced Circuit Lesson #1:
Components which will be encountered in Electric Circuit Analysis. Passive sign convention
Active Components
Passive Components
Lesson #2:
Passive Sign Convention Simple Resistive Circuits
Guidelines for Passive sign Convention You are here

Lesson Preview Lesson #3:


Resistors in Series
This Lesson is about Simple resistive Circuits. The student/User is expected to
understand the following at the end of the lesson.
Lesson #4:
Voltage: (V or v - Volts)The electrical potential between two points in a circuit. Resistors in Parallel
Current: (I or i - Amperes)The amount of charge flowing through a part of a circuit.
Power: (W - Watts)Simply P = IV. It is the current times the voltage.
Source: A voltage or current source is the supplier for the circuit. Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis Quiz 1
Resistor: (R measured in - Ohms)A circuit element that "constricts" current flow.

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's Current Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis - Lab1
Simple Resistive Circuits 9

Part 1 Part 2
As an explanation the power running
Voltage Source through is the voltage times the current.
This is instantaneous power rather than
This is possibly the simplest circuit. The voltage source supplies a voltage to the circuit. When this power used over time. Power has to be
voltage is applied over a resistor, R, there is a current. supplied and consumed. In a perfect
Equation 2.1 world without heat-loss both are equal.
The source supplies the required power
that is consumed in this case by the
This equation explains the relation to all three elements in the circuit. In this case the voltage source has
resistor.
the same magnitude as the voltage drop across the resistor. We know that it is V. The resistor has a
certain amount of Ohms depending on its rating. We now know R. With algebra I = V/R. So as long as
you know two of the variables then you can find the third. Example 2.1
Now comes the power part of the circuit analysis.
Equation 2.2

Once Equation 2.1 is solved then this equation should follow quickly. The I and V are the same variables
so insert them into the equation and solve for P (Watts). With these two equations, 1.1 and 1.2, and a
little bit of algebra you get:
Equation 2.3

Figure 2.1: Voltage Source


Equation 2.4
Given':
Find: I, the current in Amps. The power
produced by the source. The power
consumed by the resistor.
Solution: Using the equations:

Remember the power supplied equals


the power consumed.
Simple Resistive Circuits 10

Part 3 Part 4

Current Source Example: 2.1

All that will happen here is that the givens will change. Rather than knowing what the voltage is across
the resistor we now know what the current is flowing through the resistor.
Don't forget in the description of resistors that a similar model in fluid physics is a smaller pipe that
constricts the amount of flow. Well, current is flow of charge. With the fluid the side of the smaller
section being supplied with fluid will have a greater pressure than the out flowing side. The difference
between these is potential. In circuits this potential is known as voltage, but then again this is all review,
right?
So now we use equation 2.1 again. The current source gives us the current through the resistor. Given the Figure 2.2: Current Source
resistor value it should be just a matter of multiplication.

Given':
Find: V, the voltage. The power
produced by the source. The power
consumed by the resistor.
Solution: Using the equations:

Of course, power consumed equals


power supplied in this perfect universe,
this course.

Part 5: More Examples Part 6

Example 2.2 Example 2.3


Given': Given':
Find: I, the current in Amps. The power produced by the source. The Find: V, the voltage. The power produced by the source. The power
power consumed by the resistor. consumed by the resistor.
Solution: Using the equations: Solution: Using the equations:

Part 7 Part 8

Example 2.4 Example 2.5


Given': Given':
Find: V, the voltage. R, the resistance Find: I, the current in Amps. R, the resistance.
Solution: Using the equations: Solution: Using the equations:
Simple Resistive Circuits 11

Part 9 Part 10: Exercise 2


1. If the given current is 300 Amps and the resistance is 2 Ohms, what is the Voltage across the resistor and how
Example 2.6 much power is being produced or consumed?
2. An engineer measures the resistivity of a resistor before putting it into a simple circuit. It is 50 Ohms. After
Given': putting the resistor into place the engineer measures 2 Volts across the resistor. How many Amps are going
through the resistor?
Find: V, the voltage. I, the 3. A 60 Watt bulb is found to have 300 Ohms of resistance. What is the necessary voltage and current to have the
current. bulb run optimally?
4. A large voltage supply has 10,000V. The company wants to know how big a resistance can be put on the voltage
Solution: Using the
supply along with how much power will be consumed. Is this a solvable problem?
equations:
5. Practice drawing the elements of a simple resistive circuit. Draw a resistor and 5 times. Draw 5 current sources
and 5 voltage sources.
Answers to Exercise 2

OR

OR

Completion list
Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail your course co-ordinator
[1]
your name and score *Click Here .
1. Ozzimotosan -- 100%
2. Doldham -- 75% & Corrected
3.
4.

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Resistors in Series 12

Resistors in Series

Wikiversity Electrical Engineering SchoolThe Lessons


in
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS COURSE
Resistors in Series 13

Lesson 2 : Review Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis


What you need to remember from Simple resistive Circuits. If you ever feel lost, do not be shy to Lesson #1:
go back to the previous lesson & go through it again. You can learn by repetition. Passive sign
Voltage: (V or v - Volts)The electrical potential between two points in a circuit. convention
Current: (I or i - Amperes)The amount of charge flowing through a part of a circuit.
Power: (W - Watts)Simply P = IV. It is the current times the voltage. Lesson #2:
Source: A voltage or current source is the supplier for the circuit. Simple Resistive
Resistor: (R measured in - Ohms)A circuit element that "constricts" current flow. Circuits

Lesson #3:
Resistors in Series
You are here

Lesson #4:
Resistors in Parallel

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's Voltage
Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's Current
Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis -
Lab1

Lesson 3: Preview
This Lesson is about Resistors in Series. The student/User is expected to understand the following
at the end of the lesson.
Total Series Resistance: ( )
The total Resistance of Resistors in series is the sum of all
reistors in series.
Resistors in Series 14

Part 1 Part 2
Equation 3.1
Resistors in Series
So what if there were 10 resistors in series? Just add up all of the
Series of resistors means resistors connected end to end in a line.
resistances and you have the equivalent over all resistance. In general
this can be expressed:
Equation 3.2
This means that the resistance for the circuit is different than any one
resistor. Take two resistors in series in a circuit with a voltage supply.

Where R equivalent is the sum of all N of the resistors in series. So it


really doesn't matter how many resistors there are. If they are in
series they can be added up into an equivalent resistance.

To find the overall resistance of the circuit, add the resistances of the
resistors.

Part 3 Part 4
Equation 3.4
Voltage Divider
There comes a time when the boss or the project demands that you know what
This is the drop over the second resistor. But if it is dropping to
the voltage is between these millions of resistors in series. No need to panic
zero, ground, or the negative side of the source then adding it to
though because it isn't too much harder.
zero would give us the same answer as above.
Lets take the two resistor problem first. There is a voltage source with two
For more than two resistors in series it is just a matter of keeping
resistors in series. We know that the overall voltage drop across the two
track of which resistor is on which side and summing
resistors is the same as the voltage the source is supplying in our example
appropriately.
world. So the voltage drop across one resistor would be a portion of the
overall drop. What proportion would we use to figure out the answer? One Equation 3.5
resistor over the two added together times the over all voltage drop:
Equation 3.3
Where is the voltage drop over N resistors out of a total of M
resistors. Remember that the resistors where the voltage drop is
Remember, this is the voltage drop across the first resistor. If you want the being calculated should be continuous. If they aren't all that can be
actual voltage there you still need to do some adding or subtracting to get it. said about the answer derived from the equation is that it is part of
Say that you have a 12V source and a drop over the first resistor of 3V. Then the whole voltage drop and somewhat worthless otherwise.
you actually need to subtract 3V from 12V to get the actual voltage between If the resistors are in the middle of the series then it will be
the resistors. necessary to calculate the voltage drop on one of the sides to be
At this point it seems that everything isn't quite as simple as it started. With able to calculate the voltage.
our example and equation for two resistors in series something else can
happen. What if the second resistor was set in the first resistor's place in the
equation? Well, simply we would get the other side of the proportion:
Resistors in Series 15

Part 5 Part 6
It becomes clear then that, two equal resistors will divide the source voltage into
two equal voltages (half of the source's voltage is dropped across each resistor). If Current
the ratio of the resistance values is 3 to 1, there will be 3/4 of the source voltage
Where does current come into any of this? Current, in this case,
dropped across the higher resistance, and of the source voltage dropped across
plays a similar role to that of the current in the Simple Resistive
the lower resistance. Circuits. Once the equivalent resistance of all the resistors in a
Three equal resistances in a series circuit with a single voltage source would drop series is found, effectively making a simple circuit again, then
1/3 of the source voltage across each resistor. If the three had 1-2-3 the current can be found with:

proportionality (100,200,300 ohms for instance) they would drop , and Equation 3.6

of the source voltage each. That is:


Just as a reminder. But the interesting thing is that the current
VTotal, VTotal,and through
VTotal . all resistors in series is the same. If the resistor is 30 it
has the same current flow as the resistor with 500, so long as it
is in series. Thinking about everything above we are adding up
all of the resistors to make a single equivalent resistor. So
current isn't different from 30 to 500 because together the
resistance is 530. That resistance is used then to calculate the
current.
Resistors in Series 16

Part 7 Part 8: Exercise 3


Here are some questions to test yourself with.
More Examples 1. Given 2 Resistors: R1 = R2 = 5 and Supply Volatage is 20 Volts find The V1; V2 and
Current drawn by the Resistors.
2. Given 3 Resistors: R1 = 2 ; R2 = 3 and R3 = 7 and Supply Voltage is 15 Volts.
Find V1; V2 & V3 and Current drawn by these Resistors.
3. Given 3 Resistors: R1 = 2 ; R2 = 3 and R3 = 7 and 3 Batteries with negligible
internal resistances connected in series as follows: Vs1 = 3V ; Vs2 = 5V and Vs3 = 1.5V,
Find V1; V2 & V3 dropped by individual Resistors.
Answers to Exercise 3

Figure 3.1: Series resistors

Figure 3.1 shows a Series resistive circuit with the


following parameters. Vs=100Volts ; R1=15;
R2=30; Find V1 and V2.
Solution: from Equation 3.3 we see that.

Similarily:

Thus it can be said that The Supply Voltage has


been divided between R1 and R2 by and

respectively.

Related Topic(s) in Wikiversity


Please visit the following page to supplement
material covered in this lesson.
The role of resistors in electrical circuits
Resistors in Series 17

Completion list
Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail
[1]
your course co-ordinator, your name, and score Click Here .
1. Ozzimotosan -- 100%
2. Doldham -- 100% & Corrected
3. Sonu rockin -- 100% and corrected
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

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fr:Rsistance et impdance/Rsistance

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Resistors in Parallel 18

Resistors in Parallel

Wikiversity Electrical Engineering SchoolThe Lessons


in
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS COURSE
Resistors in Parallel 19

Lesson 3 : Review Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis


What you need to remember from Resistors in Series. If you ever feel lost, do not be shy to go Lesson #1:
back to the previous lesson & go through it again. You can learn by repitition. Passive sign
Total Series Resistance: ( ) convention

The total Resistance of Resistors in series is the sum of all


resistors in series. Lesson #2:
Simple Resistive
Voltage Divider Equation 2.3: Circuits

Current through Resistors connected in Series is the same for all resistors.
Lesson #3:
Resistors in Series

Lesson #4:
Resistors in
Parallel You are
here

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's Voltage
Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's Current
Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis -
Lab1

Lesson 4: Preview
This Lesson is about Resistors in Parallel. The student/User is expected to understand the
following at the end of the lesson.

two resistors connected in Parallel:

Current Divider Principle:


Resistors in Parallel 20

Part 1 Part 2

Introduction Voltage Rule


The best way to understand Parallel circuits is to If two or more branches are parallel then the voltage across them is equal. So based on this we
start with the definition. A circuit is parallel to can conclude that VR1=VR2=5volts. However unlike series resistors, the current across the
another circuit or several circuits if and only if it branches is not necessarily equal.
share common terminals. That is if both of the
branches touch each other endpoints they are in
Equivalent resistance
parallel. Here is an example:
For series resistors to find the total resistance we simply add them together. For parallel
resistors its a little more complicated. Instead we use the following equation:

However for the case of only two resistors and only two resistors we can use this simplified
Figure 4.1: A Parallel circuit form
Equation 4.2: Total Parallel Resistance
R1, R2, and the voltage source are all in parallel.
To prove this fact consider the top and bottom
parts of the circuit. It is well to note at this point that The total Resistance of parallel connected Resistors will
always be Less than the smallest of the individual Resistors.

Current Rule
In Series Connection we deduced that Voltage is divide amongst resistors. For Parallel
connected Resistors, Current is divided. So here is a mathematical formula as we did with
Figure 4.2: Components in parallel share a
voltage division principle.
common nodes
Equation 4.3: Current Divider Formula
The areas in yellow all are connected together, as
well as the areas in blue. So all the branches have
the same terminals, which means that R1, R2, and Using this formula you can workout the currents flowing through individual Resistors.
the source are all in parallel.
If we take this discussion of the water flow
analogy. Electric current can be seen as water and
the conductors as water pipes. Something
interesting happens as the current reaches the
common node of Resistors that are connected in
parallel, The total current is divided into the
parallel branches.
Resistors in Parallel 21

Part 3 Part 4

Application
We have spent three lectures hacking on about What & Why Resistors & resistive circuits
in two connection schemes are used, (i.e Series and parallel connections). The question
now is, where & how in Real life do these connections happen?
One simple application of these connection schemes is the Shunt application. In Electric
Measurement industry, most often enough, we wish to measure Currents and Voltages of
Very High Magnitudes ( e.g some ranges of 500kV and upwards or 1000kA and upwards Figure 4.3: Application of Parallel Resistive circuits.
). The problem is that metering devices have delicate electronic components and usually Shunt connection
have small Voltage and Ampere operating ratings.
Solution to the above is to have a metering device connected in parallel to a resistor, this If we know what the ampere rating of a device and
resistor is thus called a "shunt" resistor since it is there to protect the metering device as what the total current is then we can work out the shunt
shown in the next figure in part 4. current and thus the Shunt Resistor.

Part 5: Examples Part 6: Examples

Figure 4.4: Example 3.1 Figure 4.5: Example 3.1

Figure 3.4 shows a Parallel resistive circuit Figure 4.5 shows a Parallel resistive circuit
with the following parameters. with the following parameters.
; ; ; ; ;
; Find ; Find: and .
Solution: from Equation 4.2 we see that. Solution: from Equation 3.2 we see that.

Here are the solutions to the above problem: Here are the solutions to the above problem:

First Find: :

. . .
. .

.
Then;
Thus it can be said that The Supply Current
has been divided between R1 and R2 .
We know that when solving these problems,
we look at the Data given and thus we can .
see how we need to manipulate our
equations in order to achieve our
objective.The Following Example
Highlights this point, see that you can follow
the Method used and the reasoning behind.
Resistors in Parallel 22

Part 7 Part 8: Exercise 4


Here are some questions to test yourself with.
Do you Remember? 1. Given 2 Resistors: in parallel find The .
2. Given 3 Resistors: ; R2 = 3 and R3 = 7 in
Let's take some time to Reflect on Material covered thus far. We have
parallel and Supply Current is 15Amps. Find: ; ; &
learned a great deal about simple resistive circuits and the possible
and Supply Voltage across these Resistors.
connections they afford us. Here I think you'll want to remember:
3. Given 4 Resistors: R1 = 2 is connected in series to a parallel
Voltage: (V or v - Volts)The electrical potential between two points in branch consisting of R2 = 3 ; R3 = 7 and R4 = 4 Find:
a circuit. Total Resistance as seen by the Voltage source.
Current: (I or i - Amperes)The amount of charge flowing through a 4. Is it possible to connect Voltage sources in Parallel, If so what
part of a circuit. conditions must be met?
Power: (W - Watts)Simply P = IV. It is the current times the voltage.
Answers to Exercise 4
Source: A voltage or current source is the supplier for the circuit.
Resistor: (R measured in - Ohms)A circuit element that "constricts"
current flow.
Total Series Resistance: ( )

Voltage Divider :

Current through Resistors connected in Series is the same for all


resistors.

Two resistors connected in Parallel:

Current Divider Principle:

Do Exercise 4 in part 8. After being completely satisfied of your work, you


can go on and try The next Page which is a quick quiz test. Good luck :-) !

Related Topic(s) in Wikiversity


Please visit the following page to supplement material covered in this
lesson.
1. The role of resistors in electrical circuits
2. Resistor Reduction

Completion list
Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post
your score just e-mail your course co-ordinator your name and score
[1]
*Click Here .
1. Ozzimotosan -- 100%
2. Doldham -- 75% & Corrected
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

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Resistors in Parallel 23

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Circuit Analysis Quiz 1

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is too wide

You have done well to get to this point, this your chance to test just how well you are doing. Remember that you set
your pace, in your Open-Learning. You are advised to go through Lectures 1 ; 2 & 3 and do Exercises 1; 2 & 3
thoughroughly before attempting this quiz. Here are some pointers to answering this Quiz Test. Please read them
carefully before attempting the questions. Be honest to your self, After attempting all Questions click on the Submit
button, to View your score and Model Answers. Due to the foregoing please attempt this quiz test Once. This Quiz
test is on Material covered thus far and as follows: Single resistor voltage problems. Single resistor resistance
problems. Single resistor power problems. Series resistor problems. Series resistor Voltage problems. Parallel
resistor problems. Parallel resistor current problems. Select the most correct answer of the four possible answers to
each question. A calculator is allowed. Feel free to do work on a piece of paper. Can't understand a specific
Question? Click Here to ask for help. Electric Circuit AnalysisLessons in Electric Circuit Analysis Lesson #1:
Passive sign convention Lesson #2: Simple Resistive Circuits Lesson #3: Resistors in Series Lesson #4: Resistors in
Parallel Quiz Test: Circuit Analysis Quiz 1 You are here Lesson #5: Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's Current Law Lesson #7: Nodal analysis Lesson #8: Mesh Analysis Quiz Test: Circuit Analysis Quiz 2
Home Laboratory: Circuit Analysis - Lab1 <quiz display=simple> { 3 amps flow through a 1 Ohm resistor. What is
the voltage? type="()" } - (A) 1V. - (B) \frac{1}{3}V + (C) 3V. - (D) None of the above. { Why do we say the
"voltage across" or "the voltage with respect to?" Why can't we just say voltage? type="()" } + (A) Voltage is a
measure of Electric Potential difference between two electrical points. - (B) It's an Electrical Cliche'. - (C) The other
point could be Negative or positive. - (D) None of the above. { A resistor consumes 5 watts, and its current is 10
amps. What is its voltage? type="()" } - (A) 10V. + (B) 0.5V. - (C) 2V. - (D) 15V. { A resistor has 10 volts across it
and 4 amps going through it. What is its resistance? type="()" } + (A) 2.5\Omega. - (B) 3.5\Omega. - (C) 4.5\Omega.
- (D) None of the above. { If you plot voltage vs. current in a circuit, and you get a linear line, what is the
significance of the slope? type="()" } - (A) Power. - (B) Discriminant. + (C) Resistance. - (D) None of the above. {
A resistor has 3 volts across it. Its resistance is 1.5 ohms. What is the current? type="()" } - (A) 3A - (B) 12A + (C)
2A - (D) 1.5A { A resistor has 8 volts across it and 3 Amps going through it. What is the power consumed?
type="()" } + (A) 24W - (B) 3W - (C) 8W - (D) 2.2W { A resistor has a voltage of 5 volts and a resistance of 15
ohms. What is the power consumed? type="()" } + (A) 1.67 Watts - (B) 11.67 Joules - (C) 2.5 Watts - (D) None of
the above { A resistor is on for 5 seconds. It consumes power at a rate of 5 watts. How many joules are used?
type="()" } - (A) 5 Joules + (B) 25 Joules - (C) 3 Joules - (D) None of the above { A 1 ohm resistor has 5 volts DC
across its terminals. What is the current (I) and the power consumed? type="()" } + (A) I = 5A & P = 25W. - (B) I =
25A & P = 5W. - (C) I = 3A & P = 9W - (D) I = 9A & P = 3W. { The voltage across two resistors in series is 10
volts. One resistor is twice as large as the other. What is the voltage across the larger resistor? What is the voltage
across the smaller one? type="()" } - (A) V_{small-Resistor} = 5V and V_{Big-Resistor} = 5V. - (B)
V_{Big-Resistor} = 3.33V andV_{small-Resistor} = 6.67V. + (C) V_{Big-Resistor} = 6.67V and
V_{small-Resistor} = 3.33V. - (D) None of the above. { A 1 ohm, 2 ohm, and 3 ohm resistor are connected in series.
Circuit Analysis Quiz 1 24

What is the total resistance? type="()" } - (A) R_{Total} = 2\Omega. + (B) R_{Total} = 6\Omega. - (C) R_{Total}
= 3\Omega. - (D) None of the above. { Two identical resistors are connected in series. The voltage across both of
them is 250 volts. What is the voltage across each one? type="()" } + (A) R_1 = 125V and R_2 = 125V. - (B) R_1 =
200V and R_2 = 200V. - (C) R_1 = 150V and R_2 = 200V. - (D) None of the above. { A 1 ohm, 2 ohm, and 3 ohm
resistor are connected in parallel. What is the total resistance?type="()" } - (A) \frac{6}{3}\Omega. - (B)
\frac{3}{6}\Omega. - (C) \frac{11}{6}\Omega. + (D) \frac{6}{11}\Omega. { A 5 ohm and a 2 ohm resistor are
connected in parallel. What is the total resistance? type="()" } + (A) \frac{10}{7}\Omega. - (B)
\frac{7}{10}\Omega. - (C) \frac{10}{6}\Omega. - (D) \frac{6}{10}\Omega. { A 7 ohm and a 3 ohm resistor are
connected in parallel. What is the total resistance? type="()" } - (A) \frac{10}{21}\Omega. + (B)
\frac{21}{10}\Omega. - (C) \frac{11}{7}\Omega. - (D) \frac{7}{11}\Omega. { Three 1 ohm resistors are connected
in parallel. What is the total resistance? type="()" } - (A) \frac{3}{2}\Omega. - (B) \frac{2}{3}\Omega. + (C)
\frac{1}{3}\Omega. - (D) 3\Omega. { If you put an infinite number of resistors in parallel, what would the total
resistance be? type="()" } + (A) R_{total} would approach Zero as The No. of Resistors In parallel Approaches
Infinity. - (B) R_{total} would approach 1 as The No. of Resistors In parallel Approaches Infinity - (C) It is not
possible to connect that Number of Resistors in parallel. - (D) None of the above. { What is the current through R1
and R2 in Diagram 1? type="()" } - (A) I_1 = 15A and I_2 = 25A. - (B) I_1 = 0.1A and I_2 = 0.1667A. + (C) I_1 =
1A and I_2 = 1.667A. - (D) I_1 = 10A and I_2 = 16.67A. { What is the current through R1, R2, R3, and R4 in
Diagram 2? type="()" } - (A) I_1 = 10A; I_2 = 50A; I_3 = 33A; I_4 = 25A.. - (B) I_1 = 1A; I_2 = 5A; I_3 = 3.3A;
I_4 = 2.5A. - (C) I_1 = 0.25A; I_2 = 0.33A; I_3 = 0.5A; I_4 = 0.1A. + (D) I_1 = 1A; I_2 = 0.5A; I_3 = 0.33A; I_4 =
0.25A. { Two resistors are in parallel with a voltage source. How do their voltages compare? type="()" } + (A) They
both have the same voltage as the source. - (B) They both have half the voltage of the source. - (C) One has full
voltage, the other has none. - (D) None of the above. </quiz> Take some time off, you've done well. If you're a
workaholic then you can go to the next page. Resistors in Parallelprevious lesson Resistors in Parallelprevious page
Kirchhoff%27s Voltage Lawnext page Passive sign conventionlesson intro Kirchhoff%27s Voltage Lawnext lesson
Electric Circuit Analysiscourse menu Resource type: this resource is a quiz.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 25

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS COURSE
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 26

Circuit Analysis Part II (Laws & Theorems) Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis
This part is an introduction to some useful Electric Circuit Laws and theorems. You are Lesson #1:
encouraged to master the theorems and laws that will be discussed herein as they form a basis upon Passive sign
which most Circuit analysis methods are built. convention

Lesson Review Lesson #2:


Simple Resistive
What you need to remember from Previous Lessons. Circuits

Review all lessons thus far ( i,e Read and be sure you understand lesson reviews done thus far )
Lesson #3:
Resistors in Series
Lesson 5: Preview
This Lesson is about Kirchhoff's Voltage Law. The student/User is expected to understand the Lesson #4:
following at the end of the lesson. Resistors in Parallel

Remember what was learned in Passive sign convention, You can go back and revise Lesson 1.
Define Kirchhoff's Voltage Law ( word-by-word ). Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law: Quiz 1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's Voltage
Law You are here

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's Current
Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis -
Lab1
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 27

Part 1: Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Part 2:Kirchhoff's


Kirchhoff's Voltage Law states:
Voltage Law (Cont...)
The sum of the voltages around a closed circuit path must be zero.
Notice that a closed circuit path insists that if one circuit element is chosen as a starting point, then one
must be able to traverse the circuit elements in that loop and return to the element in the beginning.
Mathematically, The Kirchhoff's Voltage Law is given by

For reference, this law is sometimes called Kirchhoff's Second Law, Kirchhoff's Loop Rule, and
Kirchhoff's Second Rule. Figure 5.1:

We observe five voltages in Figure 5.1:


v4 across a voltage source, and the four
voltages v1, v2, v3 and v5 across the
resistors R1, R2, R3 and R5, respectively.
The voltage source and resistors R1, R2
and R3 comprise a closed circuit path,
thus the sum of the voltages v4, v1, v2
and v3 must be zero:

The resistor R5 is outside the closed path


in question, and thus plays no role in the
calculation of Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
for this path. (Note that alternate closed
paths can be defined which include the
resistor R5. In these cases, the voltage v5
across R5 must be considered in
calculating Kirchhoff's Voltage Law.)
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 28

Part 3 Part 4 : Example


Now, if we take the point d in the image as our reference point and arbitrarily set its voltage to
zero, we can observe how the voltage changes as we traverse the circuit clockwise.
Going from point d to point a across the voltage source, we experience a voltage increase of v4
volts (as the symbol for the voltage source in the image indicates that point a is at a positive
voltage with respect to point d).
On traveling from point a to point b, we cross a resistor. We see clearly from the diagram that,
since there is only a single voltage source, current must flow from it's positive terminal to its
Figure 5.2: Example 1
negative terminal--clockwise around the circuit path. Thus from Ohm's Law, we observe that
the voltage drops from point a to point b across resistor R1.
Consider Figure 5.2 with the following
Likewise, the voltage drops across resistors R2 and R3. Having crossed R2 and R3, we arrive Parameters:
back at point d, where our voltage is zero (just as we defined). So we experienced one increase
in voltage and three decreases in voltages as we traversed the circuit.
The implication from Kirchhoff's Voltage Law is that, in a simple circuit with only one voltage
source and any number of resistors, the voltage drop across the resistors is equal to the voltage
applied by the voltage source:

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law can easily be extended to circuitry that contains capacitors. Find current through using Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law.
Solution:

Figure 5.3: Example 1 loops

We can see that there are two closed paths (loops)


where we can apply KVL in, Loop 1 and 2 as
shown in figure 5.3
From Loop 1 we get:

From Loop 2 we get:

A bit confused? well look at the explanation in


Part 3 of this lesson and Review Passive sign
convention.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 29

Part 5 : Example (Continued) Part 6 : Example (Continued)


The above results can further be simplified as follows: It is clear that: from (3)

..... (1) .

and

Substitute the Above Result into (2)


..... (2)

By equating above (1) and (2) we can eliminate and hence get the following:
.
..... (3)

We end up with the above three equations and now substitute the Values given in the
above equations and solve the variables. The Positive sign for only tells us that Current
If you feel lost up to this point do go back to the beginning of the example. Think of flows in the same direction to our initial assumed
this as just another mathematical problem requiring solving by use of simultaneous direction. Thus now we can calculate Current through
equations with two unknowns! as follows:
Notice that we work with Variables only and try to solve the equation to its simplest
form. Only after we have arrived at a simplified equation then that we can substitute in
.
values of Resistors, Voltages and current. This can save you a lot of trouble because, if
you go wrong you can easily trace your work to the problem.
The Negative sign for only tells us that Current
flows in the same direction to direction.
If you are lost repeat this example and try to follow the
logic, otherwise just send a message to the course
instructor as outlined in Part 8.

Part 7: Part 8:
The method used to solve the above problem is very tedious, when the complexity of the circuit is Further Reading Links:
increased the method becomes very cumbersome and almost impossible to use in solving circuit Kirchhoff's circuit laws
equations. This method is used just to illustrate KVL in this lesson. In Lesson 08 a more efficient
References:
method of solving these kinds of Circuit problems using KVL is introduced in a form of Mesh
Analysis. Nilsson, James W. and Riedel, Susan A.
Electric Circuits (5th ed.).
Try the following exercise on your own and compare your answers with the given possible solution.
Addison-Wesley. (1996).ISBN
020155707X
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 30

Exercise 5
Completion list
Once you finish your Exercises you can post
your score here! To post your score just
e-mail your course co-ordinator your name
[1]
and score *Click Here .
1.
Figure 5.4: Exercise 5
2.
3.
Consider Figure 5.4 with the following Parameters: 4.
5.
6.
7.

Find current through using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law.

Answers to Exercise 5

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Kirchhoff's Current Law

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Kirchhoff's Current Law 31

Lesson Review 5: Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis


What you need to remember from Kirchhoff's Voltage Law. If you ever feel lost, do not be shy to go Lesson #1:
back to the previous lesson & go through it again. You can learn by repitition. Passive sign
Remember what was learned in Passive sign convention, You can go back and revise Lesson 1. convention

Define Kirchhoff's Voltage Law ( word-by-word ).


Lesson #2:
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law: Simple Resistive
Circuits

Lesson 6: Preview Lesson #3:


This Lesson is about Kirchhoff's Current Law. The student/User is expected to understand the Resistors in
following at the end of the lesson. Series

Remember what was learned in Passive sign convention, You can go back and revise Lesson 1.
Lesson #4:
Define Kirchhoff's Current Law ( word-by-word ).
Resistors in
Kirchhoff's Current Law: Parallel

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's
Current Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis
- Lab1
Kirchhoff's Current Law 32

Part 1: Kirchhoff's Current Law Part 2:Kirchhoff's


Kirchhoff's Current Law states:
Current Law
The sum of the currents entering a particular point must be zero. (Cont...)
We can now define the electrical point physically connecting two or more electric circuit components, as
a NODE. Note that a positive current leaving a point is considered to be a negative current entering that
point.
Mathematically, Kirchhoff's Current Law is given by

For reference, this law is sometimes called Kirchhoff's first law, Kirchhoff's point rule, Kirchhoff's
junction rule, and Kirchhoff's first rule.
Figure 6.1:

We observe four currents "entering" the


junction depicted as the bold black dot
in Figure 6.1. Of course, two currents
are actually exiting the junction , but for
the purposes of circuit analysis it is
generally less restrictive to consider
what are in actuality positive currents
flowing out of a junction to be negative
currents flowing into that junction
(mathematically the same thing). Doing
so allows us to write Kirchhoff's law for
this example as:
Kirchhoff's Current Law 33

Part 3 Part 4 : Example


It may not be clear at this point why we insist on thinking of negative currents flowing into a
junction instead of positive currents flowing out. But note that Figure 6.1 provides us with more
information that we generally can expect to get when analysing circuits, namely the helpful
arrows indicating the direction of current flow. If we don't have such assistance, we generally
should not pass judgment on the direction of current flow (i.e., placing a negative sign before
our current variable) until we calculate it, lest we confuse ourselves and make mistakes.
Nevertheless in this case we have the extra information of directional arrows in Figure 6.1, so
Figure 6.2: Example 1
we should take advantage of it. We know that currents i2 and i3 flow into the junction and the
currents i1 and i4 flow out. Thus we can write
Consider Figure 6.2 with the following
Parameters:
Kirchhoff's Current Law as written is only applicable to steady-state current flow (i.e., no
alternating current, no signal transmission). It can be extended to include time-dependent
current flow, but that is beyond the scope of this section.
Kirchhoff's Current Law is used in a method of circuit analysis referred to as nodal analysis to
be discussed in lecture 8. A node is a section of a circuit where there is no change in voltage
(where there are no components, wire is often assumed to be perfectly conductive).
Each node is used to form an equation, and the equations are then solved simultaneously, Find current through using Kirchhoff's
giving the voltages at each node. Current Law.
Solution:

Figure 6.3: Voltages at nodes

This is the same example we solved in Exercise 5.


Figure 6.3 shows Voltages at Nodes a, b, c and d.
We use node a as common node ( ground if you
like ). thus .

Part 5 : Example (Continued) Part 6 : Example (Continued)


From Node b we get: Substitute values into previous equations you get:

From Node d we get:


thus
It is clear that we must solve V_c, in order to complete Voltage definitions at all
nodes. V_c will be found by applying KCL at Node c and solving resulting equations Thus now we can calculate Current through as follows:
Follows:

and
Just as we expected! Note that current here is simplified
because of following Voltage definitions and current paths
We can group like terms to get the following equation: in Figure 6.3.
This method becomes tedious as the complexity of circuits
is increased.
Kirchhoff's Current Law 34

Part 7:
Further Reading Links: Part 8: Completion List
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Refferences:
Nilsson, James W. and Riedel, Susan A.
Electric Circuits (5th ed.). Addison-Wesley.
(1996).ISBN 020155707X

Exercise 6 Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail
[1]
your course co-ordinator your name and score *Click Here .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Figure 6.4: Exercise 6 7.
8.
Consider Figure 6.4 with the following 9.
Parameters: 10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Find current through using Kirchhoff's


Current Law.

Answers to Exercise 6

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Nodal analysis 35

Nodal analysis

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Nodal analysis 36

Lesson Review 5 & 6: Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis


What you need to remember from Kirchhoff's Voltage & Current Law . If you ever feel lost, do not be Lesson #1:
shy to go back to the previous lesson & go through it again. You can learn by repitition. Passive sign
Remember what was learned in Passive sign convention, You can go back and revise Lesson 1. convention

Define Kirchhoff's Voltage Law ( word-by-word ).


Lesson #2:
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law: Simple Resistive
Define Kirchhoff's Current Law ( word-by-word ). Circuits

Kirchhoff's Current Law: Lesson #3:


This part of the course onwards will collaborate with the Mathematics Department extensively. Resistors in
Mathematical Theory will be kept minimal as mathematical tools are only used here as a means to an Series
end. Links to relevant Mathematical theories will be supplied to assist the student.
Lesson #4:
Resistors in
Parallel

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's
Current Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis
You are here

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis
- Lab1
Nodal analysis 37

Part 2: Nodal analysis


Lesson 7: Preview Let's start off with some useful definitions:

This Lesson is about Kirchhoff's Current Law. The Node:


student/User is expected to understand the following at the A point in a circuit where terminals of atleast two electric
end of the lesson. components meet. This point can be on any wire, it is infinitely small
Use KCL at super nodes to formulate circuit equations. and dimensionless.
Create matrix from circuit equations. Major Node:
Solve for Unknown Node Voltages using Kramers Rule. This point is a node. A set of these nodes is used to create constraint
equations.

Part 1: Pre-reading Material Reference Node:


The node to which Voltages of other nodes is read with regard to.
The student is advised to read the following resources from
This can be seen as ground ( V = 0).
the Mathematics department:
Branch:
College Algebra
This is a circuit element(s) that connect two nodes.
Linear algebra
Basic rule: The sum of the currents entering any point (Node) must equal the sum of
The following external link has an excellent summary on
the currents leaving.( From KCL in Lecture 6).
using Kramer's rule to solve linear equations:
[1]
* Solutions/kramer
After you have satified yourself of the above resources, you
can go to Part 2.
Nodal analysis 38

Part 3 Part 4 : Example


The following is a general procedure for using Nodal Analysis method to solve electric circuit
problems. The aim of this algorithm is to develop a matrix system from equations found by
applying KCL at the major nodes in an electric circuit. Kramer's rule is then used to solve the
unkown major node voltages.
Once the Node voltages are solved, normal circuit analysis methods ( Ohm's law; Voltage and
Current Divider principles etc... ) can then be used to find whatever circuit entity. Remember to
consult previous lessons if you are not confident in using normal circuit analysis techniques that
will be used in this lesson.
Manual Nodal Analysis Algorithm: Figure 7.1: Example 1

1.) Choose a reference node. ( Rule of thumb: take Node with most branches connecting to it )
Consider Figure 7.1 with the following
2.) Identify and Number major nodes. ( Usually 2 or 3 major Nodes )
Parameters:
3.) Apply KCL to identified major nodes and formulate circuit equations.
4.) Create Matrix system from KCL equations obtained.
5.) Solve Matrix for unknown node voltages by using Kramer's rule ( It is simpler although you
can still use gaussian method as well )
6.) Use solved Node voltages to solve for the desired circuit entity.
The above algorithm is very basic and usefull for 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 size matrices. Generally as the
number of major node voltages increase and the size of the matrix exceeds 3 x 3, numerical
methods ( Beyond scope of this course ) are employed with the aid of computers to solve such
circuit networks.
Let's try an example to illustrate the above nodal analysis algorithm. Find current through using Nodal Analysis
method.
Solution:

Figure 7.2: Voltages at nodes

This is the same example we solved in Exercise 6,


except that in this case we have added extra
Resistors to increase the complexity of the circuit.
Figure 7.2 shows Voltages at Nodes a, b, c and d.
We use node a as common node ( ground if you
like ). thus as we did previously.
Follow Carefully the
construction of the Nodal
analysis algorith explained in
part 3 of this lesson as follows in
Part 5 and 6.
Nodal analysis 39

Part 5 : Example (Continued) Part 6 : Example (Continued)


Now that we have labelled the currents flowing in this circuit using passive sign
convention, and have identified Nodes b; c and d as major nodes, we proceed as
follows: Therefore
KCL @ Node b:
...............

KCL @ Node d:
Thus by applying Ohms law to above equation we get.

Thus by applying Ohms law to above equation we get.


Therefore

............... (1)
Therefore <<<This part is wrong!!! You have forgotten to
KCL @ Node c: change all of your signs when moving across the equals sign>>>

...............

Thus by applying Ohms law to above equation we get.

Part 7:
The next step in this algorithm is to construct a matrix. Inorder to do that easily we substitute all resistances in above equations 1; 2 & 3 with their
equivalent Admittances as follows:

etc thus equations 1; 2 & 3 will be re-written as follows:

Now we can create a matrix with the above equations as follows:

The following matrix is the above with values substituted:

Now that we have arranged equations 1; 2 & 3 into a matrix we need to get Determinants of the General matrix, and Determinants of alterations of
the general matrix as follows:
Nodal analysis 40

Part 8: Part 9:
Solving determinants of:
Matrix A : General matrix A
from KCL equations Now we can use the solved determinants to arrive at solutions for Node voltages as follows:
Matrix A1 : Genral Matrix A
1.
with Column 1 substituted by
.
2.
Matrix A2 : Genral Matrix A
with Column 2 substituted by
3.
.
Matrix A3 : Genral Matrix A Now we can apply Ohm's law to solve for the current through as follows:
with Column 3 substituted by
.
As follows: As we have seen previously, the positive sign in the above current tells us that the effective current flowing
through is in fact in the direction we chose when drawing up the circuit in figure 7.2.
Please use the provided link for details on working out the determinant of a 3 x 3 Matrix.
To apreciate the algorithm we have just used, try solving the above problem using either KVL or KCL as we
did in lessons 5 & 6 and see just how cumbersome the process would be.
As usual the following part is an Exercise to test your self on content discussed in this lesson. Please look at
Part 11 for further reading material and interesting related External links.

Part 10:Exercise 7
Part 11:

Further Reading & Other Interesting Links:


Figure 7.3: Exercise
w:Nodal analysis
[2]
Consider Figure 7.3 with the following Free Nodal Analysis EBook by Dr. Yaz Li
Parameters: [3]
Node voltage Analysis Web Application
[4]
MIT Circuits and Electronics (Video) Lecture - Basic Circuit Analysis Method
References:
Add reference here!
Completion List
Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail your
[1]
course co-ordinator your name and score *Click Here .
1.
Find current through using Nodal 2.
Analysis method. 3.

Answers to Exercise 7

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Resource type: this resource contains a lecture or lecture notes.


Nodal analysis 41

Mesh Analysis

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Mesh Analysis 42

Lesson Review 5 & 6: Lessons in Electric Circuit Analysis


What you need to remember from Kirchhoff's Voltage & Current Law . Lesson #1:
Remember what was learned in Passive sign convention, You can go back and revise Lesson 1. Passive sign
convention
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Kirchhoff's Current Law
Lesson #2:
This part of the course onwards will collaborate with the Mathematics Department extensively. Simple Resistive
Mathematical Theory will be kept minimal as mathematical tools are only used here as a means to an Circuits
end. Links to relevant Mathematical theories will be supplied to assit the student.

Lesson #3:
Resistors in Series

Lesson #4:
Resistors in
Parallel

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 1

Lesson #5:
Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law

Lesson #6:
Kirchhoff's
Current Law

Lesson #7:
Nodal analysis

Lesson #8:
Mesh Analysis
You are here

Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis
Quiz 2

Home
Laboratory: Circuit Analysis -
Lab1

Lesson Review 7:
What you need to remember from Nodal analysis. If you ever feel lost, do not be shy to go back to
the previous lesson & go through it again. You can learn by repitition.
Use KCL at super nodes to formulate circuit equations.
Create matrix from circuit equations.
Solve for Unknown Node Voltages using Kramers Rule.
Mesh Analysis 43

Lesson 8: Preview Part 2: Mesh Analysis


This Lesson is about Mesh Analysis. The student/User is expected to Let's start off with some useful definitions:
understand the following at the end of the lesson. Branch:
Use KVL at meshes or loops to formulate circuit equations. This is a circuit element(s) that connect two nodes.
Create matrix from circuit equations.
Loop:
Solve for Unknown Mesh Currents using Kramers Rule.
This a closed path in a circuit. A set of these loops are
used to create constraint equations.
Part 1: Pre-reading Material Mesh:

The student is advised to read the following resources from the A loop passing though atleast one branch.
Mathematics department: Basic rule: The sum of Voltages arround any loop
College Algebra must be Zero.( From KVL in Lecture 5).
Linear algebra
Mesh Analysis 44

Part 3 Part 4 : Example


The following is a general procedure for using Mesh or Loop Analysis method to solve electric
circuit problems. The aim of this algorithm is to develop a matrix system from equations found
by applying KVL arround Loops or Meshes in an electric circuit. Kramer's rule is then used to
solve the unkown Mesh Currents.
Once the Mesh Currents are solved, normal circuit analysis methods ( Ohm's law; Voltage and
Current Divider principles etc... ) can then be used to find whatever circuit entity.
Remember to consult previous lessons if you are not confident in using normal circuit analysis
techniques that will be used in this lesson.
Manual Mesh/Loop Analysis Algorithm: Figure 8.1: Example 1

1.) Choose a conventional current flow.


Consider Figure 8.1 with the following
2.) Identify and Number loops or meshes. ( Usually 2 or 3 meshes/ loops )
Parameters:
3.) Apply KVL to identified meshes/loops and formulate ciruit equations.
4.) Create Matrix system from KVL equations obtained.
5.) Solve Matrix for unknown Mesh Currents by using Kramer's rule ( It is simpler although
you can still use gaussian method as well )
6.) Used solved Mesh Currents to solve for the desired circuit entity.
The above algorithm is very basic and usefull for 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 size matrices. Generally as the
number of loops or meshes increase and the size of the matrix exceeds 3 x 3, numerical
methods ( Beyond scope of this course ) are employed with the aid of computers to solve such
circuit networks.
Generally speaking, Mesh Analysis is shorter than Nodal Analysis although not always Find current through using Mesh Analysis
preffered.Let's try an example to illustrate the above Mesh/Loop analysis algorithm. method.
Solution:

Figure 8.2: Currents in loops

This is the same example we solved in Exercise 7.


We can see that there are three closed paths
(loops) where we can apply KVL in, Loop 1, 2
and 3 as shown in figure 8.2
We can now apply KVL arround the loops
remembering Passive Convention when defining
Currents and voltages.
KVL arround abca loop:

Therefore

............(1)
Mesh Analysis 45

Part 5 : Example Part 6 : Example (Continued)


(Continued)
KVL arround acda loop: The following matrix is the above with values substituted:


Therefore
Now that we have arranged equations 1; 2 & 3 into a matrix we need to get Determinants of the
............... (2)
General matrix, and Determinants of alterations of the general matrix as follows:
Solving determinants of:
KVL arround bdcb loop:
Matrix A : General matrix A from KVL equations

Matrix A1 : Genral Matrix A with Column 1 substituted by .


Therefore Matrix A2 : Genral Matrix A with Column 2 substituted by .
Matrix A3 : Genral Matrix A with
............... (3) Column 3 substituted by .
As follows:
Now we can create a matrix with the above
equations as follows:

Part 7: Exercise 8 Part 8:

Now we can use the solved determinants to arrive at solutions for Mesh Currents as follows:

1.

2.

3.

Now we can solve for the current through as follows:

The answer is as we expected it to be, flows in the direction of .


Mesh Analysis 46

Part 7: Exercise 8

Part 8:
Further Reading Links:
Figure 8.3: Exercise
w:Mesh analysis
[1]
Consider Figure 8.3 with the following Mesh-Currents Analysis Web Application
Parameters: Refferences:
Add refference here!

Find current through using Mesh


Analysis method.

Answers to Exercise 8

Completion List
Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail your
[1]
course co-ordinator your name and score *Click Here .
1.
2.
3.

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Circuit Analysis Quiz 2 47

Circuit Analysis Quiz 2

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You have done well to get to this point, The final Quiz Test for this course.This your chance to test just how well
you are doing. Remember that you set your pace, in your Open-Learning. You are advised to go through All
Lectures and to have done All Exercises thoughroughly before attempting this quiz. Be honest to your self, After
attempting all Questions click on the Submit button, to View your score and Model Answers. Due to the foregoing
please attempt this quiz test Once. This Quiz test is on Material covered thus far and as follows: Passive sign
convention. Single resistor problems. Series resistor problems. Parallel resistor problems. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
problems. Kirchhoff's Current Law problems. Nodal Analysis problems. Mesh Analysis problems. Select the most
correct answer of the four possible answers to each question. A calculator is allowed. Feel free to do work on a piece
of paper. Can't understand a specific Question? Click Here to ask for help. Electric Circuit AnalysisLessons in
Electric Circuit Analysis Lesson #1: Passive sign convention Lesson #2: Simple Resistive Circuits Lesson #3:
Resistors in Series Lesson #4: Resistors in Parallel Quiz Test: Circuit Analysis Quiz 1 Lesson #5: Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law Lesson #6: Kirchhoff's Current Law Lesson #7: Nodal analysis Lesson #8: Mesh Analysis Quiz Test:
Circuit Analysis Quiz 2 You are here Home Laboratory: Circuit Analysis - Lab1 <quiz display=simple> { What is
the significance of a negative ( - ) sign from a calculation when solving circuit problems? type="()" } - (A) None -
(B) It means you did something wrong on your calculation + (C) Real resulting current or Voltage is in the opposite
direction to one assumed - (D) You probably used a smaller scalling factor { What will be the reading on the
voltmeter for the following circuit? type="()" } - (A) 7.5V - (B) Zero - (C) Infinity + (D) 9V { Which Resistor in the
Parallel brach of the following circuit will always have most current flowing through irrespective of the amount of
the supply voltage? type="()" } + (A) R4 - (B) R2 - (C) R3 - (D) None { Which one of the following statements is
more accurate? type="()" } + (A) KVL is concerned with Voltage Drops - (B) KVL is calculated at Super Nodes
only - (C) Both (A) and (B) - (D None { KCL is used when solving circuits with ... type="()" } - (A) Closed Loops +
(B) Sufficient Nodes / Junctions - (C) Capacitors - (D None { Which method would be simpler to implement in the
following circuit? type="()" } + (A) KCL - (B) Millman's theorem - (C) KVL - (D) Norton { Nodal Analysis applies
the following principles type="()" } - (A) KVL & Ohm's Law + (B) KCL & Ohm's Law - (C) KVL &
Superposition - (D) KCL & Superposition { Which of the following statements is true? type="()" } - (A) Mesh
Analysis is easiest when a circuit has more than two nodes - (B) Mesh Analysis is more difficult than Nodal Analysis
+ (C) Mesh Analysis employs KVL to solve for Loop currents - (D) All of the above { Given the following problem.
which method would yield simpler equations for solving circuit elements? type="()" } + (A) Mesh Analysis - (B)
Nodal Analysis - (C) KVL - (D) Thervenin { Which of the following statements is False? type="()" } + (A) Nodal &
Mesh Analysis are only used for Linear circuits - (B) Kramers rule is used in solving Nodal Analysis Problems - (C)
Gaussian Method can be used to solve Nodal analysis problems - (D) Nodal Analysis can be used to verify any Mesh
analysis problem </quiz> This is it, The last Quiz Test for this course.The next page, is an Introduction to Home
Laboratory Exercises. Mesh Analysisprevious lesson Mesh Analysisprevious page Circuit Analysis - Lab1next page
Passive sign conventionlesson intro Circuit Analysis - Lab1next lesson Electric Circuit Analysiscourse menu
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Circuit Analysis Quiz 2 48
Article Sources and Contributors 49

Article Sources and Contributors


Passive sign convention Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=613787 Contributors: Bgorges, Dhamal, Linelor, McCormack, Mortense, Remi, Seanusmc, The Isiah, Thuvack, 5
anonymous edits

Simple Resistive Circuits Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=534885 Contributors: Bgorges, McCormack, Remi, Rsbhatia16, Thuvack, 2 anonymous edits

Resistors in Series Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=618097 Contributors: Bgorges, Dhamal, Landreu, McCormack, Redemption, Remi, The Isiah, Thuvack, 5 anonymous
edits

Resistors in Parallel Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=618118 Contributors: Bsheehan5013, Dhamal, JWS, McCormack, The Isiah, Thuvack, 5 anonymous edits

Circuit Analysis Quiz 1 Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=515348 Contributors: Driscoll, Erkan Yilmaz, Hr1354, Mario51t, McCormack, Redemption, Remi, The Isiah,
Thuvack, 8 anonymous edits

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=462195 Contributors: Dhamal, Electroguy, HenkvD, Javier Carro, Lerdsuwa, McCormack, Remi0o, RobertLutz,
Thuvack, 7 anonymous edits

Kirchhoff's Current Law Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=462196 Contributors: 24cell, Electroguy, HenkvD, Javier Carro, Lerdsuwa, McCormack, Remi0o, RobertLutz,
Sebmol, Stinky sock, Thuvack, 6 anonymous edits

Nodal analysis Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=626186 Contributors: Jtneill, McCormack, Mu301, PeteX, The Isiah, Thuvack, 8 anonymous edits

Mesh Analysis Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=535539 Contributors: Assassingr, McCormack, Thuvack, 2 anonymous edits

Circuit Analysis Quiz 2 Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?oldid=622225 Contributors: McCormack, Sakatti, Thuvack, 2 anonymous edits
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