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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"

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leuctra-371bc-2462433

Plain of Larconia (14x5km)


West: Taygetus Mountain Range

Geographical Setting
East: Parnon Mountain Range
North: Arcadia Mountain Range
Lay of Eurotas River
Cold winters and hot summers

Stone: porphyry, marble


Minerals & Ores: iron, copper, tin, lead, clay

Resources
Crops: barley, wheat, grapes, figs
Animals: sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, bees, hare, wild
bore
Marine: shellfish (purple dye), octapus (red dye)

Acropolis formed by low spur from Arcadian Hills


Eurotas River flowed to east of town -formidable in
summer and swollen in winter
Comprised of 4 villages with 5th at Amyclae (6km south)

Significant Site
Lacked town centre
Market located at bottom of Acropolis
Memorials to Leonidas and Pausanias at market
Fruit tress and vines grown as stone washed down and
made crops difficult to grow

Lycurgus was a lawgiver who sought help from Delphic


Oracle
Changed introdced in form of Great Rhetra dating 7th
Issue of Lycurgus Century BC
Creation of Gerousia
Redistribution of Land
Declaring gold and silver coinage invalid

page 1 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

One king from district - Agiads clan


One king from southern Laconia - Eurypontids
Role and Priveleges of the Suceeded by eldest son excpet when eldest son was
born before accesion and a son was born during reign
Two Kings nearest kinsmen if no son
eldest male kinsmen to act a regent for minor king
ephors decided what was consitutional or not for king

Priest of Zeus

Role and Privleeges of the


Appointed 2 pythioi to consult Oracle
expected to sacrifice to God of Apollo each month

Two Kings: Religious


held office as long as they maintained pleasure of the
gods
expected to sacrifice before battle

Supreme leader of the army in wartime


Role and Privleeges of the Unlimited power over life and death of troops
Personal body guard of 100 men
Two Kings: Military Only 1 king went to battle
Responsible for the conduct of the miliarty campaign

Responsible for legal matters pertaining to


public highways
Role and Priveleges of the Responsible for legal matters regarding
Two Kings: Judical adoption
Responsible for deciding husband for an
heiress if father died

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Supported at expense of the state

Role and Priveleges of the


Recieved minor honours
Recieved skins from sacrifices

Two Kings: Priveleges


Banquet: seated first, served first, offered double
portions
Death called for 10 ceased business days of mourning

5 magistrates known as ephors


One from each aba or territorial region
Estabilishment attributed to Lycrugus
Elected annually by Spartiates
One year term and could not be re-elected
Government: Ephorate Were chief administrators and executives of state
Advised kings and kept check on royal powers
Called meetings of Ekklesia and Gerousia
Had charge of Agoge
Responsible for civil and criminal cases
Could banish foreigners from state

Council of Elders
28 member and 2 kings
Formed an aristocratic elite
Males over age of 60 and held office for life
Government: Gerousia Prepared business and agenda for Ekklesia
Deliberated on Public Policy
Tried cases involving kings
Had right to impose loss of citizenship rights, death or
exile

Also known as Apella


Attended to by those over 30 who held full citizenship

Government: Ekklesia
Elected the ephors, elders and other magistrates
Responsible for passing measures put before it
Voted by acclamation
Presidied over by kings, gerousia and ephorate

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
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leuctra-371bc-2462433

Homoioi - equal, peers


Sparatan elite
Full-time professional soldier

Sprariates
Had to prove Dorice descent, submit to Agoge and be a
member of Syssition
Owned most of land in Eurotas Valley and Messenia
Each given a portion of land - Kleros
Could not take part in trade

'Dwellers around"
Free inhabitants of communities scattered throughout
Messenia and Laconia
Communities were autonomous but answerable to State
Perioeci Craftsmen and manufacturers
Some became wealthy
Not eligble to take part in government
Expected to fight if military emergency

Tresantes: criminals and coward - were deprived by


special decree of their right to vote and hold office. Had
to site alone at festivals, unable to marry, and had to
wear special dress and go unshavened. Avoided

Outcasts
Hypomeiones (Inferiors): those who had lost citizenship
Parthenai: children of Helot mothers and Spartan fathers
Also were Helots freed by state and Helots for foster
brothers and playmates

Enslaved population of Messenia and Laconia


Owned by state
Worked for individual Spartiates on their estastes
No political or legal rights
Required to hand over half of produce to masters

Helots
Restricted property rights and some land rights
Could be rewarded citizenship for deeds performed
during military service - RARE
170,000 to 224,000 helots
Fears by Spartans due to number
Revolted in 465BC and took 10 years to be back under
control

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Comprised: 4 files of 8 men


Spartan Army: Enomotia Commanded: Entnomatch

Comprised: 4 Enomotiai
Spartan Army: Pentekostys Commanded: Pentekonter

Comprised: 4 Pentekostys
Spartan Army: Lochos Commanded: Lochagos

Comprised: 7 Lochoi
Spartan Army: Mora Commanded: Polemarch

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Kinghts
Spartan Army: Hippeis 300 men who guarded the
king

Desterter who came home


Spartan Army: Rhipsaspia
without his shield

Heavily armed infantry man named after shield


Wore: cloth tunic covered by bronze breastplace, metal
Spartan Army: Hoplites helmet made of thin bronze, bronze greaves
Trained to fight in formation not as individuals
Spear used for thrusting not throwing

Phalanx: rectangular mass military formation usually


comprised of heavy infantry (hoplites)
Spartan Army: Military Usually 8 or more ranks deep
Aim was to break the oppositions line by deploying a
Tactics group-and-shove technique
Maintained supremacy in warfare until the Battle of
Leuctra in 371BC

page 6 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Group of Spartan men who always dined together


Also called pheidita which means 'gatherings of men'
Eligible to join from age 30
Key part of being equal (Lycurgus)
Exclusion was said to be impossible to bare
Election: small piece of bread - ball represented
The Syssition membership, flat ment against
Men had to provide food from kleros in equal portions
Excuse for absence was illness, hunting or scrifices
Mixed ages of men
Meal: barley meal, wine, cheese and figs
Contributed money for meat and fish

Known as secret police


Played important role in control of Helots
The Krypetia Controlled by Ephorate
Information is limited

Education system
Designed to make fierce warriors and instill patriotism,
loyalty, obedience and comradship
Paidonomas: government official in charge
Birth: children examined by a Council of Elders at
Lesche to determine if it lived or died
Agoge 0-7: raised by mother at home
7-12: enrolled in age group (agelai) and went to live in
miliary barracks where they learnt miliary skills as well as
basic reading and writing, learnt to fend for themsleves,
obey orders, share and get on with others. Learnt music,
dance and althetics at 10

Important role as bearers of children, mothers of


warriors, heiresses and managers of estates
Women Expected to support military ethos
Had more freedom than women in Athens
Encouraged to play active role in society

page 7 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Child bearing was most important function


Women educated to be proper mother of
Women: Spartan Mothers warriors in warrior state
Highly sought after as nannies, especially in
Athens

Remained at home with their mothers, but


expected to be educated
Expected they were taught reading and writing
Women: Education Sometimes trained with boys to be physically fit
to have strong babies

Married in late teens when they were more physically


mature
Expected to marry own social class

Women: Marriage Customs


Marriage by capture practiced
Brides hair was cut and she would wear male clothing
Pre-nuptial wedding feast for women only
Marriage kept secret until a child was produced
If wife was barren a new marriage could be arranged

Exercised much more control and influence in society


than Athenian women
Played important role in property transfer

Women: Property
Classical period: could inherit father kleros but had to
pass it on to her offspring
End of classical period: could own property without male
guardians
Owned 2/5 of land

page 8 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Forbidden by Lucugan laws to wear make-up,


jewellery, perfume or dying clothes
Women: Appearance and Peplos: short, revaling tunic fastened on the
Dress shoulders
Peplos earned Spartan women reputation of
'thigh-displayer's

Redistribution of land was Lycurgus reform


Allotments of land called Kleros
System of land ownership and agriculture production
underpinned way of life

Landownership
Issue of landownership fundamental factor in Spartan
decline
Each Spartan male given a kleros and a number of
Helots who would work the property
Output from Kleros provides not only enough food to
feed family but to provide Syssition share

Produced weapons for hoplites


Technology: Weapons & Bronze helmets, shields, breastplates,
Armour greaves', and bronze tipper spears and
daggers

Most famous pottery known as Laconican III dates to


c.575BC
Proved to be very popular and exported throughout

Technology: Pottery
Greek world
Best example is Arcesilas Cup
Eventually copied Attic red figurware
Very littler known about painters and potter and their
industry

page 9 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Chiefly engaged in mining, manufacture and commerce


Procured metals and manufactured weapons
Ecomonic Role of Perioeci Fishermen, shipwrights and navel personnel at Gytheum
Made and imported chariots
and Helots Shard in land division (30,000 allotments)

Lycrugus was supposed to introduce the use of iron bars


as coinage
Scholars generally believe that the ban of gold and silver
coinage is a myth
Must have kept some Hellenisitc currency rather than

Economic Exchange
bars because they needed to pay for mercaneries and
send embassies abroad
Did not mint coins until 3rd century BC
Trade carried out by Perieoci
Conducted through Port at Gytheum 46km from Sparta
on Laconian coast
Main exports: wool, wine, oil, pottery and bronzes

Goddess of hunt, wild animals, vegetation, growth and


fertility
Sanctuary outside city on banks of Eurotas River
Gods & Goddesses: Artemis Young boys would attempt to steal cheese that had been
placed on altar of shrine
Orthia Thousands of votice offerings found including clay
vessels, terracottas, lead figurines
Offerings given by pregnant or barren women or as
thanks for successful birth

Shrine at Amyclae
Statue of Apollo with spear in one
Gods & Goddesses: Apollo hand and bow in the other
Celebrated at Karneia fesitival

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Known as 'heavenly twins' Castor and Polydeuces


Brothers of Helen from Troy legend
One from son of Zeus, the other of Tyndareus
Only one could claim immortality
Myths & Legends: Dioscuri Living a day in turn
Spartans believed they took the place among the stars
as the 'gemini' symol
Believed they would come to the aid to Sparta in times of
threat and danger

Celebrated in holy month Karneios (August/Septmeber)


Athletic contests and games formed part of celebration
Marked grape harvest
Music became a key part of festival
Agon: musical contest

Festivals: The Karneia


Ram was sacrifices
Staphylodromoi: young men also known as 'grape-
cluster runners' who would chase after a young mane
who wore a woollen headband
Capture meant good luck for Sparta, failure was a bad
omen

3 day fesitval celebrated in early summer


Stage 1: day of gried with rhythic wailing and chanting
Stage 2: rejoicing, processions, choral singing, dancing
and feasting

Festivals: The Hyakinthia


Sacrifice made to Apollo
Feasts of meat, barley-cakes, raw vegetables, broth, figs
and nuts
Ritual where sausages were tied to a wall and old men
chewd on them
Spartiates entertained the Helots

'Festival of Naked Boys' or 'Fesival of the Unarmed


Boys'
Late July
Fesitivals: The Displays of singing, dancing, gymnastics
Closely linked to Agoge training
Gymnopaidiai Anapale: wrestling dance
Embaterion: quick march to flutes
Hyporchema: religious dance by girls
Bryalicha: womens dance

page 11 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Information is sparse
Appear to have practised simple burial customs either pit
graves or tile graves
Permitted for warriors to be buried on the battlefield with

Funerary Customs and


grave marker
Women who died in childbirth were permitted to have

Rituals
inscribed monuments
Period of 11 days set for mourning
Spartan's encourages to view death as familiar and
normal
Soldiers wrapped in red cloak and olive leaves placed
around them

7th century BC displated luxury interests


Scultptures and paintings two importants artistic
Art achievements
Bone and ivory carving important craft

Amykalion: possessed a colossal staute of


Apollo, doric and iconic colums
Architecture Menelaion: long monumental ramp and altar
Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: massive altar,
adjoining amphitheatre

During 7th and 6th centuries BC Sparta


attracted singers, poets and artists from Greece
Writing & Literature to its festivals
Spartan literature declined around Second
Messenian War

page 12 / 15
Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Wrote during 7th Century BC


Writing & Literature: Work is closely associated with development of
Spartan Army
Tyrtaeus Poet of "Barrack Sparta"
Poems promote courage and cooperation

Work suggested a care-free approach to life


Poet of "Swinging Sparta"
Work written for public performance

Writing & Literature: Alcam


Wrote drinking songs, hymns for male choirs and
preludes for readings of Homer
Wrote in local Dorian dialect
Used local Laconian legends, stories from Homer, tried
to end with moral message

Born 490BC
"The Histories"

Greek Writers' Views of


Provides both legendary stories and historical narratives
Spartans are good Greeks fighting Persia

Sparta: Herodotus
Details duel monarchy, supersititions, and troop
preparation for Battle of Thermopylae
Women appear frequently

Born 460BC
"History of the Peloponesian War"
Greek Writers' Views of
Theme is long-drawn out conflict
Sparta: Thucydides between Sparta and Athens

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Born 43BC
"The Persian Empire"
Greek Writers' Views of Simple and rather uncritical look at Spartan
Sparta: Xenophon institutions - "Constitutions of the
Lacedaemonias"
Ascribes everything to Lycurgus

Born 384BC
Greek Writers' Views of Not a particularly high view of Spartan system
Condems the fact that women owened 40% of
Sparta: Aristotle land
Not all accounts survived

Born AD50
"Plutarch Sparta"
Greek Writers' Views of Wrote about life of Lycurgus and various kings
Not a critical reader
Sparta: Plutarch Much of legend we have about Spartan system is
because of his positive view of Lycrugus
Flaws in account

"Guide to Greece"
Valuable information about
Greek Writers' Views of
topography and ruins that existed
Sparta: Pausanias in Sparta
Objective accounts

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Flashcard Set Title: "Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra 371BC"
Study this set online at: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/cards/spartan-society-to-the-battle-of-
leuctra-371bc-2462433

Focus on service to state and maintenance of military


service
Daily Life and Leisure Likely Spartans had more Lesisure time than other
Greek city-states because work was done by Helots and
Activities Perioeci
Hunting, feasting, drinking, religious festivals, horse-
racing, chariot-racing, athletics

Food: wheat, barley, figs, grapes,


oranges, sheep, goats, pigs,
Food and Clothing cheese
Clothes: simple, tunic, cuirass, red
cloak

Farmers, fishermen, herdsmen, bakers,


servents, painters, potters, bronze makers,
Occupations bronze sculpturs, textile workers, king, hoplite,
ephor, ekklesia, gerousia

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