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Pressure is defined force per unit area applied in a

direction perpendicular to the surface of an object

The unit of pressure is Pascal.

A force, F, applied normally to the surface with an area, A,


will result in aPRESSURE, P, which can be defined as :

Pressure is measured in newtons per square metre ( N


m -2 ). The SI unit for pressure is the pascal ( Pa ).

1 pascal ( Pa ) is equal to 1 newton per square metre ( N


m -2 ).

3.2 Understanding pressure in liquids.

Pressure in Liquids

Pressure in liquid is owing to the weight of the liquid


acting on the surface of any objects in the liquid.
Pressure of a liquid is directly proportional to

o the gravitational field strength

o the depth

o density of the liquid.

Pressure in liquids is not affected by the size or


shape of the object.

The pressure caused by a liquid and the pressure in


a liquid can be determined by using the equation below:

Pressure Caused by Liquid

Pressure in Liquid
3.3 Understanding gas pressure and
atmospheric pressure.

Gas Pressure

Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the


gas molecules as they collide with the surface of an
object.

Atmospheric Pressure

On the surface of the earth, there is a thick layer of


gas called the atmosphere. The atmosphere consists of
various types of gas called the atmospheric gas.

The atmospheric gases collide on the surface of the


earth and hence exert a pressure on the surface of the
earth, called the atmospheric pressure.

The atmospheric pressure can be measured in the


unit of atm, mmHg or Pa. The atmospheric pressure at
sea level is taken to be 1 atm, which is approximately 760
mmHg or 101,000 Pa.
Characteristics of Atmospherics Pressure

Decreases with altitude

The atmospheric pressure changes accordingly to the


altitude. Altitude is the height above sea level. The greater
the altitude, the lower the atmospheric pressure.

Act equally in all direction

The atmospheric pressure acts on every object in the


atmosphere. It acts equally in all direction.

Atmospheric pressure is ~ 100,000Pa at sea level

On the surface of the earth, the atmospheric pressure can


be as high as 101,000 Pa.

Unit Used to Measure Atmospheric Pressure

The following are the unit used to measure


atmospheric pressure

Pascal (Pa)
o

1 Pa = 1 N/m

Standard Atmospheric Pressure (atm)

1 atm = Atmospheric Pressure at sea level ( = 101,325


Pa)

mmHg (also known as torr)

1 mmHg = 1/760 atm (roughly equal to the liquid pressure


exerted by a millimetre of mercury).

o milibar

In SPM, usually we use the unit cmHg, instead of


mmHg.

Applications of Atmospheric Pressure


Syringe

1. When the piston is pulled up, the atmospheric pressure


inside the cylinder will decrease.

2. The atmospheric pressure outside pushes the liquid up into


the syringe.

Lift Pump
Siphon

Working Mechanism of Siphon


Sucker Hook

When the sucker is pressed into place, the air inside is forced
out. As a result, the pressure inside the sucker become very low.
The sucker is then held in position by the high atmospheric
pressure on the outside surface.

Straw
When a person sucks through the straw, the pressure in the straw
become low. The atmospheric pressure outside which is higher
will force the water into the straw and consequently into the
mouth.

Rubber Sucker

Vacuum Cleaner
3.4 Pascals Principle

Pascal's principle states that in a confined fluid, an


externally applied pressure is transmitted uniformly in all
directions.

Pascal's principle is also known as the principle of


transmission of pressure in a liquid.

Hydraulic System
1. A hydraulic system applies Pascal's principle in its
working mechanism. It can be used as a force multiplier.

2. In this hydraulic system, a small force, Fl is applied to


the small piston X results in a large force, F2 at the large
piston Y. The pressure, due to the force, F1, is transmitted
by the liquid to the large piston.

3. According to Pascals principle,

F1A1=F2A2

Change of Oil Level in a Hydraulic System


In the diagram to the left, when piston-X is pressed down,
piston-Y will be push up. The change of the piston levels of the
2 pistons is given by the following equation:

h1A1=h2A2

Applications of Pascal's Principle

Hydraulic Braking System

In most vehicle, hydraulic system is used in the braking


system, as shown in the figure below.
Usually, a disc brake is used in the front wheel of a car
while a drum brake is used in the back wheel of a car.

Working Mechanism of Hydraulic Brake

When the brake pedal is pressed, the piston of the


master cylinder applies a pressure on the brake fluid.

This pressure is transmitted uniformly to each


cylinder at the wheel, cause the pistons at the wheels to
push the brake shoes to press against the surface of the
brake.

The friction between the brakes and brake shoes


causes the vehicle to slow down and stop

Hydraulic Jack

Working mechanism of a hydraulic jack.


1. When the handle is pressed down, valve A is closed
whereas valve B is opened. The hydraulic fluid is forced
into the large cylinder and hence pushes the piston
moving upward.

2.

3. When the handle is raised, valve B will be closed


while vale A will be opened. Hydraulic fluid from the
buffer tank will be suck into the small cylinder.
4.

5. This process is repeated until the load is sufficiently


lifted up.

6. The large piston can be lowered down by releasing


the hydraulic fluid back to the buffer tank through the
release vale.

3.5 Archimedes' Principle.

Archimedes Principle

Archimedes Principle states that when a body is


wholly or partially immersed in a fluid it experiences an
upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

Upthrust/Buoyant force is an upward force exerted by


a fluid on an object immersed in it.

Mathematically, we write

F=Vg
F = Upthrust/Buoyant Force
= Density of the liquid
V = Volume of the displaced liquid
g = Gravitational field strength

Principle of Floatation

The principle of floatation states that when an object


floats in a liquid the buoyant force/upthrust that acts on the
object is equal to the weight of the object.
As shown in the figure above, if the weight of the
object (W) = upthrust (F), the object is in balance and
therefore float on the surface of the fluid.

If the weight of the object > upthrust, the object will


sink into the fluid.

Note

Displaced volume of fluid = volume of the object that


immerse in the fluid.

If weight of the object > upthrust, the object will sink


into the fluid.

If weight of the object = upthrust, the object is in


balance and therefore float on the surface of the fluid.

Forces Acted on Objects Immersed in Liquid

In order to solve the problem related to object


immerse in water, it's important to know the all
forces acted on the object.

Case 1:
1. The density of the object is lower than the
density of the liquid. The object floats on the
surface of the water.

2. The forces acting on the object is

1the weight of the object(W)

2the upthrust (F)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F=W

Case 2:
1. The density of the object is greater than the density of the
liquid. The object sink to the bottom of the water.

2. Lying on the bottom of the water, there is a normal


reaction acted on the object.

3. The forces acting on the object is

1the weight of the object(W)

2the upthrust (F)

3Normal reaction (R)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F+R=W

Case 3:

1. The density of the object is greater than the density of the


liquid. The object is hold by a string so that it does not sink
deeper into the water.

2. The forces acting on the object is

1the weight of the object(W)


2the upthrust (F)

3Tension of the string (T)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F+T=W

Case 4:

1. The density of the object is lower than the density of the


liquid. The object is hold by a string so that it does not move up
to the surface of the water.

2. The forces acting on the object is

1the weight of the object(W)

2the upthrust (F)

3Tension of the string (T)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence


F=W+T

Application of Archimedes Principle

Plimsoll Line

The Plimsoll line is an imaginary line marking the


level at which a ship or boat floats in the water.

It indicates how much load is allowed at different


types of water.

Airship
Air ship is filled with helium gas.

Helium gas has density lower than the surrounding


air, hence an upthrust which higher than the weight of the
airship can be produced and cause the airship float in the
air.

Hot Air Balloon


Hot air in the balloon has lower density than the
surrounding air.

As a result, when the buoyant force produced is


higher than the weight of the balloon, the balloon will start
rising up.

The altitude of the balloon can be controlled by


varying the temperature of the air in the balloon.

Hydrometers
Hydrometer is used to measure relative density of
liquids.

How deep the hydrometer sink into the liquid is


affected by the density of the liquid.

The lower the density of the liquid, the deeper the


hydrometer will sink.

This is used as the indicator of relative density of a


liquid.

Submarine
A submarine use ballask tank to control its movement
up and down.

To get submerge, water is pumped into the ballast


tank to increase the weight of the submarine.

To surface, the water is pumped out to reduce the


weight of the submarine.

3.6 Bernoulli's principle.

Venturi Effect

The Venturi effect is the fluid pressure that results when


an incompressible fluid flows through a constricted section
of a pipe.
Experiment 1

Figure above shows that when water flow from left to right, the
water level decreases from left to right. This indicates that, the
water pressure decreases from left to right.

Explanation:
Liquids flow from places with higher pressure to places with
lower pressure.

However, if the experiment is repeated by using a Venturi tube


where the diameter at B is made smaller than A and C as in the
diagram above, the water level become lowest at B.

Explanation:
The pressure at B is the lowest because the liquid flow the
fastest at B. According to Bernoulli's Principle, the faster the
water flow, the lower the water pressure.
Experiment 2

Figure above shows some air is blow through a tube from left to
right. The water level in the capillary tube increases from left to
right.
This indicates that the pressure in the tube decreases from left to
right.

Explanation:
Gases flow from places with higher pressure to places with
lower pressure.

However, if the tube is replaced by a Venturi tube, the water


level become highest at B. This indicates that, the pressure of
the air is the lowest at B.

Explanation:
The pressure at B is the lowest because the gas flow the fastest
at B. According to Bernoulli's Principle, the faster the gas flow,
the lower the gas pressure.
Application of Bernoullis Principle

Aeroplane

1. When a wing in the form of an aerofoil moves in air,


the flow of air over the top travels faster and creates a
region of low pressure. The flow of air below the wing is
slower resulting in a region of higher pressure.

2. The difference between the pressures at the top and


underside of the wing causes a net upward force, called
lift, which helps the plane to take-off.

Sports
In some of the sport such as football, a player can make
the ball move in a curve path by spinning the ball. This
effect can be explained by Bernoulli's Principle.

Insecticide Spray

1. When the plunger is pushed in, the air flows at a high


velocity through a nozzle.

2. The flow of air at high velocity creates a region of low


pressure above the metal tube. The higher pressure of
the atmospheric air acts on the surface of the liquid
insecticide causing it to rise up the metal tube.

3. The insecticide leaves the top of the metal tube


through the nozzle as a fine spray.

Bunsen Burner

1. When the burner is connected to a gas supply, the


gas flows at high velocity through a narrow passage in the
burner, creating a region of low pressure.

2. The outside air, which is at atmospheric pressure, is


drawn in and mixes with the gas.

3. The mixture of gas and air enables the gas to burn


completely to produce a clean, hot, and smokeless flame

Carburetor
A carburetor is a device that blends air and fuel for an
internal combustion engine. Figure above shows how
Bernoulli's principle is applied in a carburetor to mix the air
with the fuel.