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# Pressure is defined force per unit area applied in a

## A force, F, applied normally to the surface with an area, A,

will result in aPRESSURE, P, which can be defined as :

## Pressure is measured in newtons per square metre ( N

m -2 ). The SI unit for pressure is the pascal ( Pa ).

m -2 ).

## 3.2 Understanding pressure in liquids.

Pressure in Liquids

## Pressure in liquid is owing to the weight of the liquid

acting on the surface of any objects in the liquid.
Pressure of a liquid is directly proportional to

o the depth

## Pressure in liquids is not affected by the size or

shape of the object.

## The pressure caused by a liquid and the pressure in

a liquid can be determined by using the equation below:

## Pressure Caused by Liquid

Pressure in Liquid
3.3 Understanding gas pressure and
atmospheric pressure.

Gas Pressure

## Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the

gas molecules as they collide with the surface of an
object.

Atmospheric Pressure

## On the surface of the earth, there is a thick layer of

gas called the atmosphere. The atmosphere consists of
various types of gas called the atmospheric gas.

## The atmospheric gases collide on the surface of the

earth and hence exert a pressure on the surface of the
earth, called the atmospheric pressure.

## The atmospheric pressure can be measured in the

unit of atm, mmHg or Pa. The atmospheric pressure at
sea level is taken to be 1 atm, which is approximately 760
mmHg or 101,000 Pa.
Characteristics of Atmospherics Pressure

## The atmospheric pressure changes accordingly to the

altitude. Altitude is the height above sea level. The greater
the altitude, the lower the atmospheric pressure.

## The atmospheric pressure acts on every object in the

atmosphere. It acts equally in all direction.

## On the surface of the earth, the atmospheric pressure can

be as high as 101,000 Pa.

## The following are the unit used to measure

atmospheric pressure

Pascal (Pa)
o

1 Pa = 1 N/m

Pa)

## 1 mmHg = 1/760 atm (roughly equal to the liquid pressure

exerted by a millimetre of mercury).

o milibar

mmHg.

Syringe

## 1. When the piston is pulled up, the atmospheric pressure

inside the cylinder will decrease.

the syringe.

Lift Pump
Siphon

## Working Mechanism of Siphon

Sucker Hook

When the sucker is pressed into place, the air inside is forced
out. As a result, the pressure inside the sucker become very low.
The sucker is then held in position by the high atmospheric
pressure on the outside surface.

Straw
When a person sucks through the straw, the pressure in the straw
become low. The atmospheric pressure outside which is higher
will force the water into the straw and consequently into the
mouth.

Rubber Sucker

Vacuum Cleaner
3.4 Pascals Principle

## Pascal's principle states that in a confined fluid, an

externally applied pressure is transmitted uniformly in all
directions.

## Pascal's principle is also known as the principle of

transmission of pressure in a liquid.

Hydraulic System
1. A hydraulic system applies Pascal's principle in its
working mechanism. It can be used as a force multiplier.

## 2. In this hydraulic system, a small force, Fl is applied to

the small piston X results in a large force, F2 at the large
piston Y. The pressure, due to the force, F1, is transmitted
by the liquid to the large piston.

F1A1=F2A2

## Change of Oil Level in a Hydraulic System

In the diagram to the left, when piston-X is pressed down,
piston-Y will be push up. The change of the piston levels of the
2 pistons is given by the following equation:

h1A1=h2A2

## In most vehicle, hydraulic system is used in the braking

system, as shown in the figure below.
Usually, a disc brake is used in the front wheel of a car
while a drum brake is used in the back wheel of a car.

## When the brake pedal is pressed, the piston of the

master cylinder applies a pressure on the brake fluid.

## This pressure is transmitted uniformly to each

cylinder at the wheel, cause the pistons at the wheels to
push the brake shoes to press against the surface of the
brake.

## The friction between the brakes and brake shoes

causes the vehicle to slow down and stop

Hydraulic Jack

## Working mechanism of a hydraulic jack.

1. When the handle is pressed down, valve A is closed
whereas valve B is opened. The hydraulic fluid is forced
into the large cylinder and hence pushes the piston
moving upward.

2.

## 3. When the handle is raised, valve B will be closed

while vale A will be opened. Hydraulic fluid from the
buffer tank will be suck into the small cylinder.
4.

lifted up.

## 6. The large piston can be lowered down by releasing

the hydraulic fluid back to the buffer tank through the
release vale.

## 3.5 Archimedes' Principle.

Archimedes Principle

## Archimedes Principle states that when a body is

wholly or partially immersed in a fluid it experiences an
upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

## Upthrust/Buoyant force is an upward force exerted by

a fluid on an object immersed in it.

Mathematically, we write

F=Vg
F = Upthrust/Buoyant Force
= Density of the liquid
V = Volume of the displaced liquid
g = Gravitational field strength

Principle of Floatation

## The principle of floatation states that when an object

floats in a liquid the buoyant force/upthrust that acts on the
object is equal to the weight of the object.
As shown in the figure above, if the weight of the
object (W) = upthrust (F), the object is in balance and
therefore float on the surface of the fluid.

## If the weight of the object > upthrust, the object will

sink into the fluid.

Note

## Displaced volume of fluid = volume of the object that

immerse in the fluid.

into the fluid.

## If weight of the object = upthrust, the object is in

balance and therefore float on the surface of the fluid.

## In order to solve the problem related to object

immerse in water, it's important to know the all
forces acted on the object.

Case 1:
1. The density of the object is lower than the
density of the liquid. The object floats on the
surface of the water.

## Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F=W

Case 2:
1. The density of the object is greater than the density of the
liquid. The object sink to the bottom of the water.

## 2. Lying on the bottom of the water, there is a normal

reaction acted on the object.

F+R=W

Case 3:

## 1. The density of the object is greater than the density of the

liquid. The object is hold by a string so that it does not sink
deeper into the water.

## 1the weight of the object(W)

2the upthrust (F)

F+T=W

Case 4:

## 1. The density of the object is lower than the density of the

liquid. The object is hold by a string so that it does not move up
to the surface of the water.

F=W+T

Plimsoll Line

## The Plimsoll line is an imaginary line marking the

level at which a ship or boat floats in the water.

## It indicates how much load is allowed at different

types of water.

Airship
Air ship is filled with helium gas.

## Helium gas has density lower than the surrounding

air, hence an upthrust which higher than the weight of the
airship can be produced and cause the airship float in the
air.

## Hot Air Balloon

Hot air in the balloon has lower density than the
surrounding air.

## As a result, when the buoyant force produced is

higher than the weight of the balloon, the balloon will start
rising up.

## The altitude of the balloon can be controlled by

varying the temperature of the air in the balloon.

Hydrometers
Hydrometer is used to measure relative density of
liquids.

## How deep the hydrometer sink into the liquid is

affected by the density of the liquid.

## The lower the density of the liquid, the deeper the

hydrometer will sink.

## This is used as the indicator of relative density of a

liquid.

Submarine
A submarine use ballask tank to control its movement
up and down.

## To get submerge, water is pumped into the ballast

tank to increase the weight of the submarine.

## To surface, the water is pumped out to reduce the

weight of the submarine.

Venturi Effect

## The Venturi effect is the fluid pressure that results when

an incompressible fluid flows through a constricted section
of a pipe.
Experiment 1

Figure above shows that when water flow from left to right, the
water level decreases from left to right. This indicates that, the
water pressure decreases from left to right.

Explanation:
Liquids flow from places with higher pressure to places with
lower pressure.

## However, if the experiment is repeated by using a Venturi tube

where the diameter at B is made smaller than A and C as in the
diagram above, the water level become lowest at B.

Explanation:
The pressure at B is the lowest because the liquid flow the
fastest at B. According to Bernoulli's Principle, the faster the
water flow, the lower the water pressure.
Experiment 2

Figure above shows some air is blow through a tube from left to
right. The water level in the capillary tube increases from left to
right.
This indicates that the pressure in the tube decreases from left to
right.

Explanation:
Gases flow from places with higher pressure to places with
lower pressure.

## However, if the tube is replaced by a Venturi tube, the water

level become highest at B. This indicates that, the pressure of
the air is the lowest at B.

Explanation:
The pressure at B is the lowest because the gas flow the fastest
at B. According to Bernoulli's Principle, the faster the gas flow,
the lower the gas pressure.
Application of Bernoullis Principle

Aeroplane

## 1. When a wing in the form of an aerofoil moves in air,

the flow of air over the top travels faster and creates a
region of low pressure. The flow of air below the wing is
slower resulting in a region of higher pressure.

## 2. The difference between the pressures at the top and

underside of the wing causes a net upward force, called
lift, which helps the plane to take-off.

Sports
In some of the sport such as football, a player can make
the ball move in a curve path by spinning the ball. This
effect can be explained by Bernoulli's Principle.

Insecticide Spray

## 1. When the plunger is pushed in, the air flows at a high

velocity through a nozzle.

## 2. The flow of air at high velocity creates a region of low

pressure above the metal tube. The higher pressure of
the atmospheric air acts on the surface of the liquid
insecticide causing it to rise up the metal tube.

## 3. The insecticide leaves the top of the metal tube

through the nozzle as a fine spray.

Bunsen Burner

## 1. When the burner is connected to a gas supply, the

gas flows at high velocity through a narrow passage in the
burner, creating a region of low pressure.

## 2. The outside air, which is at atmospheric pressure, is

drawn in and mixes with the gas.

## 3. The mixture of gas and air enables the gas to burn

completely to produce a clean, hot, and smokeless flame

Carburetor
A carburetor is a device that blends air and fuel for an
internal combustion engine. Figure above shows how
Bernoulli's principle is applied in a carburetor to mix the air
with the fuel.