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Filter Synthesis Approach

Peter Gardner, and Ekasit Nugoolcharoenlap

A feed line, two hairpin resonators, and a rectangular patch are integrated to form the filtering antenna.

The elements together function as a third order bandpass filter with Chebyshev equal ripple response of

0.043 dB at midband frequency of 2.0 GHz. The rectangular patch acts not only as a radiating element,

but also as the last resonator of the bandpass filter. The proposed filtering antenna exhibits good out-of-

band gain suppression, flat in-band gain response, good selectivity at the band edges, and well-shaped

radiation pattern.

1. INTRODUCTION

In wireless communication systems, the antenna and the filter are the key components. While the

antenna transmits and receives signals, the bandpass filter (BPF) selects signals in the operating

band and rejects spurious (out-of-band) signals. Due to the increasing trend towards simplicity and

miniaturization, it is desirable to integrate the filter and the antenna into a single component that

achieves filtering and radiating functions simultaneously, known as filtering antenna filtenna. The

filtenna reduces the pre-filtering requirement and improves the noise performance of the system. Many

filtering antennas, in different topologies, have been designed using filter synthesis approach, in which the

antenna acts as the last resonator in the filter. Filtering antennas have been implemented in different

forms including rectangular patch [1], circular patch [2], patch array [3], -shaped antenna [4], slot

dipole [5], monopole antenna [6], inverted-L antenna [7], Yagi antenna [8], waveguide slot antenna [9],

and dielectric resonator antennas [10].

In this paper, a microstrip antenna with filtering function is developed using the synthesis process of

the bandpass filter. The filtering antenna consists of a feed line, two hairpin resonators, and rectangular

patch. The feed line is coupled to the resonator using proximity coupling method. The proposed

structure functions as a bandpass filter having a bandwidth of 58 MHz centred at a midband frequency

of 2.0 GHz. A three pole Chebyshev lowpass prototype with 0.043 dB bandpass ripple was chosen. The

proposed structure exhibits a well-shaped gain response with good skirt selectivity as the conventional

microstrip bandpass filter. It exhibits a bandwidth of 3.5% (considering the 10 dB matching), high

efficiency and reasonable realized gain of 5 dB.

A microstrip bandpass filter is designed to have a fractional bandwidth of 2.94% (FBW = 0.0294) at a

midband frequency f0 = 2.0 GHz. A three-pole Chebychev lowpass prototype with passband ripple of

Received 14 January 2014, Accepted 11 February 2014, Scheduled 18 February 2014

* Corresponding author: Ghaith Mansour (frings80@yahoo.com).

The authors are with the School of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston,

Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

60 Mansour et al.

0.043 dB is chosen. The lowpass prototype parameters, given for a normalized cut off frequency c = 1,

can be found in the literature [11] as follow: g0 = g4 = 1.0, g1 = g3 = 0.8516, and g2 = 1.1032. Having

obtained the lowpass parameters, the bandpass design parameters can be calculated by:

g0 g1 gn gn+1

Qe1 = Qen = (1)

F BW F BW

F BW

Mi,i+1 = (2)

gi gi+1

where Qe1 and Qen are the external quality factors of the resonators at the input and the output.

Mi,i+1 is the coupling coefficient between the adjacent resonators i and i + 1. The coupling coefficients

are found to be Qe1 = 29, and Mi,i+1 = 0.0303. For microstrip implementation, a dielectric substrate

TRF41 from Taconic R was used. The dielectric constant of the material is 4.1 and the loss tangent is

0.0035. The dielectric thickness is h = 3.04 mm. The ground plane has a width of Wg = 80 mm, and

length of Lg = 85 mm. The microstrip bandpass filter, shown in Figure 1, is designed to have a feed

line with a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 .

Full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations were performed to extract the desired quality factors

and coupling coefficients. All simulations were performed using the 3D EM solver of CST. R Shown in

Figure 2(a), an arrangement to extract the external quality factor of the input/output (I/O) resonators.

The resonator, which is assumed to be lossless in the simulation, is excited at port 1 through 50 coupled

line. The port 2 is very weakly coupled to the resonator which implies that Qe2 = . Figure 2(b) shows

the simulated frequency response for the structure of Figure 2(a) for g = 1.2 mm. The external quality

factor Qe can be calculated directly by dividing the 3 dB bandwidth (f ) and the centre frequency f0

as follows:

f0

Qe = (3)

f

A design curve for Qe against the gap g is shown in Figure 3. The hairpin resonators are approximately

half wavelength at the midband frequency of 2.0 GHz.

The coupling between two adjacent resonators can be extracted using the arrangement of

Figure 4(a). The two coupled resonators are identical. The coupling is controlled using the spacing S.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 145, 2014 61

(a) (b)

Figure 2. (a) An arrangement for extracting the external quality factor; (b) Simulated frequency

response for g = 1.2 mm.

70

60

50

40

Q e

30

20

10

0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

g (mm)

The coupled resonators are very weakly excited by the two ports as arranged. Figure 4(b) shows the

simulated frequency response of the coupled resonators, where S21 denotes the transmission coefficient

S21 between the two ports. The two resonant peaks observed in the simulated response correspond to the

characteristic frequencies f1 and f2 . The coupling coefficient can be extracted using the Equation (4).

Figure 4(c) shows the design curve for the coupling coefficient M against the spacing S. It can be seen

that the coupling decreases as the spacing increases.

f22 f12

Mi,i+1 = (4)

f22 + f12

From the deign curves obtained, all physical dimensions associated with the desired design

parameters, are readily determined, which are g = 1.2 mm, S1 = S2 = 5.2 mm. The I/O resonators are

slightly shortened to compensate the effects of the coupled line and adjacent resonator.

62 Mansour et al.

(a) (b)

0.25

0.20

Coupling Coefficient, M

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

S (mm)

(c)

Figure 4. (a) An arrangement for extracting the coupling coefficient M ; (b) Simulated frequency

response for S = 2 mm; (c) Design curve for the coupling coefficient M .

The proposed filtering antenna is shown in Figure 5. The antenna is designed based on the filter

synthesis process described in the last section. A rectangular patch is used as a radiating element. The

patch replaces the third resonator and the output feed line. In order to preserve the filter characteristic,

the radiation quality factor of the patch must be equal to the external quality factor at the input.

Thus, the energy radiated by the patch (gain response) will be similar to the insertion loss response

of a conventional bandpass filter with minimum insertion loss in the passband (high gain) and high

suppression in the off-band (very low gain).

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 145, 2014 63

-20

-25

-30

S 21(dB)

-35

-40

-45

1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4

Frequency (GHz)

(a) (b)

Figure 6. (a) An arrangement for extracting the radiation quality factor of the patch; (b) Simulated

frequency response.

64 Mansour et al.

(a) (b)

0.12

0.10

Coupling Coefficient M23

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

S2 (mm)

(c)

Figure 7. (a) An arrangement for extracting the coupling coefficient M23 ; (b) Simulated frequency

response for S2 = 2; (c) Design curve for the coupling coefficient M23 .

Figure 6(a) shows an arrangement for extracting the radiation quality factor (Qr ) of the patch. The

simulated frequency response of this structure is shown in Figure 6(b), where S21 is the transmission

coefficient between two ports that are very weakly coupled. Qr can be calculated from the resonant

frequency and the 3-dB bandwidth as given in Equation (3). Qr is computed using this method and

found to be approximately equal to 30. Thus, Qr = Qe1 and the filter requirement of having the same

Q at the two ports is met. Design curves for calculating the radiation Q of rectangular patch were

presented in [12] which gave very close result.

The coupling between the hairpin resonator and the patch can be extracted from EM simulations

using the arrangement of Figure 7(a). The coupling is controlled using the spacing S between the

patch and the resonator. Figure 7(b) shows the typical simulated frequency response of the coupled

resonators. The coupling coefficient can be calculated using the Equation (4). Figure 7(c) shows design

curve for M23 against the spacing S2 . From the design curve, the spacing S2 required to achieve the

desired coupling coefficient M23 is readily determined, which is S2 = 3.2 mm.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 145, 2014 65

Simulations were performed using the commercially available 3D EM solver of CST. R The proposed

structures were fabricated and measured using an HP8722D vector network analyzer. The simulated

and measured frequency responses of the filter are shown in Figure 8. The measured and simulated

midband frequencies are 2.03 and 2.0 GHz respectively. The simulated midband insertion loss is 0.1 dB

whereas the measured one is 2.5 dB. The simulated and measured 3-dB passbands are 92 and 80 MHz

respectively. The higher insertion loss is mainly due to conductor and dielectric losses. In addition, the

SMA connectors introduce small loss.

0

0

-10

-10

-20

Magnitude (dB)

S11 (dB)

-30

-20

-40

S11 (measured)

Measured

S11 (simulated) -30

-50 Simulated

S21 (measured)

S21 (simulated)

-60 -40

1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2

Frequency (GHz) Frequency (GHz)

of the hairpin PBF of Figure 1 with g = 1.2 mm, performance of the filtering antenna of Figure 4

and S1 = S2 = 5.2 mm. with S2 = 3.2 mm.

90 90

0

0

120 60 120 60

-5

-5

-10 -10

-15

-20 -20

-25 -25

0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0

-25 -25

-20 -20

-15 -15

210 330 210 330

-10 -10

-5

-5

240 0 300 240 300

0

270 270

H cross 2.0 GHz (measured) E cross 2.0 GHz (measured)

H co 2.0 GHz (simulated) E co 2.0 GHz (simulated)

H cross 2.0 GHz (simulated) E cross 2.0 GHz (simulated)

(a) (b)

Figure 10. The normalized simulated and measured radiation pattern: (a) H (xz) plane; (b) E (yz)

plane.

66 Mansour et al.

The simulated and measured reflection coefficient of the filtering antenna is shown in Figure 9.

The proposed structure exhibits filter-like frequency response with three reflection zeros observed in the

S11 result. The measured and simulated midband frequencies are 2.03 and 2.0 GHz respectively. The

frequency shift is due to the dielectric constant of the material which has a tolerance of 0.15. The

simulated 10 dB bandwidth is 3.64% whereas the measured one is 3.5%.

The simulated and measured radiation pattern of the proposed filtering antenna are shown in

Figure 10. The antenna exhibits well-shaped radiation pattern with cross polarization levels below

15 dB. The antenna maintains the same radiation pattern within the operating bandwidth with a

maximum directivity in the broadside direction (+Z).

Figure 11 shows the simulated and measured realized gain of the proposed antenna in the

broadside direction (+Z). In order to demonstrate the filtering capabilities of the proposed antenna,

its performance is compared with a conventional patch antenna printed on the same substrate. It can

be seen that the proposed antenna exhibits filtering functions with suppressed out-of-band gain, flat

in-band gain, and good skirt selectivity at the band edges. The proposed antenna has slightly less in-

band gain due to the losses associated with the coupled resonators. The fabricated prototype is shown

in Figure 12.

10

0

Realized Gain (dBi)

-10

-20

filtering microstrip antenna (simulated)

filtering microstrip antenna (measured)

-30

1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4

Frequency (GHz)

Figure 11. The simulated and measured realized Figure 12. The proposed filtering antenna.

gain of the proposed antenna vs conventional

antenna.

4. CONCLUSION

A novel filtering microstrip antenna is proposed. The design process is based on filter synthesis approach.

A microstrip filter is developed into an antenna by replacing the last resonator with a radiating patch.

Thus, the structure combines filtering and radiating functions simultaneously. The proposed structure

exhibits good out-of-band gain suppression, flat in-band gain, and good skirt selectivity at the band

edges. The proposed structure can help to reduce the size and cost of the communication system by

combining two components into one.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank their colleagues in the Antenna and Applied Electromagnetics

Laboratory (AAEL) at the University of Birmingham for their valuable contributions and support.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 145, 2014 67

REFERENCES

1. Queudet, F., I. Pele, B. Froppier, Y. Mahe, and S. Toutain, Integration of pass-band filters in

patch antennas, Proc. 32nd Eur. Microw. Conf., 685688, 2002.

2. Abunjaileh, A. I., I. C. Hunter, and A. H. Kemp, A circuit-theoretic approach to the design of

quadruple-mode broadband microstrip antennas, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 56,

No. 4, 896900, Apr. 2008.

3. Lin, C.-K. and S.-J. Chung, A filtering microstrip antenna array, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory

Tech., Vol. 59, No. 11, 28562863, Nov. 2011.

4. Wu, W.-J., Y.-Z. Yin, S.-L. Zuo, Z.-Y. Zhang, and J.-J. Xie, A new compact filter-antenna

for modern wireless communication systems, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters,

Vol. 10, 11311134, 2011.

5. Oda, S., S. Sakaguchi, H. Kanaya, R. Pokharel, and K. Yoshida, Electrically small superconducting

antennas with bandpass filters, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., Vol. 17, No. 2, 878881, Jun. 2007.

6. Chuang, C. T. and S. J. Chung, New printed filtering antenna with selectivity enhancement,

Proc. 39th Eur. Microw. Conf., Vol. 9, 747750, 2009.

7. Chuang, C.-T. and S.-J. Chung, Synthesis and design of a new printed filtering antenna, IEEE

Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 59, No. 3, 10361042, Mar. 2011.

8. Wang, Z. P., P. S. Hall, and P. Gardner, Yagi antenna with frequency domain filtering

performance, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium APSURSI, 1

2, Jul. 2012.

9. Yang, Y. and M. J. Lancaster, Waveguide slot antenna with integrated filters, 32 European Space

Agency Workshop, 2010.

10. Lim, E. H. and K. W. Leung, Use of the dielectric resonator antenna as a filter resonator, IEEE

Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 1, 510, Jan. 2008.

11. Hong, J.-S. and M. J. Lancaster, Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, John Wiley

& Sons, New York, USA, 2001.

12. James, J. R., P. S. Hall, and C. Wood, Microstrip Antenna: Theory and Design, Peter Pereginus,

London, 1981.

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