beee ist year lab manual cu

© All Rights Reserved

26 views

BEEE Lab Manual

beee ist year lab manual cu

© All Rights Reserved

- expt 3
- Lab _3 Ohms Law
- Exp 1 Measuring Resistance Using VA Method 081005
- 60GB, 80GB PS3 - Service Manual (5th Edition)
- Final Radar ultrasonic
- meters reading.pdf
- topic_2-1f37518
- 988826208kdl-32ex400
- Multisim Digital Primer
- Sony HCD-MDX10 Service Manual
- current_probe_adaptor_for_dmm___oscilloscope[1]
- CPC Tools August12
- MaxiScope Usermanual - V1.00
- Low Level Measurements handbook
- kdl-26m4000
- status of receipt of testing equipments
- Unit2l3s - Multimeters - 30-04-01
- Procedure to Change Input Voltage for Siemens ALM 840D
- ALAT PLTS.pdf
- Desc Eclectronic Tech

You are on page 1of 45

Experiment No: 1

measure current, voltage and power in AC/DC circuits.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Digital multimeter, resistors,variable D.C supply , multimeter probes, diodes, ICs, Transistor,

LED.

THEORY:

Multimeter is common multipurpose instrument used to measure electrical quantities in a

circuit. A Multimeter used to check AC or DC supply, Resistances, small amount of current, continuity

and various electrical components. There are major differences between the analog and digital

multimeter. Digital Multimeter offers very automatic range and easy to read display.

DIAGRAM:

Page 2 of 45

bulb, variable resistance

1. Continuity testing:

a). Turn the function selector switch from off position to buzzer position.

b). Insert black lead to the common jack and red lead to the V jack.

c). Connect the device between red and black leads.

d). Multimeter generates the continuous sound (Beep).

a). Connect the resistance to be measured between red and black leads.

b). Use function key for switching to the measurement range.

a). Multimeter is always connected in parallel to measure voltage and always connected in series to

measure current.

b). To connect multimeter in parallel in circuit .Connect red lead to positive potential and black to negative

potential.

c). Take reading on the appropriate scale.

a). When a diode is connected in forward biased i.e. anode of diode is connected to red and cathode is

connected to black lead.

b). When a diode is connected in reversed biased i.e. anode of diode is connected to black and cathode is

connected to red lead.

Page 3 of 45

LED

DC battery (V)

AC source (V)

AC current(A)

DC current(A)

Resistance (ohm)

Transistor

RESULT: Readings of current, voltage and power has measured by the multimeter.

VIVA VOCE:

2. List the advantages of digital multimeter over analog multimeter.

3. While selecting the range for measurement of voltage, current or resistance with digital

multimeter, what points should be considered.

4. Out of two viz analog and digital multimeter which is quicker for measuring votage , current or

resistance.

5. Explain why it is preferable to start measuring a given quantity by first selecting a higher range.

6. What is importance of colours coding resistor?

7. In tolerance band how many colors are used?

8. What does the color bands signify?

9. How we can remember the sequence of color?

10. What method is used for finding resistance?

11. Capacitor is active device or passive device?

12. Capacitor store which type of energy?

13. Capacitor allows flowing which type of current in it?

14. What do you mean by a Diode?

15. What are applications of DMM?

Page 4 of 45

ANNEXURE

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 5 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

AIM: To verify Ohms Law and study its limitations

APPARATUS REQUIRED: 30V dc supply, Digital Multimeter as an Ammeter , Digital Multimeter

as a Voltmeter, Resistance.

circuit. .A Multimeter used to check AC or DC supply, Resistances, small amount of current,

continuity and various electrical components. There are major differences between the analog and

digital multimeter. Digital Multimeter offers very automatic range and easy to read display.

: If I is the current flowing through a conductor of resistance R across which a potential difference V

is applied then according to ohms law

I V or I=V/R

Where V in volts, R is in ohms, I is in amperes and 1/R is the coefficient of proportionality.

As long as physical states i.e. temperature, pressure etc. remain the same the current flowing through a

conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across its ends.

LIMITATIONS:

Ohms law cannot be applied to circuits consisting of electronics tubes or transistors because such

elements are unilateral i.e. they behave in different way when the direction of flow of current is

reversed as in case of a diode. Ohms law also cannot be applied to circuits consisting of non-linear

elements such as powdered carbon, thyroid, electric arc etc.

PROCEDURE:

2) By varying Rh voltage across R will change, record voltmeter and ammeter readings.

3) Take at least 5 readings. Calculate the ratio of V and I for each reading and tabulate as in the

observation table.

4) Draw graphs of I versus V for different value of Resistance.

5) Comment about the nature of the graphs drawn by you.

Page 6 of 45

PRECAUTIONS:

1) Switch off the supply first and then start making connections.

2) Connections should be neat and tight.

3) Do not touch the bare conductors or terminals without switching off the supply.

4) Adjust the zero error of the instrument.

5) Meters of suitable range should be used.

6) After the completion of experiment switch of the supply.

DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No Voltage (V) volts Current (I) Amp Calculate value of R=(V/I) Ohm

1

2

3

4

5

Page 7 of 45

The ratio of V and I for any set of readings is constant and is equal to R. This relationship, (V/I) = R,

or V=IR was first established by a scientist ohm and is Known as Ohms Law.

You will observe that the nature of the graphs is straight lines passing through the origin having

different slopes. For higher values of R, the slopes of the graphs will move towards x axis

VIVA VOCE:

1. State Ohms Law?

2. What does I V and V I represent?

3. What do mean by resistance?

4. If the value of the resistance provided by the conductor is increased then the slope of I versus

V Curve will shift towards which axes?

5. Is the Ohms Law is applicable for capacitor or inductor circuit?

6. What will happen to the current if we stretch the conductor to the double of its length?

7. If the surrounding temperature is increased then what will happen to the resistance of the

conductor made of copper?

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 8 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

AIM: To verify Kirchhoff Current Law and study its limitations

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No Equipment Range Quantity

1 Variable resistor 100 Ohms 3

2 Digital Ammeter 0-2A 3

3 Dc supply 30V 1

4 Digital Voltmeter 0-30v 1

THEORY: Node or junction in an electrical circuit is a point at which the number of branches meets.

Kirchhoffs First law states that in a dc circuit the algebraic sum of all the currents at a junction is

zero. The word algebraic indicates that the direction of currents are taken into account .The

convention for the direction adopted for the current is that all currents flowing towards the junction

are considered positive while the currents flowing away from the junction are taken as negative or

vice-versa.

In the given figure there is a junction P at which 5 branches are connected the magnitude and

direction of currents flowing in various branches are shown in figure. According to the convention

followed I1, I2, I5 have positive sign and I3 and I4 have negative sign or vice-versa.

Applying Kirchhoffs first law it can be written mathematically as

I1+I2+I5-I3-I4=0 or I1+I2+I5=I3+I4

or

Total incoming current = Total outgoing current

The above statement is true as the current cannot accumulate at the junction therefore whatever

current flows into a junction must flow out of the junction

Page 9 of 45

PROCEDURE:

1 Switch off the power supply.

2 Make circuit connections as shown in figure.

3 Switch ON the supply.

2. Adjust R1, R2, and R3, to some suitable value and note down the current readings of A1,

A2, and A3.

3. Record five sets of such readings by adjusting R1, R2, and R3.

4. Tabulate the observations.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Switch off the power supply first and then start making connections.

2. Make the connections as per circuit diagram.

3. Connections should be right & tight.

4. Switch On the supply after making the connections.

5. Note the readings carefully.

6. Switch off the supply after the experiment is over.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Page 10 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

LIMITATIONS:

Kirchhoffs current law and Kirchhoffs voltage law both depend on the lumped element model being

applicable to the circuit in question. When the model is not applicable, the laws do not apply.

Kirchhoffs current law, in its usual form, is dependent on the assumption that current flows only in

conductors and that whenever current flows into one end of a conductor it immediately flows out the

other end. This is not a safe assumption for high-frequency AC circuits, where the lumped element

model is no longer applicable. It is often possible to improve the applicability of Kirchhoffs current

law by considering "parasitic capacitances" distributed along the conductors. Significant violations of

Kirchhoffs current law can occur even at 60Hz, which is not a very high frequency.

In other words, Kirchhoffs current law is valid only if the total electric charge, , remains constant in

the region being considered. In practical cases this is always so when Kirchhoffs current law is

applied at a geometric point. When investigating a finite region, however, it is possible that the charge

density within the region may change. Since charge is conserved, this can only come about by a flow

of charge across the region boundary. This flow represents a net current, and Kirchhoffs current law

is violated.

RESULT:

In this experiment it is proved that the algebraic sum of all the three branches current meeting at a

junction is equal to zero. Therefore, the Kirchhoffs current law is verified

VIVA-VOCE

1. State Kirchhoffs Current Law ?

2. Kirchhoffs current law depends on the law of ?

3. Can Kirchhoffs current law be applied to AC circuits?

4. What are the applications of Kirchhoffs current law?

5. Can we apply Kirchhoffs current law in non-linear circuit?

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 11 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

AIM: To verify Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL) and study its

limitations

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Apparatus Range Quantity

1 DC Voltage Source 0-30 V DC 1

2 Rheostat 100 Ohms 2

3 Digital Ammeter 2A 1

4 Digital Voltmeter 30V 3

THEORY: Take a simple circuit ABCD as shown in figure with one voltage source E1 and with one

resistance R.

Figure: Circuit with; (a) One source of emf, (B) with two source of emf

In the circuit due to voltage source Ea current I, flows and produces a voltage drop IR across the

resistance R. According to Kirchhoffs second law, the algebraic sum of two voltages should be zero

to find the algebraic we must determine the sign of the voltages and for this we follow the following

convention.

1. We start from any one point on the closed circuit, move in the clockwise direction and finish

at the same point.

2. If we advanced from lower to higher potential the voltage is given a positive sign and vice

versa.

Following these two conventions in the circuit we start from point A and move in clockwise direction.

From A to B , E is given a positive sign as we are moving from negative to positive sign i.e from

lower to higher potential, B to C potential is zero, C to D the voltage drop IR is ve as we are moving

from higher to lower potential and B to A the voltage drop is zero. Since the algebraic sum of voltages

should be zero. We can write E+ (-IR) = 0 or E=IR.

Page 12 of 45

Now similarly we can apply Kirchhoffs second law to more complex circuits having more than one

voltage source and a number of resistances as shown in figure. In this circuit ABCDA, let the current I

due to E1 and E2. We start from point A moving in a clockwise direction: From A to B E1 is +ve;

From B to C, I*(R1+R2) is ve ; From C to D ,E2 is ve and From D to A voltage drop is

zero.Therefore the algebraic sum E1-(IR1+IR2- E2) = 0 OR E1= I( IR1+IR2- E2).

Thus we can find the algebraic sum of different voltages in a closed circuit and hence can verify

Kirchhoffs second law

PROCEDURE:

1. Make the circuit connections as shown in figure.

2. Choose Voltmeters and ammeters of appropriate range

3. Adjust V1 to say 12V respectively and note down the readings of V2 and V3.

4. Adjust V1 to other values and note down the readings of V2 and V3.

5. Tabulate your observations.

6. Find the relation between four voltages given by V1, V2 and V3.

7. .

8. On the basis of Observations in this experiment draw conclusions for the relationship of

different voltages in a closed circuit.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Switch off the power supply and then start making the connection.

2. Make the connections as per circuit diagram.

3. Connections should be right & tight.

4. Switch ON the power supply after making the connections

5. Note the readings carefully.

6. Switch off the power supply after the experiment is over.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Page 13 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Calculated

S. No V1( volts ) V2( volts ) V3( volts ) value of Error

V1-V2-V3=0

1

2

3

4

5

LIMITATIONS:

Kirchhoffs voltage law is based on the assumption that there is no fluctuating magnetic field linking

the closed loop. This is not a safe assumption for high-frequency (short-wavelength) AC circuits. In

the presence of a changing magnetic field the electric field is not a conservative vector field. Therefore

the electric field cannot be the gradient of any potential. That is to say, the line integral of the electric

field around the loop is not zero, directly contradicting Kirchhoffs voltage law .

It is often possible to improve the applicability of Kirchhoffs voltage law by considering "parasitic

inductances" (including mutual inductances) distributed along the conductors. These are treated as

imaginary circuit elements that produce a voltage drop equal to the rate-of-change of the flux.

RESULT:

After performing the experiment it is proved that the algebraic sum of all the supply voltages and

potential drop in passive elements in a closed loop is equal to zero. Hence the Kirchhoffs voltage law

is verified.

VIVA-VOCE:

1. State Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

2. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law depends on .?

3. KVL can be applied on both AC and DC circuit. True or False?

4. What are the applications of Kirchhoffs voltage law ?

5. What is the difference between a network and a circuit?

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 14 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 3

circuit.

A APPARATUS REQUIRED:

transformer 0-270V, 15A

4 Ammeter AC 0-1/2 A 1

5 Voltmeter AC 300V 1

THEORY:

Power in ac circuit is given as

P=VIcos watt

P= Power input to load circuit

V= Voltage across the load

I = Current through the load

cos= Load power factor

Page 15 of 45

For a purely resistive circuit the AC current flowing through the resistor varies in proportion to the applied

voltage across it following the same sinusoidal pattern. As the supply frequency is common to both the voltage

and current, their phasors will also be common resulting in the current being "in-phase" with the voltage, (

= 0 ). In other words, there is no phase difference between the current and the voltage when using an AC

resistance as the current will achieve its maximum, minimum and zero values whenever the voltage reaches its

maximum, minimum and zero values as shown below. By measuring the power input to the circuit with the

help of a wattmeter and hence the power factor angle can also be calculated as:

Page 16 of 45

REQUIREMENT: Single phase AC supply ,Single phase Variac or auto transformer Wattmeter AC

Ammeter AC Variable resistance/Rheostat Connecting wires

PROCEDURE:

1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram shown in figure 1 and 2.

2. Take readings of Voltmeter, ammeter and the wattmeter.

3. Vary the value of R and take another set of readings.

4. Calculate power factor from readings in both the cases using equation no.3.

5. Draw phasor diagram by choosing a voltage scale and measure the power factor angle for both

the sets of readings.

(A) Reading(W)

(V) Cos = [W/(VI)] = Cos-1[W/(VI)]

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Dont switch on power supply without concerning respected teachers.

2. All connections should be tight and correct.

3. Variac must be kept at minimum potential point before starting.

Page 17 of 45

5. Be as neat a possible. Keep the work area and workbench clear of items not used in

the experiment.

RESULT: The phase angle between current and voltage is approx zero hence (Cos = 1) power factor is

unity.

VIVA VOCE:

1. Draw a phasor diagram to show the phase relationship between the measured voltage and current.

2. If VIcos is called active power in an ac circuit, state what stands for VIsin .

3. In ac circuit which power has high value- apparent power or real power?

4. What is Power Factor?

5. How to measure power factor?

6. What causes Power Factor to change?

7. Why do need Power factor correction?

8. What are Power Factor Correction capacitors?

9. What is impedance triangle?

10. What is voltage triangle?

11. What is power triangle?

12. What are the units of real power , reactive power and apparent power?

13. What is and what is its units?

14. Define cycle and angular frequency?

15. State the advantages of AC over DC Supply.

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 18 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 4

to determine the power factor of the circuit

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sr. No. Description Range Quantity

transformer

3 Wattmeter 300V, 5A 1

4 Ammeter 0-1/2 A 1

5 Voltmeter 150V 1

THEORY:

An AC series circuit consisting of a resistor and an inductor as shown in figure1. I is the current

flowing through the resistor and the inductor. The voltage drop across the resistor and the inductor are

VR and VL respectively. The phasor sum of these two voltages will be equal to the applied voltage V

as shown in figure 2. In a resistive circuit the voltage and current are in phase. In a pure inductive

circuit the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees as shown in figure 3.

Page 19 of 45

As I is common for both the resistor and the inductor in the circuit shown in figure 1. The current I can

be taken as the reference phasor as shown in figure 3. Voltage drop across the resistor VR is shown in

phase with the current I. Voltage drop across the inductor VL is shown leading the current phasor by

90 degrees. The phasor sum of VR and VL is shown equal to the total applied voltage V. The angle

between the applied voltage V and current I is . The power factor of the circuit is Cos. Current lags

the voltage by an angle as shown in figure 3. By measuring the power input to the circuit with the

help of a wattmeter and hence the power factor angle can also be calculated as:

W =VI Cos ----------------------------------- eq. (i)

or Power factor, Cos = [W/(VI)] ---------------- eq. (ii)

Therefore, = Cos-1[W/(VI)] ---------------- eq.(iii)

PROCEDURE:

1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram shown in figure 4.

2. Take readings of Voltmeter, ammeter and the wattmeter.

3. Vary the value of R and take another set of readings.

4. Calculate power factor from readings in both the cases using equation no.3.

5. Draw phasor diagram by choosing a voltage scale and measure the power factor angle for both

the sets of readings.

6. Compare the calculated value of power factor with the one obtained from the phasor diagram.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. While making the interconnections do not keep the power supply ON.

2. All connections should be tight.

Page 20 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Sr.No. Voltage Current Wattmeter Power Factor Phase Angle

(V) (A) Reading (W) Cos = [W/(VI)] = Cos-1[W/(VI)]

1

2

3

4

RESULT & DISCUSSION: The angle between voltage and current changes with the variation in

load . The phase angle obtained always is less than unity (in case of R-L or L load).

VIVA VOCE:

1. What is power factor?

2. Draw the phasor diagram of RL circuit.

3. Why are inductor uselly iron core.

4. What is the value of power factor for purely resistive and inductive circuit.

5. What is the min and max value of power factor

H.O.D: Dr Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Intentionally Left Blank Page 21 of 45

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 22 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO- 5th

Linear Variable Displacement Transducer (LVDT).

APPARATUS: Linear Variable Differential Transformer kit, CRO and connecting leads.

THEORY: LVDT is used to translate linear motion into electrical signal. As per construction it is

fitted upon top of the panel, has two identical secondaries and one primary. The actuator is moved far

and from w.r.t. centre through a micrometer attachment. The construction is fitted in acrylic cage to

secure it from dust. The connections are made internally and brought out upon panel for observation

of electrical signals. The LVDT has range upto +10mm which is extended upto +15mm.

Page 23 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the instrument into mains and switch ON the power supply.

2. Connect CRO one channel (ground lead with ground) across the primary of LVDT sockets.

Connect other channel with secondary output.

3. Adjust micrometer to read zero on its scale. Then move on either side.

4. Note down the reading and also note down mm scale. Now move LVDT shaft with help of

knob in steps and note the readings.

5. Take atleast five readings on each side.

6. Plot graph by taking scale readings along X axis and reading on display along Y axis. The

graph should be almost straight line, which proves linearity of LVDT.

Page 24 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

RESULT: The graph obtained is a straight line. Hence output of Linear Variable Differential

Transformer is linear corresponding to movement of the shaft.

H.O.D: Dr Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 25 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 6

diode.

APPARATUS:

S.NO Apparatus Type Range Quantity

1. PN Junction IN4001 1

Diode

2. Resistance 1k ohm 1

3. Regulated power (0 30V) 1

supply

4. Ammeter (0-30)mA, (0- 1

3)A

5. Voltmeter ((0-30)V 1

6. Bread board and 1

connecting wires

THEORY:

The P-N junction supports uni-directional current flow. If +ve terminal of the input supply

is connected to anode (P-side) and ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode (N- side),

then diode is said to be forward biased. In this condition the height of the potential barrier at the

junction is lowered by an amount equal to given forward biasing voltage. Both the holes from p-side

and electrons from n-side cross the junction simultaneously and constitute a forward current ( injected

minority current due to holes crossing the junction and entering N-side of the diode, due to electrons

crossing the junction and entering P-side of the diode). Assuming current flowing through the diode to

be very large, the diode can be approximated as short-circuited switch. If ve terminal of the input

supply is 2 connected to anode (p-side) and +ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode

(n-side) then the diode is said to be reverse biased. In this condition an amount equal to reverse

biasing voltage increases the height of the potential barrier at the junction. Both the holes on p-side

and electrons on n-side tend to move away from the junction thereby increasing the depleted region.

However the process cannot continue indefinitely, thus a small current called reverse saturation

current continues to flow in the diode. This small current is due to thermally generated carriers.

PROCEDURE:

Forward Biased Condition:

1. Connect the PN Junction diode in forward bias i.eAnode is connected to positive of the power

supply and cathode is connected to negative of the power supply .

2. Use a Regulated power supply of range (0-30)V and a series resistance of 1k.

3. For various values of forward voltage (Vf) note down the corresponding values of forward

current(If).

Page 26 of 45

1. Connect the PN Junction diode in Reverse bias i.e; anode is connected to negative of the power

supply and cathode is connected to positive of the power supply.

2. For various values of reverse voltage (Vr ) note down the corresponding values of reverse current

( Ir ).

PRECAUTIONS:

1. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. This may lead to damage of the

diode.

2. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram.

3. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the

circuit diagram.

DIAGRAM:

Page 27 of 45

OBSERVATION :

FORWARD BIASED:

1.

2.

3.

4.

REVERSE BIASED:

S.NO REVERSE VOLTAGE (V) REVERSE CUREENT(ma)

1.

2.

3.

4.

Graph ( instructions)

1. Take a graph sheet and divide it into 4 equal parts. Mark origin at the center of the graph sheet.

2. Now mark +ve x-axis as Vf -ve x-axis as Vr +ve y-axis as If -ve y-axis as Ir.

3. Mark the readings tabulated for diode forward biased condition in first Quadrant and diode reverse

biased condition in third Quadrant.

RESULT: The static and dynamic resistances of the PN Junction Diode are calculated from the

forward and reverse bias Characteristics

VIVA VOCE:

1. What is the need for doping?

2. How depletion region is formed in the PN junction?

3. What is leakage current?

4. What is break down voltage?

5. What is an ideal diode? How does it differ from a real diode?

6. What is the effect of temperature in the diode reverse characteristics?

7. What is cut-in or knee voltage? Specify its value in case of Ge or Si?

8. What are the difference between Ge and Si diode.

9. What is the capacitance formed at forward biasing?

10. What is the relationship between depletion width and the concentration of impurities?

H.O.D: Dr Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 28 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 7

AIM: To study and verify the truth table of logic gates.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Logic gates (IC) trainer kit.

Connecting patch chords.

IC 7400, IC 7408, IC 7432, IC 7406, IC 7402, IC 7404, IC 7486

THEORY:

The basic logic gates are the building blocks of more complex logic circuits. These logic gates

perform the basic Boolean functions, such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, Inversion Exclusiv-OR,

Exclusive-NOR. Fig. below shows the circuit symbol, Boolean function, and truth. It is seen from the

Fig that each gate has one or two binary inputs, A and B, and one binary output, C. The small circle on

the output of the circuit symbols designates the logic complement. The AND, OR, NAND, and NOR

gates can be extended to have more than two inputs. A gate can be extended to have multiple inputs if

the binary operation it represents is commutative and associative.

These basic logic gates are implemented as small-scale integrated circuits (SSICs) or as part of

more complex medium scale (MSI) or very large-scale (VLSI) integrated circuits. Digital IC gates are

classified not only by their logic operation, but also the specific logic-circuit family to which they

belong. Each logic family has its own basic electronic circuit upon which more complex digital

circuits and functions are developed. The following logic families are the most frequently used.

PROCEDURE:

1. Check the components for their working.

2. Insert the appropriate IC into the IC base.

3. Make connections as shown in the circuit diagram.

4. Provide the input data via the input switches and observe the output on output LEDs.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Connections should be right & tight.

2. Always take accurate reading.

3. Meters used should be without error.

4. Be alert while doing practical.

5. Never avoid short circuit & loose connection.

6. Never exceed the permissible value of current, Voltage and power of any instruments.

7. Check all the connections before switch on the power supply.

Page 29 of 45

DIAGRAM:

VIVA VOCE:

1. Which are the universal gates and why are they so called?

2. Which are basic logic gates?

3. Which gate gives compliment of input?

4. What is the output of NAND gate at high inputs?

5. What is the outputs of NOR gate at high inputs?

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 30 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO-8th

AIM: To verify the voltage and current relations in star and delta

connected systems.

APPPARTUS REQUIRED:

1 3 A.C supply 415 Volts ---

2 3 balanced load(Squirrel cage induction 415 V,2.25Kw,4.6 1

motor) A,1440rpm

4 D.O.L Starter 15 Amps, 415 volts 1

5 Ammeter A.C 0-2.5/5 A 2

6 Voltmeter A.C 0-250/500Volts 2

THEORY:

Line current (IL) =Phase current (Iph)

Line current (IL) =3 Phase current (Iph)

Page 31 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

2. Get the connections checked by the teacher in charge.

3. Switch on the supply through TPIC switch.

4. Start the 3 induction motor through D.O.L starter.

5. Note down the readings of voltmeter and ammeter and fill them in observation table.

6. Make the connections as per delta circuit diagram.

7. Get the connections checked by the teacher in charge.

8. Repeat the same procedure as in case of star connection and note down the readings.

9. Switch off the supply and disconnect the connection.

Page 32 of 45

voltage(VL) Voltage current(IL) current (Iph)

(Vph)

Star

Delta

PRECAUTIONS:

2. Always take accurate reading.

3. Meters used should be without error.

4. Be alert while doing practical.

5. Always avoid short circuit & loose connection.

6. Never exceed the permissible value of current, Voltage and power of any instruments.

7.Check all the connections before switch on the power supply.

Line voltage (VL) =3 X Phase voltage (Vph)

Line current (IL) =Phase current (Iph)

Line voltage (VL) =Phase voltage (Vph)

Line current (IL) =3 X Phase current (Iph)

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 33 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO-9th

capacitance, zener diode , Transistor.

THEORY: There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to

convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for

electronic circuits and other devices.A power supply can by broken down into

a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function. For example a

5V regulated supply:

DIAGRAM:

Page 34 of 45

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

RESULT: The circuit made for regulated power supply is showing _____________.

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 35 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO-10th

ac supply and to determine the relationship between R.M.S and average

value of rectified voltage.

APPARATUS:

0-20V(DC)

5 CRO -- 1

Page 36 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure 1

THEORY:

In case of bridge rectifier circuit as shown in fig.2, diodes D1 & D2 conduct during positive

half & diodes D3 & D4 conduct during negative half cycles. This current flows through the load only

in one direction i.e. from A to B during both the half cycles. This is called full-wave rectification.

The inductive coil L provides heavy oppositions to ac ripples (Xl = 1/ 2f L) & blocks them

whereas, capacitors C provides easy path to ac ripples (Xc =1/ 2f C) & by pass them. Thus a smooth

or pure dc is available across the load terminals AB.

v = Vm sin t

Vm = 2 Vrms

In full wave rectification

Vdc = 2Vm / = 0.38 Vm

Page 37 of 45

PROCEDURE:

1. Make connections as shown in figure2.

2. Switch on the supply through variac and fix up the input voltage around say 10 to 20 volts taking

care that the rated voltage of the rectifier is not exceeded.

3. Record in the observation table the reading of the voltmeter (V1). Observe the peak value of the

rectifier output voltage on the CRO .

4. Repeat step No 3 for suitable voltages and note the observations in the table.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No Input Output Output Voltage Em from Calculated Calculated

Voltage in in the C.R.O Eav (V) (Eav)

Voltage(V1) Voltmeter (V1) Voltmeter(V2) (V)

Volts

Calculated Eav and Erms for each set of observations and tabulate the values. Compare the calculated

values of average and r.m.s voltages with those observed in the moving coil and moving iron

instruments.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. While making the interconnections do not keep the power supply ON.

2. All connections should be tight.

RESULT: The wave shape s have been verified.

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 38 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO-11th

Objective: To observe sine wave, square wave, triangular wave and ramp waveforms on the C.R.O.

and to measure amplitude and frequency of the waveforms.

Theory: C.R.O. (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) is the instrument which is used to observe signal

waveforms. Signals are displayed in time domain i.e. variation in amplitude of the signal with respect

to time is plotted on the CRO screen. X-axis represents time and Y-axis represents amplitude. It is

used to measure amplitude, frequency and phase of the waveforms. It is also used to observe shape of

the waveform. C.R.O. is useful for troubleshooting purpose. It helps us to find out gain of amplifier,

test oscillator circuits. We can measure amplitude and frequency of the waveforms at the different test

points in our circuit. Thus, it helps us for fault finding procedure.

Latest digital storage oscilloscope display voltage and frequency directly on the LCD and does not

require any calculations. It can also store waveform for further analysis. The oscilloscope has a time

base, which generates the correct voltage to supply the cathode ray tube to deflect this part at a

constant time dependent rate. The signal to be view is fed to you vertical amplifier, which increases

the potential of the input signal to a level that will provide a usable deflection of the electron beam. To

synchronize the horizontal deflection the vertical input, such that the horizontal deflection starts at the

same point of the input vertical signal each time it sweeps, a synchronizing or triggering circuit is

used. This circuit is the link between the vertical input and the horizontal time base.

Page 39 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect function generator output at the input of C.R.O. at channel 1 or at channel

2

2. Select proper channel i.e. if signal is connected to channel 1 select CH1 and if signal

is connected to channel 2 select CH2

3. Adjust Time /Div knob to get sufficient time period displacement of the wave on the

CRO screen.

4. With fine tuning of time/Div make the waveform steady on screen.

5. Use triggering controls if waveform is not stable

6. Keep volt/div knob such that waveform is visible on the screen without clipping

7. Measure P-P reading along y-axis. This reading multiplied with volt/div gives peak to

peak amplitude of the ac i/p wave.

8. Measure horizontal division of one complete cycle. This division multiplied by

time/div gives time period of the i/p wave.

9. Calculate frequency using formula f = 1/T.

10. Note down your readings in the observation table.

Page 40 of 45

PRECAUTIONS:

1) Connections should be neat and tight.

2) Make the connections according to the circuit diagram. Power supply should be switched off.

3) Handle the CRO carefully.

4) Note the readings carefully.

CALCULATIONS:

.

Peak-peak voltage is twice the peak voltage (amplitude). When reading an oscilloscope trace it is

usual to measure peak-peak voltage.

Time period is the time taken for the signal to complete one cycle. It is measured in seconds (s), but

time periods tend to be short so milliseconds (ms) and microseconds (s) are often used. 1ms = 0.001s

and 1s = 0.000001s.

Frequency is the number of cycles per second. It is measured in hertz (Hz), but frequencies tend to be

high so kilohertz (kHz) and megahertz (MHz) are often used.

1kHz = 1000Hz and 1MHz = 1000000Hz.

Frequency = 1/T

Voltage:

Voltage is shown on the vertical y-axis and the scale is determined by the Y AMPLIFIER

(VOLTS/CM) control. Usually peak-peak voltage is measured because it can be read correctly even if

the position of 0V is not known. The amplitude is half the peak-peak voltage.

Voltage = distance in cm volts/cm

Time period:

Time is shown on the horizontal x-axis and the scale is determined by the TIMEBASE (TIME/CM)

control. The time period (often just called period) is the time for one cycle of the signal. The

frequency is the number of cycles per second,

Time = distance in cm time/cm

Page 41 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Function Vertical Volt/div Amplitude Horizontal Time/div Time Freq.

(b) (p-p) V=a*b Div (c) (d) T F=1/T

Division =c*d

(a)

Sine wave

Square

Wave

Triangular

Wave

RESULT: The frequency, voltage and time period of different wave shapes from CRO were

observed.

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 42 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 12

CRO.

APPARATUS: CRO, connecting wires, function generator.

THEORY: A function generator is a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at various

frequencies and amplitudes. It is used to test the response of circuits subjected to common input

signals. The electrical leads from the function generator are attached to the ground and input terminals

of the function generator under test.

Most function generators allow the user to choose the shape of the output waveform from a

small number of options.

o Square wave - The signal goes directly from high to low voltage.

o Sine wave - The signal curves like a sinusoid from high to low voltage.

o Triangle wave - The signal goes from high to low voltage at a fixed rate.

The amplitude control on the function generator varies the voltage difference between the

high and low value of the output voltage signal.

The direct current (DC) offset control on the function generator varies the average value of

the voltage of a signal relative to the ground.

The frequency control of the function generator controls the rate at which output signal

oscillates.

One set of controls chooses the broad frequency range (order of magnitude) and the other selects the

precise frequency. This allows the function generator to handle the enormous variation in

frequencyscale needed for signals.

Page 43 of 45

DIAGRAM :

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the function generator output at the input of C.R.O. at channel 1 or at channel 2.

2. Select proper channel i.e. if signal is connected to channel 1, select CH1 and if signal is

connected to channel 2, select CH2.

3. Adjust Time / Div knob to get sufficient time period displacement of the wave on the CRO

screen.

4. With fine tuning of time/Div make the waveform steady on screen.

5. Use triggering controls if waveform is not stable.

6. Keep volt/div knob such that waveform is visible on the screen without clipping.

7. Measure P-P reading along y-axis. This reading multiplied with volt/div gives peak to peak

amplitude of the ac input wave.

8. Measure horizontal division of one complete cycle. This division multiplied by time/div

gives time period of the input wave.

9. Calculate frequency using formula f = 1/T.

10. Note down your readings in the observation table.

Page 44 of 45

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Switch off the power supply before making the connections.

2. Connections should be neat and tight.

3. Make the connections according to the circuit diagram.

4. Handle the CRO carefully.

5. Note the readings carefully.

6. Switch off the power supply after the experiments is over.

RESULT: Hence we observed sinusoidal, square and triangular wave on CRO.

H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth

Date of Issue:

Intentionally Left Blank Page 45 of 45

- expt 3Uploaded byRaf Oquin
- Lab _3 Ohms LawUploaded bymohamadalfar
- Exp 1 Measuring Resistance Using VA Method 081005Uploaded byAhmed Joule
- 60GB, 80GB PS3 - Service Manual (5th Edition)Uploaded byDaniel Borbón
- Final Radar ultrasonicUploaded byShivansh Kansal
- topic_2-1f37518Uploaded bynorzamira
- 988826208kdl-32ex400Uploaded byMalanie Sriya De Silva
- Multisim Digital PrimerUploaded bysuresh151971
- meters reading.pdfUploaded byengrroy
- Sony HCD-MDX10 Service ManualUploaded byFlorin Liculescu
- current_probe_adaptor_for_dmm___oscilloscope[1]Uploaded byratnaraj_kanungoe
- CPC Tools August12Uploaded bymap007
- MaxiScope Usermanual - V1.00Uploaded byManuel Gonzales
- Low Level Measurements handbookUploaded byprueba12345678910
- kdl-26m4000Uploaded byJuan Paulo Colmenares Meneses
- status of receipt of testing equipmentsUploaded byKuldeep Chakerwarti
- Unit2l3s - Multimeters - 30-04-01Uploaded byMohamed Harb
- Procedure to Change Input Voltage for Siemens ALM 840DUploaded byDave
- ALAT PLTS.pdfUploaded byAweSome, ST,MT
- Desc Eclectronic TechUploaded byMitochi
- EctUploaded byEngr Saeed Khan
- 34461A Digital Multimeter, 6½ Digit, 34401A Replacement, TruUploaded byazharsaleem
- 9987 SO Vantage PROUploaded bypapipapii
- physic multimeters.docxUploaded byMUHAMMAD AKRAM
- EE LAB AssignmentUploaded bysohaib389892
- Finish 1Uploaded byjoyce ramirez
- PH_REDOX_26Uploaded byfabio3055
- ar5316Uploaded bygennaro
- A Meter is a Measuring InstrumentUploaded byManikandan Kadirvelu K
- meters.pdfUploaded byJM Reynancia

- Elecs1 Lab-manual 2003Uploaded bykevin142
- MOCK TEST-3.pdfUploaded byDev Anand
- practica 1.docxUploaded byRaymundo
- Physics SPM Paper 1 and 2 Tips - 100 UNDERSTANDING Question and AnswerUploaded byCikgu Faizal
- Project HvdcUploaded byThiyagugunapalan Gunapalan
- ecsyllUploaded byDaisyQueen
- Physics One Mark OldUploaded byGR Raghav
- PN.pptUploaded bypramod240
- Chap 38Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Syllabi for 3 Year BEUploaded bypothirajkalyan
- FIZIK 3Uploaded bynurhayati8860
- Noise TDMA Noise and Suppression TechniquesUploaded byChan Soriya
- Model1_EDUploaded byskrtamil
- Rectifier Type InstrumentUploaded bymohamed elfeky
- Lecture 5 DiodesUploaded bylong
- ElectronicsUploaded bymahesh490
- askelandphulenotes-ch05printable.pptUploaded byJoshua Japitan
- 14MECH61C-S1-exam-2014Uploaded byAhmed Zalook
- Semiconducting SystemsUploaded byKehisorKumar
- NanoUploaded byNour El-Din Safwat
- Diode NotesUploaded byShyamal Parikh
- Integrated Syllabus_IEE_CUJ_2013_com.pdfUploaded byZeeshan Usmani
- 2.DiodespdfUploaded byUshan Adhikari
- Final Exam SolutionsUploaded bydredg0661
- UNIT 1 BEUploaded byAnonymous rdjkmY
- 100 Top Electronic Devices and Circuits Questions and Answers PDF Electronic Devices and Circuits QuestionsUploaded byAnandPrakashSinha
- e7 QuestionsUploaded bymail2sgarg_841221144
- Physics Grade 10 12 SignedUploaded byJerome JAckson
- Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology BombayUploaded byDeveshPrajapati
- mtekvlsiUploaded byamitabh