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Solid Waste Management and Disposal

The Nature of the Problem


Methods of Waste Disposal
Methods of Waste Reduction
Solid Waste
all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless
or unwanted
generated from industrial, residential and commercial activities in a given area
can degrade water quality, soil quality, air quality, and human health
in the Philippines, solid waste is an indication of urbanization
categorize according to:
its origin: domestic, industrial, commercial, construction or institutional
its contents: organic material, glass, metal, plastic, paper, etc.
hazard potential: toxic, non-toxin, flammable, radioactive, infectious, etc.
sources:
classification:
source-based
Residential Industrial
Commercial Agricultural
Institutional Open areas
Municipal
type-based
Garbage Dead Animals
Ashes and Residues Abandoned Vehicles
Combustible and Non- Construction and
combustible Wastes Demolition Wastes
Bulky Wastes Farm Wastes
Street Wastes Hazardous Wastes
Biodegradable and Non- Sewage Wastes
biodegradable Wastes

summary:
Hazardous Waste
waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment
defined under RCRA in 40 CFR 261 where they are divided into two major categories: characteristic wastes and
listed wastes
categories:
Characteristic Hazardous Wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one or more of the
following four hazardous traits:
Ignibility
Reactivity
Corrosivity
Toxicity
Listed Hazardous Wastes are materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as hazardous wastes
which are from non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical products
disposal:
Recycling
Portland cement
Incineration, destruction and waste-to-energy
Hazardous waste landfill (sequestering, isolation, etc.)
Pyrolysis
Toxic Waste
any material in liquid, solid, or gas form that can cause harm by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through
the skin
disposal:
Disposal Facilities
such as a landfill, surface impoundment, waste pile, land treatment unit, or injection well
Waste Stream
a term that describe the steady flow of varied waste
major components: organic material, food waste, junked car, worn out furniture, news paper, magazines, metal,
glass, plastic food and beverage container, wood, concrete, bricks, spray paint can, pesticides, batteries,
cleaning solvent, smoke detector and plastic
Methods of Waste Disposal
Insanitary Methods
Hog Feeding
Dumping
Sanitary Methods
Sanitary landfill/ Controlled tipping
Composting - 3 methods:
o composting by trenching
o open windrow composting
o mechanical composting
Manure pits
Burial
Biogas plant
Incineration - types of incinerators:
Controlled Air Static Hearth Incinerator
Rotary Kiln Incinerator
Fluidized Bed Incinerator
Thermal Oxidisers
Liquid Waste Incinerators
- advantages:
most hygienic method
complete destruction of pathogens
no odor trouble
heat generated may be used for steam power
clinkers produced may be used for road construction
less space required
adverse weather condition has no effect
- disadvantages:
large initial expense
care and attention required otherwise incomplete combustion will increase air
pollution
residues required to be disposed which require money
large no. of vehicles required for transportation
large amount of air pollution and ash generated
generation of hazardous residues
large impact on surrounding communities that must deal with unpleasant side
effects
loss of potential recyclables
large investment required and long lead time before operation
Solid Waste Management (SWM)
associated with the control of waste generation, its storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and
disposal in a manner that is in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering,
conservation, aesthetics, public attitude and other environmental considerations
Solid Waste Management System
refers to a combination of various functional elements associated with the management of solid wastes
functional elements:
Waste generation
Waste storage
Waste collection - different techniques used in waste collection:
Door-to-Door Collection
Stationary Collection
Waste Collection by Trucks
Transfer and transport
Processing
Recovery and recycle
Waste disposal
Solid Waste Management in the Philippines
SWM implementation follows a hierarchy of options as illustrated by an inverted triangle

Waste Avoidance
refers to an action to reduce the amount of waste generated by households, industry, and all levels of
government
Reduction
decreasing the volume of waste
Reuse
another way of decreasing the amount of waste you throw away, which in turn decreases the volume of
waste destined for landfill
Green Procurement
an approach to procurement in which environmental impacts play an important role in purchasing decisions,
with procurement officers concerned about them more than price and quality.
Current initiatives by the private sector
Uniliver Philippines has a project named Project Eliminate, which was created to target ZERO LANDFILL in their
plant and offices.
Non-Environmentally Acceptable Packaging (NEAP) materials
Section 5 of Rule XII of the RA9003 IRR
Laws Governing Solid Waste Management
The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003)
in 2001, Republic Act 9003 (RA 9003), otherwise known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act
of 2000, was enacted into law declaring the policy of the government to adopt a systematic,
comprehensive, and ecological solid waste management program in the country
Republic Act No. 6969 (Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Act of 1990)
the act calls for the regulation of and restriction on the importation, manufacture, processing, sale,
distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that pose risk and/or injury to health
and to the natural environment
Republic Act No. 7160 (Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991)
the act devolved certain powers to the local governments units, including enforcement of laws and
cleanliness and sanitation, solid waste management, and other environmental matters
Republic Act No. 8749 (Clean Air Act of 1999)
the act directs all government agencies to adopt the integrated air quality framework as a blueprint for
compliance
Republic Act No. 9275 (Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004)
the act provides for the protection, preservation, revival of quality of fresh, brackish and marine waters
of the country to pursue economic growth
Republic Act No. 9512 (Environmental Awareness and Education Act of 2008)
the act promotes environmental awareness through environmental education
Republic Act 9513 (Renewable Energy Act of 2008)
the act promotes the development, utilization and commercialization of renewable energy and for other
purposes
Republic Act (RA) 9729 (Climate Change Act of 2009)
the act declares as a Philippine policy the adoption of the ultimate objective of the UNFCC convention,
which is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would
prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system
Presidential Decree No. 856 (Code of Sanitation of the Philippines)
the decree prescribes sanitation requirements for hospitals, markets, ports, airports, vessels, aircraft,
food establishments, buildings, and other establishments
Presidential Decree No. 1160
the law vests authority in Barangay Captains (Barangay Chairmen) to enforce pollution and
environmental control laws
Presidential Decree No. 1586 (Environmental Impact Assessment Law)
approved on June 11, 1978, the law establishes and institutionalizes an environmental impact system
where projects to be undertaken would be reconciled with the requirements of environmental quality
Executive Order (EO) No. 774
issued on December 26, 2008 the order calls for the reorganization of the Presidential Task Force on
Climate Change (PTFCC), headed by the President, with all cabinet members as members of the Task
Force
The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010
in relation to Climate Change program, the law supports the 3 Rs of SWM in promoting to consumers
avoidance of using the disposable and unnecessary products in order to avoid or reduce the solid wastes
generated by households, commercials, institutional, industries and all levels of stakeholders