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1. Negative Sequence Relays

The negative relays are also called phase unbalance relays because these
relays provide protection against negative sequence component of unbalanced
currents existing due to unbalanced loads or phase-phase faults. The unbalanced
currents are dangerous from generators and motors point of view as these currents
can cause overheating. Negative sequence relays are generally used to give
protection to generators and motors against unbalanced currents.
A negative sequence relay has a filter circuit which is operative only for negative
sequence components. Low order of over current also can cause dangerous
situations hence a negative sequence relay has low current settings. The earth relay
provides protection for phase to earth fault but not for phase to phase fault. A
negative sequence relay provides protection against phase to phase faults which are
responsible to produce negative sequence components.

The Fig. 1 shows the schematic arrangement of negative phase sequence relay.

Fig. 1 Negative phase sequence relay

Basically it consists of a resistance bridge network. The magnitudes of the
impedances of all the branches of the network are equal. The impedances Z 1 and
Z3 are purely resistive while the impedances Z 2 and Z4 are the combinations of
resistance and reactance. The currents in the branches Z 2 and Z4 lag by 60o from the
currents in the branches Z 1 and Z3. The vertical branch B-D consists of inverse time
characteristics relay. The relay has negligible impedance.

Fig. 2
The current IR gets divided into two equal parts I 1 and I2. And I2 lags I1 by 60o. The
phasor diagram is shown in the Fig. 2.
1 + 2= rs
Let I1 = I2 = I
The perpendicular is drawn from point A on the diagonal meeting it at point B, as
shown in the Fig. 2. This bisects the diagonal.
.. . OB = IR /2
Now in triangle OAB,
cos 30 = OB/OA
.. . 3/2 = (IR/2)/I
.. . I = IR/3 = I1 = I2 ............(1)
Now I1 leads IR by 30o while I2 lags IR by 30o.
Similarly the current IB gets divided into two equal parts I 3 and I4. The current
I3lags I4 by 60o. From equation (1) we can write,
IB /3 = I3 = I4 ...............(2)
The current I4 leads by IB while current I3 lags IB by 30o.
The current entering the relay at the junction point B in the Fig. 1 is the vector
sum of , and .
Irelay = 1 + 3 + Y
= IY + (IR/3) (leads IR by 30o) + IB/3(lags IB by 30o)
The vector sum is shown in the Fig. 3 when the load is balanced and no
negative sequence currents exist.
Fig. 3
It can be seen from the Fig. 3 that,
1 + 3 = -Y
.. 1 + 3 + Y = 0
Thus the current entering the relay at point B is zero. Similarly the resultant
current at junction D is also zero. Thus the relay is inoperative for a balanced
Now consider that there is unbalanced load on generator or motor due to which
negative sequence currents exist. The phase sequence of C.T. secondary currents is
as shown in the Fig. 4(a). The vector diagram of I 1, I3 and IY is shown in the Fig. 4(b)
under this condition.
The component I1 and I3 are equal and opposite to each other at the junction
point B. Hence I1 and I3 cancel each other. Now the relay coil carries the current I Yand
when this current is more than a predetermined value, the relay trips closing the
contacts of trip circuit which opens the circuit breaker.

Fig. 4 Negative sequence current

Zero Sequence Currents : The zero sequence components of secondary

currents are shown in the Fig. 5(a). We know that,
Fig. 5 Zero sequence currents
R = 1 + 2
B = 3 + 4
These sums are shown in the Fig. 5(b) and (c). It can be seen from the Fig. 5(d)
1 + 3 = Y in phase with IY
The total current through relay is 1 + 3 +Y. Thus under zero sequence currents
the total current of twice the zero sequence current flows through the relay. Hence
the relay operates to open the circuit breaker.
To make the relay sensitive to only negative sequence currents by making it
inoperative under the influence of zero sequence currents is possible by connecting
the current transformers in delta as shown in the Fig. 6. Under delta connection of
current transformers, no zero sequence current can flow in the network.

Fig. 6 Delta connection of C.T.s

1.1 Induction Type Negative Sequence Relay

Another commonly used negative sequence relay is induction type. Its construction
is similar to that of induction type over current relay. The schematic diagram of this
type of relay is shown in the Fig. 7.
Fig. 7 Induction type negative sequence relay

The central limb of upper magnet carries the primary which has a centre tap.
Due to this, the primary winding has three terminal 1, 2 and 3. The section 1-2 is
energized from the secondary of an auxiliary transformer to R-phase. The section 2-
3 is directly energized from the Y-phase current.
The auxiliary transformer is a special device having an air gap in its magnetic
circuit. With the help of this, the phase angle between its primary and secondary can
be easily adjusted. In practice it is adjusted such that output current lags by
120o rather than usual 180ofrom the input.
So, Ix = Input current of auxiliary transformer
IR1 = Output current of auxiliary transformer
and IR1 lags IR by 120o
Hence the relay primary carries the current which is phase difference of I R1 and
IR .
Positive Sequence Current : The C.T. secondary currents are shown in the Fig.
8(a). The Fig. 8(b) shows the position of vector I R1 lagging IR by120o. The Fig. 8(c)
shows the vector sum of IR1 and - IY.
The phase difference of I R1 and IY is the vector sum of I R1 and - IY. It can seen
from the Fig. 8(c) that the resultant is zero. Thus the relay primary current is zero
and relay is inoperative for positive sequence currents.
Fig. 8 Positive sequence currents

Negative Sequence Currents : The C.T. secondary currents are shown in the
Fig.. 9(a). The Fig. 9(b) shows the position of I R1 lagging IR by 120o. The Fig. 9(c)
shows the vector difference of IR1 and IY which is the relay current.
Under negative sequence currents, the vector difference of I R1 and IY results into
a current I as shown in the Fig. 9(c). This current flows through the primary coil of the
Fig. 9 Negative sequence currents

Under the influence of current I, the relay operates. The disc rotates to close the
trip contacts and opens the circuit breaker.
This relay is inoperative for zero sequence currents. But the relay can be made
operative for the flow of zero sequence currents also by providing an additional
winding on the central limb of the upper magnet of the relay. This winding is
connected in the residual circuit of three line C.T. This relay is called induction type
negative and zero sequence relay.
The schematic arrangement of induction type negative and zero sequence relay
is shown in the Fig.10.
Fig. 10 Induction type negative and zero sequence relay


Responds to true negative sequence voltage for greater accuracy.

Increased flexibility with wide settings range.
Minimized PT costs as a result of low sensing burden.
Reduced battery load with low burden power supply.
Accurate, repeatable, and reliable operation.
Simple HMI provides clear and intuitive settings for easy
LED targets provide clear annunciation of status.
Easily perform in-case system and device tests using test paddles

Negative sequence of overcurrent relay

3. Working principle The secondary currents of the main current transformers
of the protected object are converted to voltage signals in proportion to the
currents via the burdened input transformers. The noise signals caused by
inductive and capacitive coupling are supressed by an analog R-C filter
circuit. The analog voltage signals are fed to the A/Dconverter of the
microprocessor and transformed to digital signals through Sample- and Hold-
circuits. The analog signals are sampled at fn = 50 Hz (60 Hz) with a
sampling frequency of 600 Hz (720 Hz), namely, a sampling rate of 1.66 ms
(1.38 ms) for every measuring quantity. The essential part of the XS2 relay is
a powerful microcontroller. All of the operations, from the analog digital
convertion to the relay trip decision, are carried out by the microcontroller
digitally. The calculated actual negative sequence current values are
compared with the relay settings. If a negative sequence current exceeds the
pickup value, an alarm is given and after the set trip delay has elapsed, the
corresponding trip relay is activated.

Definition of the inverse current (I2) The inverse current (negative sequence
current) is the resultant current in the negative-sequence system after
splitting an unsymmetrical system in three symmetrical components.
Example: In case of a three-phase generator which is loaded with rated
current in only one phase, there is an inverse current of I2 = 1/3 x IN.
Tripping characteristic The tripping characteristic requested for the current
unbalance protection can be adjusted by using DIP-switch 1: DIP switch 1 OFF
= definite time characteristic (DEFT) selected for I2s> DIP switch 1 ON=
inverse time characteristic (INV) selected for I2s> Rated frequency With the
aid of DIP-switch 6 the rated frequency can be set to 50 or 60 Hz, depending
upon the given mains characteristics. TB XS2 06.97 E 9 4.2 Setting of the
tripping values The PROFESSIONAL LINE units have the unique possibility of
high accuracy fine adjustments. For this, two potentiometers are used. The
course setting potentiometer can be set in descrete steps of 10 % steps. A
second fine adjustment potentiometer is then used for continuously variable
setting of the final 0 - 10 %. Adding of the two values results in the precise
tripping value. Negative sequence current element I2s> The tripping value
I2s> can be set in the range from 3 - 60 % In with the aid of the
potentiometer illustrated on the following diagram. Example: A tripping value
of 36 % In is to be set. The set value of the right potentiometer is just added
to the value of the coarse setting potentiometer. (The arrow of the coarse
setting potentiometer must be inside of the marked bar, otherwise no defined
setting value). Fig. 4.3: Adjustment example Negative sequence current
warning The negative sequence current element I2w> can be adjusted
continuously variable in the range from 3 - 25 % In. Time delay (DEFT) or
(INV) The time delay for current unbalance tripping I2s> (DIP switch 1 OFF =
DEFT) can be adjusted continuously variable in the range from 0 - 30 s or 0 -
300 s. For the inverse time characteristic (DIP-switch 1 ON=INV), the value of
the generator time constant is adjustable in the range from 100 - 300s or 100
- 3000s. Time delay tw The time delay tw for warning of current unbalance
I2w> can be adjusted in the range 0 - 25s or 0 - 250s. The tripping
characteristic is always definite time
Application Guide: Generator Protection (1.8MB)
Simplify the process of selecting relays and relay systems to protect
Application Guide: Motor Protection (1.4MB)
Overview of motor hazards and detection and protection options, plus typical
setting-value range for BE1-11m.
Application Guide: Transformer Protection (1.1MB)
Simplify the process of selecting relays and relay systems to protect power