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Welfare Measures in a Factory

Employee Welfare
Employee welfare means the efforts to make life worth living
for workmen. According to Todd employee welfare means
anything done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual or
social, of the employees over and above the wages paid which
is not a necessity of the industry

Welfare is comfortable living and working conditions. People are the most
important asset of an organization, and the accounting profession has to assess
and record the value and cost of people of an organization. Once this is
accepted, the need for measuring the value for recording it in the books of
accounts arises. The value of human assets can be increased substantially by
making investment in their training and welfare activities in the same way as the
value of repairs/overhauling, etc.

The term Labour Welfare refers to the facilities provided to

workers in and outside the factory premises such as canteens,
rest and recreation facilities, housing and all other services that
contribute to the well- being of workers. Welfare measures are
concerned with general well- being and efficiency of workers. In
the early stages of industrialisation, welfare activities for

factory workers did not receive adequate attention. Employers
were not inclined to accept the financial burden of welfare
activities. Wherever employers provided for such amenities, it
was more with a paternalistic approach to labour rather than a
recognition of workers needs. Hence the state had to
intervene, in discharge of its welfare responsibility, by using its
persuasive powers and/or by enforcing legislation, where
persuasion failed. Compulsory provisions are thus incorporated
in the Factories Act, 1948 with respect to the health, safety and
welfare of workers engaged in the manufacturing process. In
the previous lesson you have studied the nature and
characteristics of factories. In this lesson, you will come to
know about the health and welfare measures for workers in

Objectives of Employee Welfare

Employee welfare is in the interest of the employee, the
employer and the society as a whole.
a) It improves the loyalty and morale of the employees.
b) It reduces labor turnover and absenteeism.
c) Welfare measures help to improve the goodwill and public
image of
the enterprise
d) It helps to improve industrial relations and industrial peace
e) It helps to improve employee productivity

The basic features of welfare measures are as

Welfare measure in factories includes various facilities,

services and amenities provided to workers for improving
their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social

Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and

other economic benefits available to workers due to legal
provisions and collective bargaining.

Welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New

welfare measures are added to the existing ones from
time to time.

Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers,

government, employees or by any social or charitable

The purpose of welfare measure in factory is to bring

about the development of the whole personality of the
workers to make a better workforce.

They provide better physical and mental health to workers

and thus promote a healthy work environment

Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and

education and recreation facilities for workers families

help in raising their standards of living. This makes
workers to pay more attention towards work and thus
increases their productivity.

Employers get stable labour force by providing welfare

facilities. Workers take active interest in their jobs and
work with a feeling of involvement and participation.

Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of

organization and promote healthy industrial relations
thereby maintaining industrial peace.

The social evils prevalent among the labours such as

substance abuse, etc. are reduced to a greater extent by
the welfare policies.

Welfare Provisions under the Factories Act, 1948

This Act, as amended by the latest amendment

in the year, 1987 makes elaborate provisions in relation to
health, safety, and welfare of workers, provisions regarding
working hours including weekly hours, daily hours, weekly
holidays, regarding employment of young persons, annual
leaves with wages and provision regarding employment of
women and young persons. Under the Welfare, provisions have
been made in connection with washing facilities in the
factories, facilities for storing and drying clothing, facilities for
sitting for all workers obliged to work in a standing position in
order that they may take advantage of any opportunities for

rest which may occur in the course of their work. The Act also
provides under the same for first aid appliances to be
maintained in every factory and for an ambulance room of the
prescribed size in case of those factories wherein more than
500 workmen are ordinarily employed. The State Governments
have been empowered to make rules requiring that in any
specified factory wherein more than two hundred fifty workers
are ordinarily employed, a canteen or canteens shall be
provided and maintained for the use of workers. The Act further
provides for shelters, rest rooms and lunchrooms in every
factory employing 150 workmen or more. In case of factory
employing more than 30 women workers a crche is to be
maintained for the use of their children below 6 years of age.
Finally the Act makes provision for the employment of Welfare
Officer in factories ordinarily employing more than 500
workmen. Thus, it is clear that the Act makes very elaborate
and unambiguous provisions regarding the minimum welfare
standards to be followed. But laying sown the standards alone
is not enough. It is also to be ensured that these provisions are
actually implemented. The non-implementation of the various
provisions (for whatever reasons) may negate the very
intention of the legislature.

Classification Welfare provisions in the factories

To take care of the health of workers in factories, the Factories

Act, 1948 has provided for certain measures which are stated

Statutory Welfare Measures
1) Washing facilities: Sec 42

a) Adequate and suitable facilities for washing for the use of

workers in the factories. The workers who live in crowded areas
have inadequate facilities for washing at their homes, and
bathing facilities add to their comfort, health and Efficiency.

b) Separate and adequately screened washing facilities for the

use of male and female workers.

c) Such facilities being conveniently accessible, and being kept


2) Facilities for storing and drying clothes: Sec 43

A suitable place for keeping clothes not worn during working

hours shall be provided in every factory. Facilities shall also be
provided for the drying of wet clothes.

3) Facilities for sitting: Sec 44

For workers who are to work in a standing position, suitable

arrangement for sitting shall be provided in the factories. This
is to enable workers to take advantage of any opportunity for
rest which may occur in the course of their work.

4) First-aid appliances: Sec 45

First-aid boxes or cupboards equipped with the required

contents should be provided for workers in every factory. This
should be readily accessible to them during all working hours.

The number of such first aid boxes shall not be less than one
for every 150 workers employed in the factory.

Such first-aid box shall be kept in the charge of a responsible

person who is trained in first-aid treatment and who shall be
available during the working hours of the factory.

In factories employing more than 500 workers, there shall be an

ambulance room. It should contain the prescribed equipments,
and be in the charge of such medical and nursing staff as may
be prescribed.

5) Canteens: Sec 46

In factories employing more than 250 workers, there shall be a

canteen for the use of workers. The government may prescribe
the rules in respect of the

6) Shelters, restrooms and lunch rooms: Sec 47

Adequate and suitable shelters, rest rooms, and lunch rooms

with drinking water facility shall be made in factories employing
150 workers or more. Workers can eat meals brought by them
in such rooms. Rest and lunch rooms shall be sufficiently
lighted and ventilated. It shall be maintained in cool and clean

7) Crches: Sec 48

In every factory, where more than 50 women workers are

employed, provision shall be made for suitable and adequate
room for the use of children under the age of six years of such
women. Such a room shall be adequately lighted and
ventilated. It shall be maintained in clean and sanitary

conditions under the charge of a woman trained in the care of
children and infants.

8) Welfare Officer: Sec 49

The factories Act also provides for employment of welfare

officers with prescribed qualification to look into the
implementation of various facilities provided for. Such a
provision exist in every factory employing more than 500

The Factories Act, 1948 provides for the statutory appointment

of a welfare officer in a factory

Voluntary Welfare Measures

A) Educational Facilities

Improvement in the quality of the industrial work force
demands accelerated pace of economic development for which
education of workers, their families and their children is very

B) Medical Facilities

Private or in public sectors - medical facilities for their workers

and their families. First-aid-centres, Ambulance rooms and
Regular hospital either in the factory premises or inside the

C) Transport Facilities

The provision of transport facilities to industrial workers forms

and integral part of the general transport facility and is, by and
large, the responsibility of the public authorities like the local
bodies, transport corporations, and state Governments.

D) Recreational Facilities

It has an important bearing on the individuals personality as

well as his capacity to contribute to social development. It
affords the worker an opportunity to develop his sense of
physical and mental discipline.

E) Housing Facilities

Some of the industrial employers both in public and private

sectors have provided housing facilities to their employees.

The employees who are not provided corporations quarters are

paid house rent allowance at some of the places.

F) Counselling Services

Workers are able to receive advice and counsel on some of the
personnel and sometimes also on personal problems, inside
and outside their place of work.

Trained social worker - large industry welfare officers or labour

officers - small concerns.


Employee welfare measures are advocated to maintain

a strengthen manpower both physically and mentally. The
study of various welfare measures brings in to light that the
present measures taken by the company. The improvement in
working condition are suggested to improve effectiveness of
the employee welfares measures like canteen facility, drinking
water, spittoons, rest rooms and housing facilities which in turn
would build the morale and increase the productivity of the
employees .

Key Points

1) Objectives of Employee Welfare

2) Basic features of welfare measures

3) Welfare provisions in the factories

a) Statutory Welfare Measures

b) Voluntary Welfare Measures

What I have learnt

Labour welfare facilities are those which result in

improving the conditions under which workers are employed
and work. These include not only the health but also welfare
measures adopted for the benefit of the workers.

The Factories Act, 1948 has provided for certain health

and welfare measures for workers working in factories in India.
Health facilities provided in factories for workers include
provision for cleanliness of the factory premises, disposal of
wastes and effluents, ventilation and temperature, dust and
fumes. Artificial humidification, overcrowding, lighting, drinking
water, latrines and urinals and spittoons.

How will I apply the thing I learnt in Welfare measures in a


Due to the welfare measures, the employees feel that the management is
interested in taking care of the employees that result in the sincerity,
commitment and loyalty of the employees towards the organization. The
employees work with full enthusiasm and energetic behaviour which
results in the increase in production and ultimately the increased profit.

The measures of welfare give result after a long period of time. It is a
long process, so that we should keep patience while providing the welfare
facilities for the employees. While deciding the welfare facility for the
employees, we has to do discussions with the persons who are now going
to avail the facilities. The communication increases the cohesiveness
between the management and the employees and thus industrial
relations improve.

N.D. Kapoor, 37th Revised Edition, 2015, Element of
Mercantile Law, Sultan Chand and Sons Publishing House.

Thank You