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2.2 & 3.

5 Aka

Running Head: 2.2 & 3.5 Aka

Sharon Aka

Coaching & Mentoring 2.2 & Evaluation & Assessment 3.5


Andrews University

July 18, 2016

Dr. Jay Brand

Table of Contents


2.2 & 3.5 Aka


Coaching and Mentoring theoretical framework integrated with practice



Organizational assessment and evaluation theoretical framework

integrated with





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The purpose of this paper is to present past and present, personal

and professional experiences, integrated with theoretical practice,

influencing my current and future professional practice. There are two

leadership competencies that will be discussed. Leadership with

others, mentoring and coaching: leadership promotes relationships

that are trust-centered, providing the kind of empowerment that

results in personal and performance improvement toward satisfying

mutual objectives (Leadership program, 2016), and leadership through

organizations, evaluation and assessment: leadership uses appropriate

evaluation and assessment tools to make decision about programs and

plans (Leadership program, 2016).

This paper will demonstrate learning in the following areas:

theoretical application to improve my professional practice as an

executive coach, synthesis of mentoring and coaching theory as it

applies to leadership, and connecting mentoring and coaching research

to my current situation. In addition, this paper will demonstrate

application of theoretical knowledge of organization evaluation and

assessment related to the implementation of the 360 Feedback Loop

(North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists, 2016)

performance evaluation process, and the utilization of the self-

assessment tool Profile XT (PXT) (Profiles International, 2016).

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Concerns and complexities of operationalization of the entire

performance evaluation process of formal coaching and mentoring in

the North American Division (NAD) of Seventh-day Adventists will be

discussed. Artifacts will be referred to throughout the paper and

presented as evidence of competencies.

I have been in various coaching and mentoring circumstances for

many years in both the professional environment and as a volunteer in

the community. Much of this has been done without a theoretical

approach, and very customized and responsive to those I was

mentoring. In my professional life, coaching and mentoring was a

constant part of my professional responsibilities. As a Registered

Nurse in the hospital sector, I often acted as a preceptor for nursing

students. Later in a Nurse Educator role, I supporting new nursing staf

in orientation and on-boarding and provided seasoned staf with

continuing education specific to surgical and post surgical practice

across eight units in two hospital campus. More recently as a tenured

post-secondary Professor in the School of Health Sciences at Humber

Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning in Toronto, I frequently

mentored new nursing faculty. In my role as Professional Development

Specialist in Humbers Center for Teaching & Learning (CTL), I

developed faculty support courses, resources, and edited a mentorship

manual (CTL, 2011). Many of these resources are still housed on the

CTL website. (Artifact set 1: *CTL website, *CTL instructional resource

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page, *mentor manual) These resources are available to several

thousand full and part time Humber faculty and open for public access.

In my personal life Ive volunteered at a residential summer camp

for over twenty summers and during that time I have mentored several

nursing students in residential clinical placements (Artifact set 2 *FB

messenger messages from Edelweiss and Mikah). Ive also kept in

close contact with one of my nursing students from 2003 and helped

her apply to two diferent graduate programs. When I had major

abdominal surgery in the fall of 2014, she was able to navigate in the

hospital on my behalf as one of several Nurse Educators. It was

fantastic to receive care from one of my own students! Over the years

I have been able to provide career advice and watch her grow into a

wonderful nursing professional (Artifact set 3: *photo of Prachi and me

at hospital, *FB messages).

Additionally Ive been fortunate to develop a close mentorship

relationship with a friends daughter, Jackie. I followed her journey in

nursing school at Andrews University beginning with her lamp lighting

ceremony in the fall of 2012 (Artifact 4 *picture of Jackie). On April 30,

2016 I was acknowledged as her nursing mentor at the Class of 2016

Pinning Ceremony (Artifact set 5: *program, and *pictures). Looking

back I can see that my journey is actually a reflection of research,

which suggests that the heart of mentoring is thoughtful, deliberate

relationships (Peddy, S., 1998; Stoddard, D., 2003).

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In both my professional and personal life I have never been involved

in the initial rollout of a brand new evaluation and assessment program

across an entire organization. Although Ive had experience

implementing change and program development, both large

organizations that I worked for in Toronto, had well established,

supportive employee performance assessment processes in place

when I arrived. As an employee I experienced success and support

from the performance evaluation programs. It was overall a positive

experience. Perhaps this was influenced by the fact that I worked in a

teaching hospital and then in a post secondary institution.

In both organizations, learning was like oxygen. A learning

organization is the business term given to a company that facilitates

the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself

(Senge, 2010). This type of organizational environment supports

professional growth, failure, and experimentation (Collins, 2001;

Senge, 2010). This is my foundation of my present professional

circumstance and the thing that both frightens and excites me most. I

know what a successful performance evaluation professional

environment feels like, but now Im part of the team operationalizing it

for the first time within the North American Division of Seventh-day

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Mentor someone who teaches or give help and advice to a less

experienced and often younger person. A trusted counselor or

guide (Merriam-Webster, 2016).

Coach a private teacher who gives someone lessons in a

particular subject. One who instructs or trains (Merriam-Webster,

Organizational Assessment the systematic process for

obtaining valid information about the performance of an

organization and the factors that afect performance (Reflect &

Learn, 2016).
Organizational Evaluation An organizational assessment is a

systematic process for obtaining valid information about the

performance of an organization and the factors that afect

performance. It difers from other types of evaluations because

the assessment focuses on the organization and the primary unit

of analysis (Better Evaluation, (2016).

360 Feedback Loop In human resources or industrial

psychology, 360 degree feedback, also know as multi-rater

feedback, multi source feedback, or multi sources assessment, is

a process utilized by organizations to solicit information from a

variety of workplace sources on an employees work-related

behavior and or performance (Wikipedia, 2016).

Profile XT (PXT) An assessment tool for pre-employment

screening and job application selection. It helps you choose the

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best candidates to fill your job openings. It is primarily used for

pre-hire screening, employee selection, onboarding, managing,

coaching, and strategic workforce planning (Profiles

International, 2016).
Self-assessment Assessment or evaluation of oneself or ones

actions or attitudes in particular of ones performance at a job or

learning task considered in relation to an objective standard

(Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).

Multi-rater feedback information about ones professional

performance gathered from multiple sources on one evaluation

form (Wikipedia, 2016).

Coaching and mentoring theoretical framework integrated with


Currently, coaching and mentoring is an underutilized resource

within the Seventh-day Adventist church organization. Although there

are mentoring relationships, most are not operationalized in a formal,

corporate growth model. As a Christian organization we should do what

ever we can to elevate the skills of church employees. We are

counseled to never cease learning. Professional growth is both Biblical

and foundational for our Church, and therefore, should be a core

component of the organization. According to the Bible, the true

measure of a professional is the eagerness to continually improve.

Biblical support for life-long learning is unmistakable. Proverbs 1:5

states, Let the wise hear and increase in learning, and the one who
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understands obtain guidance. Speaking directly to ministers, 2 Peter

1:8 states, for if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they

keep you from being inefective or unfruitful in the knowledge of our

Lord Jesus Christ. In both of these texts, the Bible speaks to the

necessity of continually seeking knowledge and self-improvement.

What better way to do this than in a trusting relationship with a mentor

or coach.

High performing, contemporary organizations know that their

companies are only as good as the employees (Serrat, 2009).

Onboarding programs, in-house training, and corporate professional

development programs can only go so far (Collins, 2001; Korn Ferry,

2014; Serrat, 2009; Stoddard, 2003). One of the keys to real

professional growth and development is highly developed coaching

and mentoring programs focused on dedicated guidance, inspiration,

and customized facilitation (Serrat, 2009). One of the most highly

efective ways to help someone grow is through positive

communication within a trusting relationship; supporting their self-

esteem, efficacy, and self-discovery through conversation (Collins,

2001; Morgan, 2014; Wren, 1995).

While Ive coached and mentored both personally and

professionally, I did not have an adequate set of skills to support

conference, union, and division pastors and administers. As a

requirement of my current role in professional development as

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Associate Director Adventist Learning Community, I am a member of

the leadership team for the NAD. We are working on an organizational

plan for 360 Feedback Loop performance evaluation and assessment

and professional growth with coaching and mentoring support.

Planning and development of the 360 Feedback Loop has been nearly a

two-year process. On October 5-6, 2015, the leadership team met at

the Columbia Union Conference Offices for a two-day brainstorming,

document editing, pre coaches training planning event. I suggested

that we invite the director of Human Resources at the NAD. Dr. Paul

Brantley extended an invitation to her. During these meetings we were

able to refine the 360 Feedback Loop documents, and plan for the

November 2015 executive coaches training. I created a resource

document of courses available at that time on the ALC appropriate for

continuing education for pastors (Artifact set 6 *emails of the event,

event agenda, my documents).

The following month, the leadership team, myself included, and

three additional conference administrative teams participated in a

three-day executive coaches training session from December 1-3,

2015, in Columbia Maryland, and received as an executive coach

qualification. (Artifact set 7: *emails of the event & location. *pictures

taken during the training sessions, *documents from event, *360

Feedback Loop pastors and administrators drafts, and *my PXT

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Through the personal use of the PXT and 360 Feedback Loop, I was

able to better understand the role of executive coach. The PXT tool

evaluates a person on three profiles. My profile of thinking style rated

me within normal range of most respondents for learning index, verbal

skills, and verbal reasoning. I rated above average in numerical ability,

but below average on numeric reasoning. In the profile of behavioral

traits, on a scale from one to ten, I ranged between and eights and ten

for energy level, sociability, decisiveness, assertiveness, and

independence, while the majority of respondents average from four to

six. I responded within the normal range of most respondents for the

traits of manageability, attitude, and accommodating. One somewhat

surprising result was my trait of objective judgment. While most

respondents scored between three-to-five on the ten-point scale, my

score was one, the lowest possible. Of course when I reflect on myself,

I often let emotions get the best of me instead of thinking clearly and

being objective about decision-making.

On the profile of interests I showed top interests in being very

enterprising, creative, working in service for others. In the last index,

an over all profile description is given. What surprised me was how

accurate it is. It says that my learning index of expected learning,

reasoning and problem solving is my strength. In the behavioral index

I am expected to complete what I start, am adaptive in a variety of

settings, pick up new concepts very easily, and have good potential for
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quickly learning new information. My management profile states that I

need creativity to stay engaged. My ability to concentrate and utilize

ideas put forth in training sessions is high, but not significantly above

the norm. It states that I sometimes require assistance to avoid

boredom and respond best to learning that is both theoretical and

practical. It also stated that I may get frustrated during learning if

there is not enough creativity and enthusiasm present. I had to smile,

as this profile index explains why I spent so much time in the

principals office in elementary school as a child. It also reinforced

what I have heard as a professor about my energy levels and ability to

maintain momentum in a classroom environment that leaves people

dizzy at times.

The 360 Feedback Loop information was a bit more difficult to read

as it was directly from my closest peers and administrators. There are

twelve categories of this assessment. We were asked to focus on the

top third and bottom third of our responses for the purposes of coaches

training. My top third, or high performance indicators were leads with

vision and mission, leads through people, manages self, and develops

self through growing and learning. Stuck in the middle were the

following indicators, neither strong or weak; leads with courage,

demonstrates resilience, builds a talented team, connects through

communication. My bottom third indicators were oversees the

administration operations, provides spiritual guidance, models the

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mission of the Adventist church, and models servant leadership. The

fact that three of my bottom four had to do with spirituality or Christian

behavior was stunning to me. It took a couple of days for me to come

to grips that perhaps I am not as overt about faith and God as I should

be and I wondered if spending a lifetime as a professional in the public

sector has contributed to the way I conduct myself as an obvious

Christian. Either way, it was sobering.

Once we reflected on self, we had to work with a partner to

determine methods of improving on areas of weakness. This was a

highlight for me as I worked with Dr. Ivan Williams, Director of NAD

Ministerial. He was a perfect match for me as he was able to coach me

in my areas of greatest need, and I found that I was able to provide

that kind of support for him too. It was deeply gratifying to work with

someone who needed to develop areas where I am strong, but who

could hold me up in my own weakness. Over the three-day coaches

training session we learned the sandwich approach to coaching; wrap

weaknesses with all that is good. Here is the sandwich principle;

deliver strengths, development needs, and then hope (PXT, 2015).

I bonded with the entire leadership team during the three-day

coach and mentoring training. It was an experience that will always be

with me, and I will consider my small working group trusted colleagues.

Since the beginning of 2015, the leadership team has been meeting

virtually every Friday at 10:00am to customize the 360 Feedback Loop

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evaluation tool and plan every detail of this entire process. (Artifact

set 8: *evidence of meetings, *meeting documents *calendar screen

shot of leadership team members). These meetings continue to gain

importance as our launch date gets closer.

The Adventist Learning Community (ALC), is creating the entire 360

Feedback Loop performance evaluation system on the ALC Learning

Management System (LMS) platform. We started beta testing the first

week of June 2016 and plan to have the platform live by early fall

2016. We are also writing scripts that will be used to create training

videos to be deployed across the division as a strategy for consistent

retrievable training across the division. (Artifact set 9: *screen

captures the 360 Feedback Loop on ALC, *my beta testing evaluators

page, and *training video scripts). Customization of the 360 Feedback

Loop to the Seventh-day Adventist organization, becoming familiar

with the PXT tool, qualifying as a coach, and creating the virtual 360

Feedback Loop on the ALC platform have been time consuming.

However the most difficult task of operationalizing the program is still

in front of us.

It is critical to address the many concerns about the new

assessment program in the training and deployment of this

organizational process in order to prevent chaos and potential

organizational and personal damage. There is evidence to suggest that

performance measurements are frequently misused. As a result, the

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results can be irrelevant or worse. Used out of context, they reward

the wrong activities and result in less rather then more attention to

outcomes and quality Performance measurements, by themselves

are not appropriate for assessing outcomes, for determining future

directions or for resource allocation. They can, however, be one

important component of a comprehensive evaluation strategy (Perrin,

B, 1998, para 1). During the coaching and mentoring training

December 1-3, 2015, I internalized several coaching and mentoring

strategies for success.

Perhaps the most complex skill in executive coaching and

mentoring is interpreting diferent combinations of PXT traits. Over

time, common combinations of PXT traits have emerged. During the

training, instruction was given on some of the most common

combinations and what those combinations means as far as

professional behavior. Interestingly, two of my strength combinations;

high energy and high decisiveness (both positive in nature), result in

behavior that sometimes looks instinctual or shooting from the hip.

Another very interesting combination of mine was a strength in

learning index and independence combined with an area of weakness,

manageability. The result of this triple combination indicates a high

level of leaning agility. Interpreting combined index results will take

time and experience to master. Luckily for me, we are at the

beginning of this journey, and I will have time to ramp up my coaching

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and mentoring skills as we pilot and then deploy the 360 Feeback Loop

across the NAD. Although we have a strategic plan as far as how to

deploy the ALC 360 platform and process, a theoretical framework for

organization assessment and evaluation will be a valuable asset

moving forward (Collins, 2001).

Organizational assessment and evaluation theory and

integration of personal practice

After decades of organizational frustration at inadequate

accountability structures or absent performance measurements, the

NAD administration made the decision to create an entire assessment

and evaluation system for the division focused on pastors and church

administrators. Putting a proven strategy of performance assessment

and evaluation from the corporate sector into action in the church

environment is not new. However, as an organization, the Adventist

church is not accustomed to multi-rater performance assessments, and

many employees have expressed concerns. There is fear that the 360

Feedback Loop results will be used as a weapon against employees

instead of an instrument to support professional growth (A. Smith,

personal communication, July 8, 2016). There is also concern that the

current church culture lacks the necessary level of trust within

Conferences to deploy a performance evaluation tool (P. Brantley,

personal communication, July 8, 2016).

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In the article Organizational silence, a barrier to change and

development in a pluralistic world, authors Elizabeth Morrison an

Frances Milliken present the concept of organizational silence. This is

when the vast majority of the employees within the organization

withhold information about potential problems of issues. This

collective sense making can create shared perceptions that speaking

up is not wise. Of course this impacts an organizations ability to

change and grow (Morrison, & Milliken, (2000). Solving this problem

requires good communication in a trusting safe environment. The

challenge for the leadership team is inadequate time and resources for

training, combined with urgent need from the conferences.

Several people have expressed concern that the tool will be

deployed without adequate training for both professional participants

and their chosen raters (B. Davis, personal communication, July 8,

2016). Personally, this is not a concern of mine. Most professionals in

the work environment outside of church employment experience 360-

performance review frequently throughout their professional life. For

the most part, multi-rater performance reviews on pastors will be

completed by church members who are accustomed to the public

sector employment environment.

Perhaps our most critical challenge will be in helping to foster a

sense of trust within conferences related to performance evaluation.

The organizational culture needs to want to embark on this new

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assessment and evaluation journey before we deploy the tool. Much

care and thought is being given to the rollout strategy for this program,

which will commence shortly. Organizations are run and steered by

people. It is through people that goals are set and objectives are

realized. The performance of an organization is thus dependent upon

the sum total of performance of its members (Toppo, & Prusty, 2012,

para 7).

The Seventh-day Adventist church currently exists in a time like no

other. In 2013 research revealed that ninety percent of the worlds

data was created in the previous two years. This means that

knowledge grew by ninety percent between 2011 and 2013 (Science

Daily, 2013)! Social media platforms are facilitating seismic cultural

shifts nearly overnight. Consider how quickly society has shifted its

stance on same sex marriage, immigration, terrorism, or politics. What

previously took decades or centuries is now happening in months.

Adventists are living in extraordinary times. Supporting employees to

reach their full potential has to be a priority. Contextualization of the

new performance assessment and evaluation process may be the most

sobering and motiving rational to use.

The Bible has several examples where evaluation of performance

was an important issue. In Exodus 35: 31-33 we read, The Lord has

filled him (Bezalel) with the spirit of God, in wisdom and

understanding, in knowledge and all manner of workmanship to design

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artistic works, to work in gold and silver and bronze, in caring wood,

and to work in all manner of artistic workmanship (Bible Gateway,

2016). Here Moses chose men who had a reputation of being the best

craftsmen in all the tribes of Israel. They were to build and furnish the

tabernacle of the Lord (Wiese & Buckley, 1998). Moses had an

organizational plan.

In the book Good to Great, author Jim Collins describes a six-step

model to guide organizations to excel. The first phase of his model is

focused on unconventional, unorthodox leadership. His idea of a great

leader is one that has a blend of humility and professional will (Collins,

2001). Interestingly, the NAD Vice President leading the entire

performance evaluation process is steely in his resolve, quiet, and


Collins second step challenges the old adage that people are your

most important asset. Step two highlights the need for the right

people (Collins, 2001). Korn Ferry seconds the idea that

organizational excellence is the result of having the right people with

the right attitude, and the right professional competencies (Korn Ferry,

2015). The Adventist church elects professionals to many positions,

bypassing a typical interview process. Divine guidance may play

prominently in the people filling many positions.

The third step is confronting the brutal facts (Collins, 2001). This is

where organizational trust is most important. Great organizations hold

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onto unwavering faith in their potential, while looking honestly at their

current reality. Performance assessment and evaluation is the way to

seek the reality of professionals employed by the Adventist

organization. Collins calls the process between step three and four a

breakthrough (Collins, 2001). I imagine its the same sensation one

gets when youve been lost and finally make sense of a map.

Step four is the hedgehog concept. This is the self-examination of

an organization to determine if what they are doing is being done well

(Collins, 2001). The Adventist mission statement captures what the

churches purpose. It says, the mission of the Seventh-day Adventist

Church is to call all people to become disciples of Jesus Christ, to

proclaim the everlasting gospel embraced by the three angels

messages and to prepare the world for Christs soon return (Bible

Gateway, 2016; Seventh-day Adventist Church, 2016). The key to

analysis is ensuring that the people of the organization are working

toward the organizations mission.

The fifth step is creating a culture of discipline (Collins, 2001). This

isnt talking about the discipline necessary to abide by the Adventist

twenty-eight fundamental beliefs. It is the discipline of every

employee to seek excellence, to learn, grow, and be creative.

Complacency is not an option.

Step six is the use of technology (Collins, 2001). Great

organizations maximize technology to ignite transformation (Matuszak,

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2015). The Adventist Learning Communitys virtual platform provides

the entire Adventist organization access to the 360 Feedback Loop

performance evaluation tool, lists of conference coaches and mentors,

and free continuing education courses or stand alone resources for

professional learning. We are in the beta testing stage of the

implementation process with a goal of going live in a few months.

Collins framework presents a structured approach for strategic

planning for the new program.


Through the presentation of personal and professional experiences

integrated with theoretical fame works, I have explored and

demonstrated two leadership competencies: leadership with others

mentoring and coaching, and leadership through organizations,

evaluation and assessment.

Additionally I have demonstrated learning in the following areas:

theoretical application to improving my professional practice as an

executive coach, synthesis of mentoring and coaching theory as it

applies to leadership, and connecting mentoring and coaching research

to my current situation. I have demonstrated application of theoretical

knowledge of organization evaluation and assessment related to the

implementation of the 360 Feedback Loop (North American Division of

Seventh-day Adventists, 2016) performance evaluation process, and

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the utilization of the self-assessment tool Profile XT (PXT) (Profiles

International, 2016). Lastly, I have provided multifaceted artifacts as

evidence of long-term engagement and recent contributions to my

professional practice.

While there are concerns and complexities of operationalization of

the entire performance evaluation process of formal coaching and

mentoring in the North American Division (NAD) of Seventh-day

Adventists, Collins provides a path for taking our organization from

good to great. The organization is literally on the precipice of

changing history in a Christian organization.

At the July 14, 2016 leadership meeting, our external business

consultant, Barbara Davis, suggested that we multi author an article

for Harvard Business Review on the creation, implementation, and

utilization of the 360 Feedback Loop within the Adventist organization.

She said that what we have done is so unique that it would be an

excellent publication opportunity. From that conversation additional

peer reviewed journals were suggested as publication venues. The

Adventist church has a structure that is only comparable to one other

religious organization in the world, the Catholic church. The

implementation of an organizational wide efort in professional

assessment and development has not been successfully done in a

religious organization before. These are indeed exciting times.

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