• Bistoiic-geogiaphic sepaiation makes the East-West uiviue almost seem
ieasonable, '
• But the South oveilaps with both (Islam anu Buuuhism, wheat anu iice)'
,"*+"6%';(96$7"<="&2+"66)%")%> Wallach coveieu this in chaptei 9 which
you just ieau.
• Nonotheism anu seculai libeialism
• Inuo-Euiopean languages (mostly)

()*+"6%';?6")+"6'1/2%) - we ieau about this in chaptei 7)
• Nixes of Confucianism anu Buuuhism (plus Taoism, Shintoism, etc.)
• Sino-Tibetan languages (Nanuaiin)

@$9+/"6%';?6")+"6'A%&2) - chaptei 8)
• Binuuism
• Inuo-Iianian bianch of Inuo-Euiopean languages (ancient Sanskiit)

A*-)8 ueiiveu fiom same Semitic monotheistic tiauitions as Iuuaism anu
• =9/)88)& boin in CE S7u
• "seal" iathei than messiah: his veibal iecitations of ievelations become
the E$6)%
• uistinct tiauitions (F23"'G2--)6*) anu holy sites (="..), Neuina)
• like Chiistianity, subsequent uiffusion thiough empiie anu conquest - a
"univeisalizing" ieligion
o 0mayyau H)8)*.9*
o Abbasiu !)?/&)&
o Fatimiu 1)26$
o 0ttoman A*+)%D9-
• Also like Chiistianity, a veiy uiveise (anu uiffuse) global piesence touay

S Impoitant splits in woilu Islam touay
• Aiabic is the language of the Koian, but 8u% of Nuslims non-Aiab anu 8
of the 9 laigest Nuslim countiies aie non-Aiab, incluuing: Inuonesia,
Pakistan, Banglauesh, Inuia, Tuikey, Iian, (?#7+, Nigeiia, China
• 14uus to 18uus: Tuiks effectively uominateu the Nuslim woilu
@9%%2 majoiity (8S%) anu a @/20) minoiity (mostly in Iian)
• split emeigeu suiiounuing Nuhammau's successois, culminating in the
assassination of consecutive .)-27/*: the majoiity (people of the
"sunnah") ultimately accepteu iule by the Neccan 0mayyau uynasty
while the Shiites weie liteially the pait of Ali (son-in-law anu cousin to
Nuhammau), whose own son, Busayn, was killeu in battle with the
Sunnis at Kaibala (Iiaq) in CE 68u
• majoi uiffeience between Sunni anu Shiite piactices is the use of the
Aiabic label, 28)8, which ieveals significant uiffeiences ovei the
souice of tiue authoiity
• 0thei bianches, too, such as mystical @952*8 (e.g., Tuikey's "whiiling
=$&"6)+"'3*J'(M+6"82*+ (political Islam¡A*-)82*8)

South Asia
Bistoiic Founuations
• 4uuu BP: A%&9*'O)--"#'1232-24)+2$%
• 2uuu-4uuu BP: A%&$<I6#)%'2%3)*2$%P82?6)+2$% culminates in
• latei, Nughal empiie, Biitish empiie, anu the paititioneu mouein states
of Inuia, Pakistan, Banglauesh, et al.

Iueological Founuations
• agiicultuial society built aiounu the "eteinal law" (R2%&92*8)
expiesseu in the sacieu veuas anu Sanskiit epics
• polytheism (Biahma, vishnu, Shiva anu theii many "avatai"
• social hieiaichy (O)6%)*P.)*+"*) maikeu by a high uegiee of fatalism
(*)8*)6) anu K)68))
• social oiuei anu "emotional suppoit", oi an "impiegnable iationale foi
ignoiing pain" (78)

South Asia is !"# a monolith
R2%&9 Inuia anu Nepal
• The "Little Tiauitions" uiveisity of S)+2 anu local¡peisonal woiship
(Biahma, vishnu, Shiva, anu otheis)
• A uiffuse geogiaphy: seven sacieu cities anu seven sacieu iiveis
(especially Q)%?)PQ)%?"*)
=9*-28 Pakistan, Banglauesh, et al.
• @2K/2*8 in the Punjab
!9&&/2*+ Bhutan anu Sii Lanka
• South Asian oiigins, but touay mostly elsewheie
• Bioauei legacy of H/)68)

B/$9*)%&* of Languages
• Seveial hunuieu spoken by a quaitei-million oi moie
• None spoken by moie than 4u%
• English the closest thing to a iegional lingua fianca
A%&$<(96$7")% in the noith
• Tieu to ancient @)%*K62+
• R2%&2 (anu Peisian-influenceu T6&9), Bengal, Punjabi, anu moie
H6)32&2)% in the south
• Pie-uates the Inuo-Aiyan invasion¡migiation of about Suuu BP
• B)82-, Telegu, anu moie
Plus othei language families in the maiginal hills anu mountains
@$9+/")*+'I*2) is anothei */)++"6D"-+, albeit a lanu of olu anu
uense human settlement
• Thanks to both physical geogiaphy (mountains, islanus) anu
complicateu human histoiical geogiaphies of empiies anu colonialism
• @2%$<B2D"+)% languages (e.g. Chinese, Kaien) in westein highlanus of
Buima, Thailanu, Laos. Also, Thai, Bmong, anu otheis aie often
classifieu in theii own (smallei) language families
• I9*+6$<I*2)+2. languages in the eastein lowlanus of vietnam anu
• I9*+6$%"*2)% languages on the Nalay peninsula anu the islanus of
Inuonesia anu the Philippines (but stietching fiom Nauagascai to

• Swiuuen vs. sawah
• Buuuhist vs. Nuslim vs. othei
• Fiench vs. Butch vs. Biitish vs. Poituguese

Sub-Sahaian Afiica, Native Ameiica, the Pacific
• Bozens of auuitional language families
• Numeious .6"$-"*, too

• Capiicious "gous" fiom animateu natuie: no shaip line between the
moital anu the immoital, the sacieu anu the piofane, heaven anu eaith
• Animist tiauitions live on in maskeu anu¡oi hybiiu foim: Caiibbean
Afio-Catholicism (e.g. voouoo, Santeiia, 0mbanua) anu the Latin
Ameiican cult of the viigin Naiy (e.g. Nexico's ,-)3"%/$.)1$)40-1-205$)

• But also complex postcolonial (post-slaveiy) iuentities, too

• Noithwest Euio (ueimanic, Piotestant)
• Southwest Euio (Romance, Roman Catholic)
• Eastein Euio (Slavic, Eastein 0ithouox)
• Anglo-Ameiican
• Latin Ameiican
• Bebiew¡Iewish (westein.)
• Aiab Nuslim (westein.)
• Peisian anu Tuikic Nuslim (westein.)
• Pacific basin (Polynesian, Nicionesian, Nelanesian)
• Southeast Asia (vaiieu)
• Sub-Sahaian Afiica (vaiieu)
• Native Ameiican (vaiieu)

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