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# GROUP MEMBER

## SUHANA BINTI ISMAIL (A 150705)

MUHAMMAD HAKIMI BIN HARUN (A 149510)

## MUNIROH BINTI BAHARIN @ BAHADON (A 149001)

Multilane highways differ from two-lane highways since the
cross section consists of at least two or more lanes.
Illustrations of the variety of multilane highway configuration are
provided below
Multilane
highways may be exhibited the following
characteristics:
Posted
speed limits are usually between 40 and 55mi/h

They may be undivided or include medians

They are typically located in suburban areas or in high-
volume rural corridors
They may include a two way, left-turn median lane(TWLTL)
Traffic volumes range from 15000 to 40000/day
Traffic volumes may be as great as 100000/day with grade
separations
and no cross median access
Traffic signals at major crossing points are possible
There is partial control of access
Free-flow speed (FFS ) is a constant value beginning
at the y-intercept of each curve and extending to the
breakpoint, at which point the value of speed in the
traffic stream diminishes
The breakpoint value is the same value for all free-
flow speeds and occurs at a flow rate of 1400 pc/h/In
Interpolation is not advised, and the range of
calculated values are as follows:
42.5 mi/h < 47.5 mi/h: use FFS= 45 mi/h
47.5 mi/h < 52.5 mi/h: use FFS= 50 mi/h
52.5 mi/h < 57.5 mi/h: use FFS= 55 mi/h
57.5 mi/h < 62.5 mi/h: use FFS= 60 mi/h
Fordemand volumes beyond the breakpoint, the flow rate
declines in value until it reaches the capacity of the
freeway segment
Equations below are used to compute free flow speeds
beyond the breakpoint

## SBP-60 = 60- [5.00 ( vp -1400/800)1.31 ]

SBP-55 = 55- [3.78 ( vp -1400/700)1.31 ]
SBP-50 = 50- [3.49 ( vp -1400/600)1.31 ]
SBP-45 = 45- [2.78 ( vp -1400/500)1.31 ]
Where
SBP-60 = flow rate beyond the breakpoint
of 1400 pc/h/In
vp = demand flow rate (pc/h/In) under
equivalent base
condition
Free-flow speed is determined in two ways
Field measurement. Free-flow speed is the mean speed of
passenger cars during a period of low to moderate flow up
to 1400 pc/h/In. At least 100 passenger car speeds should
be measured using a recognized traffic engineering
measurement technique
Estimating FFS. If measurement of FFS is not practical,
then the value may be estimated using equation below:
The
capacity of a multilane highway under base conditions
ranges from 2400 pc/h/In at 60mi/h and decreases in 1000
pc/h/In increments to 1900 pc/h/In at FFS of 45 mi/h

## Thereare also averages across all lanes, which may

actually be distributed in a non uniform manner such that
a single lane could have stable flows at volumes greater
than 2200 pc/h/In
The density criteria are also similar with the exception of LOS F,
which begins at 40 pc/mi/In for 60 mi/h and increases to a density of >
45 pc/mi/In at 45 mi/h
The relationship among base free-flow speed, density, and level of
service as shown below
The flow rate in pc/h/In for a multilane highway is computed using
equation below
If there is significant recreational or weekend traffic. The
value is reduced. Heavy vehicle adjustment factor
Extended general segments

The procedures developed for two-
lane highway segments provide the
basis to evaluate level of service
and capacity.
For highway segment, there are two
levels of analysis:
1. Operational
2. Planning applications.
OPERATIONAL APPLICATIONS PLANNING APPLICATIONS

## At an operational level of correspond directly to the

procedures used for operational
analysis, level of service is analysis but use estimates and default
determined based on: values in calculations.
existing traffic Two classes of two-lane highways
are analyzed:
conditions or Class I: Function as primary arterials,
future traffic daily commuter routes, and links to
other arterial highways. Motorists
conditions and
expectations are that travel will be
specific roadway at relatively high speeds.
Class II. Two-lane highways where the
characteristics. expectations of motorists is that
travel speeds will be lower than for
Class I roads. These highways may
highways, they may also be located in
rugged terrain. Average trip lengths
on Class II highways are shorter than
on Class I highways.
The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) procedure is designed to analyze
two-lane highway segments for:
(1) two-way traffic,
(2) for a specific direction, or
(3) for a directional segment with a passing lane.
There are two measures used to describe the service quality of a two-
lane highway.
These are: 1. Percent time following another vehicle (PTSF) & 2.
Average travel speed (ATS)..
1. Percent time-spent-following 2. Average travel speed (ATS) is the
another vehicle (PTSF) is the space mean speed of vehicles in the
average percentage of time that traffic stream.
vehicles are traveling behind slower ATS is a measure of the degree of
vehicles. providing efficient mobility.
When headway is < 3 seconds,
the trailing vehicle is considered to
PTSF is a measure of the quality of
service provided by the highway.
Level of Service (LOS) expresses the performance of a
highway at traffic volumes less than capacity.

ATS.

PTSF.

## Level-of-service criteria are applied to travel during the peak

15 minutes of travel and on highway segments of significant
length.

## Level-of-service designations are from A (highest) to F

(lowest).
Level Level Level Level Level Level
of of of of of of
Service Service Service Service Service Service
A: B: C: D: E: F:
Unstable flow,
This is the highest Further increases passing maneuvers
quality of service. If vehicles are to in flow beyond the are difficult, if not
LOS B range impossible to Passing is virtually
maintain desired impossible.
speeds. results in a complete. Traffic is
noticeable congested with
increase in the demand exceeding
formation of capacity.
platoons and an Number of passing
increase in opportunities is
desired speed. approaching zero
platoon size.
as passing desires Platoons are
demand for increase, longer and more
passing other frequent as slower
vehicles increases vehicles are
significantly encountered more
Each lane operates often.
passing other essentially
vehicles. independently of
the opposing lane.
Volumes are lower
Passing than capacity and
at the lower level opportunities are
of LOS B, the Operating speeds are
severely decrease. variable.
passing demand Not uncommon conditions are
few (if any) and passing that platoons will instable and are
platoons of three capacity are form that are 5 to difficult to
or more cars. approximately 10 consecutive predict.
equal. vehicles in length.
Design hourly
Functional traffic volume Design speed Design vehicle
classification and vehicle
mix
Topography of Presence of
Level of the the area at heavy vehicle Cross-sectional
services the highway on the steep of the highway

Social angd
Safety Available environmental
funds factors
Classified according to their function in term of services they
provide
A systematic development of highway and the logical
highway responsibility among different jurisdiction
Categorized as rural and urban depending on the area of the
highway located and type of the land used and population.
Classification of rural and urban;
Minor Local
arterials arterials collectors collectors
streets

## Freeways are not listed as separate functional class because

its generally classified as part of principle arterial system
Principle Arterial System
Serves the major activity center of the urban Other principle arterials not classified as
area and consist mainly of the highest-travel- freeways
volume corridors. Network of highways that serve most of the
Serves trip that bypass the central business interstate trips and a substantial amount of
districts (CDBs) of urbanized areas. intrastate trips.
Subclass mainly on type of access to the Virtually all highway trips between urbanized
facilities area and high percentage of trips between
i. Interstate fully controlled and grades- small urban areas.
separated interchange. System is further divided into freeways ( fully
ii. Expressway controlled but may controlled access and not at-grade
iii. Other principle arterials partial or no
controlled access.

## Minor Arterial System

Streets and highways that interconnects with System augment in the formation of a network
and augment the urban primary arterials of road that connects cities and others.
Serves as local bus routes and may connect Travel speeds are relatively high with
communities within the urban areas. minimum interface to through movement.
Spacing between minor arterial streets not
less than 1.6 km. its can be 3.2 to 4.8 km in
suburban fringes.
Collector system
Purpose of street system to collect Carry traffic primarily within individual
traffic from local streets in residential counties.
area or CBDs and convey to the arterial Trip distance usually shorter
system. System subdivide into major collector
and minor collector
Consist all other streets within urban Consist all other streets within rural
area but not include other system. area but not include other system.
Provide access to abutting land and to Serve short distance trips and connect
Traffic is discouraged.
First step of designing highway is the selection of the appropriate set
of geometric standards
There's no single set of geometric standards can be use for all highway.
Consider characteristic of the highway in selecting geometric design
standards.
Design Hourly Volume (DHV)
The projected hourly volume that used for design.
Volume usually taken as a percentage of the expected ADT on
the highway.
Mostly 30th highest hourly volume can be a reasonable
estimate of the DHV for urban highways
Design Speed
The selected speed to determine the various geometric features of
Its depends on functional classification of the highway, topography
of the area of highway, traffic volume and land use of the
Topography - Level terrain, Rolling terrain, mountainous terrain
Design speed should consistent with the speed that motorist expect
to drive.
design speed range 35 km/h to 112 km/h
Table 15.1 Minimum Design Speed For Rural Collector Roads

## Type of terrain 0 to 400 400 to 2000 Over 2000

Level 40 50 60

Rolling 30 40 50

mountainous 20 30 40
Design Vehicle
Represented all vehicle on the highway
Selected design vehicle used to determine critical
Table 15.2 (page 778)
Cross-sectional Element

Width of Curb and
Shoulders Medians median
travel lane gutters
barriers

## Cross slopes Guardrails Sidewalks Side slopes Right-of-way

Selected judiciously to limit the effect of
Depends on the design speed and the
design vehicles
Grades have greater impact on truck than
on passenger cars.
based on the operating characteristics off
the design vehicles on the highway.
Table 15.3 gives recommended values for
Minimum grades depend on the drainage
condition of the highway.
Composed of vertical and horizontal elements.
Vertical alignment includes straight (tagent) highway grades and the
parabolic curves that connect these grade.
Horizontal alignment includes the straight (tangent) sections of the the
roadway and the circular curves that connect their change in direction.
The design of the alignment depends primarily on the design speed
selected highways.
Factor should be consider to achieve compatibility
- proper balancing of the grades of tangents with curvatures of
horizontal curves and vertical curves with respect to each other.
Components of Highway Design

Horizontal Alignment

Plan View

Vertical Alignment

Profile View
VERTICAL ALIGNMENT

## -Design of vertical alignment :

Selection of suitable grades for tangent sections.
Appropriate length of vertical curves
Topography of the area
-Usually parabolic in shape.
-Classified of vertical curve:
Crest vertical curve
Sag vertical curve
LENGTH OF CREST VERTICAL
CURVES

## Criterion used for design of a crest vertical curve : provision of a

minimum stopping sight distance (SSD).
2 scenarios could control the design length:

## SSD less than the length of the vertical curve

SSD greater than the length of the vertical
S<L
curve S>L
L= Length of vertical curve (m) PVC= point of vertical curve
S= Sight distance (m) PVT= point of vertical tangent
H1= Height of eye above the roadway surface (m) Driver eye in a vehicle on grade at point c is H1
H2= Height of object above roadway surface (m) Object seen by driver at point D is H2
G1,G2= Grades of tangents (%) PN = drivers line of sight
SSD =S
SSD:
= 1 + + 2
2
The minimum length of vertical of the vertical curve for the required sight
distance :
658 2
= 2 For S>L = For S<L
658

Based on K factor :
- K is the length of the vertical curve per percent change in A (table 15.4)
=
LENGTH OF SAG VERTICAL CURVES

## Selection of the minimum length of a sag vertical curve is controlled by :

2) Comfort while driving on the curve
3) General appearances of the curve
4) Adequate control of drainage at the low point of the curve.
MINIMUM LENGTH BASED ON SSD CRITERION
Headlight SSD requirement is sight distance will be restricted during the period
of darkness
Position of the headlight and the direction of the headlight beam will dictate
the stretch of highway ahead that is lighted.
Minimum length of sag vertical curves:
(120 + 3.5)
= 2 For S> L

= For S< L
120 + 3.5

Safe condition, the minimum length of the sag vertical should assure a light
beam sight distance at least equal to SSD.
MINIMUM LENGTH BASED ON COMFORT CRITERION
Based on the fact that when a vehicle travels on sag vertical curve, both the
gravitational and centrifugal force acts in combination.(acts in opposition to each other)
Factor making difficult for comfort to measured
- Weight carried, body suspension of vehicle, tire flexibility
2
=
395
MINIMUM LENGTH OF CURVE BASED ON APPEARANCE CRITERION
Satisfied by assuring that the minimum length of the sag curve not less than expressed
by equation :
= 30
MINIMUM LENGTH BASED ON DRAINAGE CRITERION
Must be considered when the road is curbed
ELEVATION OF CREST & SAG VERTICAL
CURVES

The method to compute the elevation relies on the properties of the parabola:
= 2 + +
Where a is constant and b and c are 0, the maximum and minimum points and the
rate of change of slope from first & second derivative
Beginning of the curve is the BVC, end of the curve is EVC.
The intersection of the grade lines (tangent)is the PVI, which equidistant from
BVC and EVC.
DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR CREST &
SAG VERTICAL CURVES

## Determine the minimum length of curve to satisfy sight distance requirements

and other criteria for sag curves (comfort, appearance, drainage)
Determine from the layout plans the station and elevation of the point where the
Compute the elevation of the beginning of the vertical curve BVC and the end of
vertical curve EVC.

## Compute the offset = 200

2.
Compute the elevation on the curve for each station.
Compute the location and elevation of the highest (crest) and lowest (sag)point
on the curve.
HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
Consists of straight sections of the road (tangents) connect by curves.
Usually segment of circle, which have radii that will provide for a smooth flow of
traffic.
Design of horizontal alignment entails:
1) Determination of the minimum radius.
2) Determination of the length of the curve.
3) Computation of the horizontal offsets.
Type of horizontal curve

Simple

## Layout of a Simple Horizontal Curve

R = Radius of Circular Curve
BC = Beginning of Curve
(or PC = Point of Curvature)
EC = End of Curve
(or PT = Point of Tangency)
PI = Point of Intersection
T = Tangent Length
(T = PI BC = EC - PI)
L = Length of Curvature
(L = EC BC)
M = Middle Ordinate
E = External Distance
C = Chord Length
= Deflection Angle
Traditionally, the steepness of the curvature is defined by either the radius (R)
or the degree of curvature (D)
In highway work we use the ARC definition
Degree of curvature = angle subtended by an arc of length 100 feet
The curve segment of circle with radius R.
1719
=

Radius and degree of curve are not independent of each other
Length of the curve , =

180
Tangent: T = R tan(/2)
Chord: C = 2R sin(/2)
Mid Ordinate: M = R R cos(/2)
External Distance: E = R sec(/2) - R
Compound

## Consists of two or more simple curve in

succession, turning in the same direction, with any
two successive curves having a common tangent
point.
Used mainly to
1) Obtain desirable shapes of the horizontal
alignment
2) At grade intersection, ramps and interchanges
3) Highway section in difficult topographic areas.
AASHTO recommends that the ratio of the flatter
not be greater than 2:1, so driver can adjust to
sudden changes in curvature and speed.
Reversed

## Usually consist of two simple curve

with equal radii turning in opposite
directions with a common tangent.
Generally used to change the
alignment of the highway.
Recommended because sudden
changes to the alignment may results
in driver difficult to keep in their
lanes.
Necessary to reverse alignment when
preferable design consists of two
simple horizontal curves, separated
by a tangent between them to
achieve full superelevation
Spiral
Placed between tangents and circular curves or between two adjacent circular curves