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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of Human Anatomy and Physiology with title


Anatomical Position of Human Body which made by :
name : Qoryani
reg number : 141 4442 012
class : ICP B
group : Five (V)
has been checked by Assistant and Assistant coordinator, so this report is
accepted.

Makassar, April 4th 2017


Assistant Coordinator Assistant

A. Citra Pratiwi,.S.Pd,. M,Ed Muhammad NurArsyad,.S.Pd

Known,
Lecturer of Responsibility

Dr. Drs. A. Mushawwir Taiyeb, M. Kes


NIP: 19640416 198803 1 002
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
The standard anatomical position is agreed upon by the international
medical community. In this position, a person is standing upright with the
lower limbs together or slightly apart, feet flat on the floor and facing forward,
upper limbs at the sides with the palms facing forward and thumbs pointing
away from the body, and head and eyes directed straight ahead. In addition,
the arms are usually placed slightly apart from the body so that the hands do
not touch the sides. The positions of the limbs, particularly the arms, have
important implications for directional terms in those appendages.
The basis for the standard anatomical position in humans comes from the
supine position used for examining human cadavers during autopsies.
As human beings, knowing the anatomy ourselves indispensable. Why?
Because by knowing and understanding every part of our body, we can see a
healthy life and care in maintaining a healthy body. The study of human
anatomy and tubh known anthropotomy. anthropotomy is a special field within
anatomy that studies the structure of the human body, while the study of
tissues to histology and cells to cytology. Constituent of the human body
shampir same as making up the body of the animal consisting of multiple
organ systems, each system is its organ composed of several organs of the
constituent, which each organ consists of a set of networks, each network
made up of cells so that it becomes a unit called organism.
Humans have the body of a variety of different organs and form a system.
Such as the respiratory system, digestive and circulatory systems. Human
organs, the heart, eyes, stomach, ear, lung, skin and liver. From each of these
organs memempunyai its own function.

In the branch of Biology, learn about anatomy which is only about the
composition of the body structures in living things. Wherein a result of
research on the anatomy of the human body is related to the functions and
systems in the human body.
The human body is composed of a composition or a variety of bone
interrelated with each other. Meanwhile, within the framework of the head has
8 pieces of bones, skeleton bones chest 25, 14 facial bones, spine and hips 26
pieces. At first tongue 62 foot bones and bone pieces.
Science is the important knowledge which is including all of the
knowledge and it so important and very useful for human life and human
activity, because all of our daily activity always using science theory.
Especially for biology which is one of science branch.
As we know there are one subject on biology that learned about
human body. Which we called human anatomy and physiology, in this subject
we focused to learned about body part and structure of body. And also we
learned some system and it function.
Especially in this observation about anatomy stance which explain
about a trim of body which we can divided and paired as follow as superior
and inferior, posterior and anterior, medial and lateral. The human body is
divided into several major regions that can be identified externally. The
principal regions are the head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs.
So, the university student will learn more about the human body
trim, that give the explanation about some part of human body
B. Purpose
To knowing the position of human anatomy
C. Benefit
1. Students are able to know the attitude of the human anatomy through
simple experiments
2. after these experiments that students can easily determine the name of
part of the human anatomy.

CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE

Anatomy is an intimidating topic to lots of people, but it is including


teachers of exercise.Previously, we examinedhow the recognition of body segment
lengths that deviated from normal affected how a movement would look
(Measure of a Man; CrossFit Journal, July08 (71):35). It was our first step at
developing an eye for coachingIn the next step, we will take a look at how we
describehuman movement in very specific spatial and directionalterms and
hopefully simplify them for easy use inteaching ( Crosspit,2009).
A structure is closer to the cardinal sagittalplane (center) than another
structure The sternum (breastbone) is medial to both shoulders. Example 2: The
spinal column is medial to the ribs.Lateral: A structure that lies farther away from
the cardinalsagittal plane than another structure The shoulders are lateral to the
sternum.The 3 Cardinal Planes:Sagittal, Frontal, and TransverseNow that we have
a starting point, we can take a few moresteps toward describing human
movement. Anatomists use the convention of anatomical planes ro describe
thelocations of body parts on various sections the body.Most anatomy texts may
only passingly refer to anatomical planes because they expect the reader to be
familiar with the cardinal (important) planes, sagittal, frontal, andtransverse
The Sagittal Plane divides the body into right-handand left-hand sides as it passes
front (toe side) to back (heel side).The Frontal Plane divides the body into front
and back halves as it passes side to side (shoulder to shoulder).The Transverse
Plane divides the body into top and bottom (at the waist) as it passes
perpendicular to thelong axis of the body (the intersection of the Sagittal
andFrontal planes). These three cardinal planes intersect at the bodys
theoreticalcenter of gravity or center of mass. This intersectionwas first reported
by Christian Wilhelm Braune in the late 1800s, when plane terminology was
first usedto describe the cuts made in a dissection. Planes are also useful because
they allow us to describe the orientation (Crosspit,2009).
The course human anatomy and physiology for nurses is designed to help
student nurses learn and understand how the human body is organized and
function. Equipping the student nurse with the knowledge of anatomy and
physiology will further assist the student in understanding what happens and what
to do when the body is injured, diseased or placed under stress. This teaching and
learning material (lecture note) for nursing students at a diploma level is prepared
in line with this concept.
Therefore, the students are expected to achieve the following general educational
objectives after completion of the course:
Understand and use anatomical terms.
Understand the function of the various organs and their relations with one
another.
Know the location of each organ and the important anatomical land marks.
Know the normal structure of the human body in general.
Use the knowledge of anatomy and physiology in nursing practice.
( Assefa,2003).
The body becomes elongated in its whole length, but more especially behind
the mental foramen, to provide space for the three additional teeth developed in
this part. The depth of the body increases owing to increased growth of the
alveolar part, to afford room for the roots of the teeth, and by thickening of the
subdental portion which enables the jaw to withstand the powerful action of the
masticatory muscles; but the alveolar portion is the deeper of the two, and,
consequently, the chief part of the body lies above the oblique line. The
mandibular canal, after the second dentition, is situated just above the level of the
mylohyoid line; and the mental foramen occupies the position usual to it in the
adult. The angle becomes less obtuse, owing to the separation of the jaws by the
teeth; about the fourth year it is 140. the alveolar and subdental portions of the
body are usually of equal depth. The mental foramen opens midway between the
upper and lower borders of the bone, and the mandibular canal runs nearly parallel
with the mylohyoid line. The ramus is almost vertical in direction, the angle
measuring from 110 to 120 (Gray,2001)
the bone becomes greatly reduced in size, for with the loss of the teeth the
alveolar process is absorbed, and, consequently, the chief part of the bone is below
the oblique line. The mandibular canal, with the mental foramen opening from it,
is close to the alveolar border. The ramus is oblique in direction, the angle
measures about 140, and the neck of the condyle is more or less bent backward
(Gray,2001).
Cortical osteons are called Haversian systems. Haversian systems are
cylindrical in shape, are approximately 400 mm long and 200 mm wide at their
base, and form a branching network within the cortical bone (3). The walls of
Haversian systems are formed of concentric lamellae. Cortical bone is typically
less metabolically active than trabecular bone, but this depends on the species.
There are an estimated 21 _ 106 cortical osteons in healthy human adults, with a
total Haversian remodeling area of approximately 3.5 m2. Cortical bone porosity
is usually _5%, but this depends on the proportion of actively remodeling
Haversian systems to inactive cortical osteons. Increased cortical remodeling
causes an increase in cortical porosity and decrease in cortical bone mass. Healthy
aging adults normally experience thinning of the cortex and increased cortical
porosity. Cortical bone has an outer periosteal surface and inner endosteal surface.
Periosteal surface activity is important for appositional growth and fracture repair
(Clarke Bart.2008).
Anatomists take two general approaches to the study of the bodys
structures: regional and systemic. Regional anatomy is the study of the
interrelationships of all of the structures in a specific body region, such as the
abdomen. Studying regional anatomy helps us appreciate the interrelationships of
body structures, such as how muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other structures
work together to serve a particular body region. In contrast, systemic anatomy is
the study of the structures that make up a discrete body systemthat is, a group
of structures that work together to perform a unique body function. For example, a
systemic anatomical study of the muscular system would consider all of the
skeletal muscles of the body (Bill, 2013).

CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENT METHOD

A. Time and Place


Day/Date : Wednesday/April 4th 2017
Time : 13:30 15:00 pm
Place : Laboratory of zoology at the 3nd flour in east side
faculty of mathematics and science state university
of makassar
B. Tools and Material
1. Tools
Pen
Ruler
2. Materials
Probandus
Picture of Human Body
Paper
3. Work Procedures
Prepare for all equipment and materials its you needed
observe the direction of human body parts and then choose one to
be the media probandus and then draw.
observe the field position of the body in an upright position
draw to probandus position into observation result.

CHAPTER IV
OBSERVATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Result
B. Discussion
Based on the observation about human body stance. The other word if we
must know some important terms that has relation with human anatomy and
physiology, especially for the human trim direction.SSS
There are 3 kind of human trim direction that consist of Median saggital
Plane, Transverse Plane, and Coronal or Frontal Plane. Then each trim
direction has some part. In Median Saggital Plane consist of superior part and
inferior part, in Transverse Plane also consist of anterior part and posterior,
and Coronal or Frontal Plane consist of Medial part and lateral part.
According to theory The Transverse Plane divides the body into top and
bottom (at the waist) as it passes perpendicular to the long axis of the body
(the intersection of the Sagittal and Frontal planes). These three cardinal
planes intersect at the bodys theoretical center of gravity or center of mass.
The Sagittal Plane divides the body into right-hand and left-hand sides as it
passes front (toe side) to back (heel side). The Frontal Plane divides the body
into front and back halves as it passes side to side (shoulder to shoulder).
According Pagarra (2009), some terms relating to cross sections or areas,
namely:
1. Field of the median, ie fields stretching from front to rear that divides the
body into left and right sides equally.
2. Field sagittal / para sagittal, namely the parallel longitudinal median plane.
3. Field coronal / frontal, ie fields stretching from left to right side that
divides the body into front and rear parts are balanced and perpendicular to
the median plane.
4. Field transversal / horizontal ie transverse field which divides the upper
and lower parts. This hemisphere perpendicular to the median plane and
coronal.
5. The longitudinal field is the field that follows the longest dimension of the
organ and perpendicular to the transverse plane.
6. Field oblique (oblique) is the field that makes an angle smaller or larger
with the transverse plane
By Bryna (2010), in the study of anatomy, we use terms that have been
commonly used and agreed worldwide. In anatomy, we determine that the
anatomical position of the body is upright, legs and arms in addition to
meeting with the palms facing forward. Terminology for directions or place:
1. Superior (cranial): more toward the top (head)
2. Inferior (caudal): more toward the bottom (tail)
3. Medial: towards the midline
4. Lateral: away from the midline
5. Ventral (anterior): towards the belly (front)
6. Dorsal: towards the back (rear)
7. Dextra: right
8. Sinistra: Left
9. Proximal: approaching the base
10. Distal: approaching end
11. Superficial: towards the surface
12. Profundus: more inward

CHAPTER V
CLOSING
A. Conclution
Based on the observation about human body stance, the observation
draw the conclusion as follows :
1. There are 3 kind of plane that consist of Median Sagittal plane, Transverse
plane, and Coronal or Frontal Plane.
2. Median Sagittal Plane consist of superior and inferior part, Transverse
Plane consist of Anterior and Posterior part, and Coronal or Frontal Plane
consist of medial and lateral part.
In the cell there are organelles-organelle that has its own function, for
example mitochondria serve as forming the which is required for energy
metabolism; core (nucleus) for reproduction, etc. Similar to join the cells that
make up tissues, and tissues are composed of cells similar combine to form
organs. Whose Organs particular function subsequently form a system.

B. Suggestion
As for my advice on this lab is a lab materials should take a goat, or a cow,
or the others, by looking at the structure of bone anatomy on the part of the
Human.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Assefa Nega. 2003. Human Anatomy and Physiology. Lecture Notes .Hal 1

Clarke Bart.2008. Normal Bone Anatomy and Physiology. Clinical Journal of the
American Society of Nephrology. ISSN: 1555-9041/3030131

Lon Kilgore.2009. Crpssfit. Journal Articles.hal 1-2


s
Gray Henry.2001. Anatomy of the Human Body. . http:/// /anatomi-dan-
fisiologi-manusia/tubuh/fullh0Lideii.Blog
Archivedibaliktubuhmanusia.htm. Diakses 4 april 2017

Bryna. 2010. Dibalik Tubuh Manusia. Diakses pada tanggal 03 April 2015.
Pagarra, Halifah, Adnan. 2009. Struktur Hewan. Makassar : Jurusan Biologi
FMIPA UNM.