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FEBRUARY 2017

Robt. L. Rowan & Assoc., Inc.


Est. 1953

COMPRESSOR FOUNDATION
SOLUTIONS
TURNKEY CIVIL DESIGN TO INSTALLATION
24-HOUR, 4000 PSI TURNAROUND CONCRETE
BASF Construction Products Distribution
+ OR - .001 ADJUSTABLE MOTOR MOUNTS
Adjustable Canister Anchor Bolts

ROWAN REPAIR SOLUTIONS SOLVE:


EXCESSIVE FRAME MOVEMENT
CRACKED GROUT OR CONCRETE
CRACKED CHOCKS OR LOSE SOLE PLATES
BROKEN ANCHOR BOLTS
SOFT FOOT AND COPLANAR ISSUES

713-681-5811 or 800-231-2908
www.rlrowan.com
Engineering position available. Contact us for 2 PD-Hour
Civil/Mechanical Engineer, onsite lunch-and-learn
must have 5+ years of experience. or webinar class on
Please inquire to hr@rlrowan.com. foundations and bolting.
BASF Construction Products Distribution
Working together to provide team solutions to all of your foundation problems.
Happy Valentines
to the heart of
your compressor

www.kbdelta.com
800-632-3994
310-530-1539
Torrance, California USA
info@kbdelta.com sales@kbdelta.com

Metallic Plates|Thermoplastics|Springs|Buttons|Poppets|Kits|Center Bolts|Pins|Lift Washers|O-Rings


FEBRUARY2017
ON THE COVER
4EGOEKIV4VSPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

FEATURES
BP Bets Big On Emerging African Gas Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

WORDS Turbomachinery Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


Editorial Chairman
Joe Kane
Moving Toward The Industrial Internet Of Things . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Publisher Applying API 617, 8th Edition, To Expander-Compressors


Brent Haight With Active Magnetic Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Managing Editor
Gas Compression: A Primer On Gas Compression
Angela Jarrell
Equipment & Technology, Chapter Eight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Associate Editor
Dbora Gonzalez de Galdeano
IN EVERY ISSUE
GRAPHICS
Art Director Contracts & Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Amanda Ryan
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
ADS In The News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
VP, Advertising & Business
Development Events Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Sarah Yildiz
Manager, Advertising & Circulation
Index Of Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Kara Kane 'PEWWMIHW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
SUBSCRIPTIONS Haight Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Manager, Advertising & Circulation
Kara Kane Lagniappe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Circulation Support
Rusty Wilson

WEBSITES
&KLHI7HFKQRORJ\2IFHU
Jason Bainbridge
FEBRUARY CONTRIBUTORS
Uwe Bruckhoff, Brent Haight, B. Henry Henderson, Joe Kane, Yannick Paul,
Gas Compression Magazine W. Norm Shade, Jeffrey Smithanik, and Steven B. Todaro
15814 Champion Forest Drive, Suite 409
Houston, TX 77379
Email: info@thirdcoastpublishing.net Gas Compression Magazine Volume 2, No. 2 Published 12 issues/year by Third Coast Publishing Group LLC,
Phone: 832.271.7300 15814 Champion Forest Drive, Suite 409, Houston, TX 77379. Copyright 2017 Third Coast Publishing Group
www.gascompressionmagazine.com LLC. All Rights Reserved. Materials protected by US and international copyright laws and treaties. Unauthorized
duplication and publication is expressly prohibited. Printed in the USA.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Circulation Manager, Gas Compression Magazine, 15814 Champion
A MEMBER OF Forest Drive, Suite 409, Houston, TX 77379 USA. www.gascompressionmagazine.com

PARTNERED WITH:
CONTRACTS
& Information is gathered from Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) records and other public documents
permits

and is intended to provide details on construction projects that involve natural gas compression equipment. Every ef-
fort is made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the information presented; however, project details (including
but not limited to dates, equipment, locations, etc.) are subject to change without notice. Additional information
may be found at http://gascompressionmagazine.com/contracts-permits

PROJECT tion to construct, own, and operate a new natural gas pipeline
PORT ARTHUR LNG, PALNG COMMON W]WXIQ4SVX%VXLYV4MTIPMRITVSTSWIWXSGSRWXVYGXQMPIW
FACILITIES CO., PORT ARTHUR PIPELINE LLC; OQ SJRI[MR QQ HMEQIXIVTMTIPMRIETTVS\M-
PORT ARTHUR LIQUEFACTION PROJECT QEXIP]QMPIW OQ SJZEVMEFPIHMEQIXIVPEXIVEPTMTI-
PMRIWX[SGSQTVIWWSVWXEXMSRWXSXEPMRKLT O; 
PLANNED COMPRESSION: and associated facilities to deliver up to 2000 MMcf/d of natural
Two Liquefaction Trains; Compressor Stations KEWXSXLIPMUYIJEGXMSRTVSNIGX4%40WTVSTSWIHJEGMPMXMIW[MPPFI
PSGEXIHMR3VERKIERH.IJJIVWSR'SYRXMIW8I\EWERH'EQIVSR
PROJECT DETAILS: 4EVMWL0SYMWMERE97%4%40IWXMQEXIWXLITVSTSWIHTMTIPMRI
Port Arthur LNG LLC and PALNG Common Facilities Com- JEGMPMXMIWGSWXXSFIETTVS\MQEXIP]97QMPPMSR
pany LLC have jointly requested FERC authorization to site, 8LITMTIPMRIJEGMPMXMIW[MPPMRXIVGSRRIGX[MXLI\MWXMRKMRXVEWXEXI
construct, and operate a natural gas liquefaction facility and and interstate natural gas pipeline infrastructure to transport do-
PMUYIIHREXYVEPKEWI\TSVXQEVMRIERHXVYGOPSEHMRKXIVQMREP QIWXMGREXYVEPKEWEWJIIHKEWWYTTP]XSXLIPMUYIJEGXMSRTVSNIGX
JEGMPMXMIWMR.IJJIVWSR'SYRX]8I\EW97%
The liquefaction project will permit natural gas to be pre- PROJECT
XVIEXIHPMUYIIHWXSVIHERHPSEHIHSRXSPMUYIIHREXYVEPKEW KINDER MORGAN LOUISIANA PIPELINE LLC:
(LNG) vessels berthed at the liquefaction projects proposed SABINE PASS EXPANSION PROJECT
QEVMRIJEGMPMXMIWXSFII\TSVXIHXSJSVIMKRQEVOIXW8LIPMUYI-
faction project will include two liquefaction trains with a total PLANNED COMPRESSION:
GETEGMX]SJ11GJH8LITVSNIGXEPWSMRGPYHIWGSRWXVYG- Compressor Station 760
XMSRSJXLVII02+XEROWQEVMRIERHXVYGOPSEHMRKJEGMPMXMIWERH
EPPRIGIWWEV]ERGMPPEV]ERHWYTTSVXJEGMPMXMIW PROJECT DETAILS:
This project consists of both natural gas liquefaction and LNG Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC (KMLP) has requested
I\TSVXJEGMPMXMIW8LIWIJEGMPMXMIW[MPPVIGIMZIJIIHKEWWYTTP]JVSQ *)6'EYXLSVM^EXMSRXSGSRWXVYGXERHSTIVEXIW]WXIQQSHMGE-
4SVX%VXLYV 4MTIPMRI 00' 4%40 8LI REXYVEP KEW [MPP FI TVI- XMSRWRIGIWWEV]XSIREFPI/104XSSJJIVHIOEXLIVQW
XVIEXIHPMUYIIHWXSVIHMRJYPPGSRXEMRQIRX02+WXSVEKIXEROW TIVHE]SJVQXVERWTSVXEXMSRWIVZMGIYXMPM^MRKERSVXLXSWSYXL
ERH IZIRXYEPP] XVERWJIVVIH JVSQ XLI 02+ WXSVEKI XEROW SRXS path on KMLPs system; and for permission and approval to
02+ZIWWIPWEXXLIPMUYIJEGXMSRTVSNIGXWQEVMRIJEGMPMX] EFERHSRERHVIQSZIJEGMPMXMIWEXERI\MWXMRKQIXIVWXEXMSRERH
Construction of the liquefaction project is anticipated to begin XLIVITPEGIQIRXSJEPEVKIVQIXIVWXEXMSRSRXLIWEQIWMXI
MR XLI XLMVH UYEVXIV SJ 8LIVI [MPP FI ER ETTVS\MQEXI WM\ 8LITVSTSWIHJEGMPMXMIW[MPPTVSZMHIJSVKEWS[SRERSVXLXS
month lag between the completion dates of the two liquefaction WSYXLTEXLSR/104WW]WXIQXSHIPMZIVREXYVEPKEWJVSQI\MWXMRK
XVEMRW8LIVWXPMUYIJEGXMSRXVEMRMWI\TIGXIHXSFIGSQTPIXIHERH pipeline interconnects to the natural gas liquefaction and LNG
MRWIVZMGIMRXLIVWXUYEVXIVSJERHXLIWIGSRHPMUYIJEGXMSR I\TSVXJEGMPMX]GSRWXVYGXIH ERHGYVVIRXP]FIMRKI\TERHIH ERH
XVEMRGSQTPIXIHERHMRWIVZMGIMRXLIXLMVHUYEVXIVSJ STIVEXIHF]7EFMRI4EWW0MUYIJEGXMSR00' 740 EX7EFMRI4EWWMR
According to FERC documents, the following major compo- 'EQIVSR4EVMWL0SYMWMERE 740)\TSVX8IVQMREP 
nents will be constructed as part of the liquefaction project: 8LITVSNIGX[MPPYXMPM^I/104WI\MWXMRKQEMRPMRIERH[MPPVI-
8[S PMUYIJEGXMSR XVEMRW IEGL [MXL MXW S[R JIIH KEW TVI UYMVIGIVXEMRQSHMGEXMSRWXS/104WW]WXIQMRGPYHMRK GSR-
treatment facilities and heavy hydrocarbon removal unit struction and operation of delivery point facilities consisting
8LVIIJYPPGSRXEMRQIRX02+WXSVEKIXEROW SJEXETERHPEXIVEPXSGSRRIGXXSXLI740)\TSVX8IVQMREP 
%QEVMRIJEGMPMX]MRGPYHMRKX[S02+ZIWWIPQEVMRIFIVXLW QSHMGEXMSRSJXLVIII\MWXMRKHIPMZIV]MRXIVGSRRIGXWXSIREFPI
6IJVMKIVERXQEOIYTERHGSRHIRWEXITVSHYGXWXSVEKIERH VIGIMTXSJKEWMREHHMXMSRXSXLIHIPMZIV]SJKEW GSRWXVYGXMSR
GSRHIRWEXIPSEHMRKVIJVMKIVERXYRPSEHMRKXVYGOJEGMPMXMIW and operation of additional compression at a previously cer-
1EXIVMEPSJSEHMRKJEGMPMX] XMGEXIHGSQTVIWWSVWXEXMSR GSRWXVYGXMSRERHSTIVEXMSRSJ
'SQFYWXMSRXYVFMRIKIRIVEXSVWJSVIPIGXVMGTS[IV header pipelines to connect the compressor station to the three
3XLIVEY\MPMEV]W]WXIQWYXMPMXMIWERHMRJVEWXVYGXYVI I\MWXMRKTMTIPMRIMRXIVGSRRIGXWXLEX/104TVSTSWIWXSQSHMJ]
In a related application, PAPL has requested FERC authoriza- ERH XLIEFERHSRQIRXERHVIQSZEPSJJEGMPMXMIWEXERI\MWXMRK

4 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


meter station and the placement of a larger meter station on PROJECT DETAILS:
XLIWEQIWMXI;MXLXLITVSTSWIHQSHMGEXMSRWMRTPEGI/104 4SQIPS 'SRRIGXSV 00' 4SQIPS  LEW PIH ER ETTPMGEXMSR
[MPPMRGVIEWIVQRSVXLXSWSYXLXVERWTSVXEXMSRGETEGMX]SRMXW [MXL XLI *)6' XS FYMPH S[R STIVEXI ERH QEMRXEMR E 
W]WXIQF]EXPIEWXHIOEXLIVQWTIVHE]JVSQXLII\MWXMRK QMPI OQ MR QQ HMEQIXIVREXYVEPKEWTMTIPMRIE
TMTIPMRIMRXIVGSRRIGXWXSXLITVSTSWIHRI[HIPMZIV]TSMRX[MXL RI[LT O; GSQTVIWWSVWXEXMSRERI[QMPI
740EXXLI740)\TSVX8IVQMREP OQ  MRHMEQIXIV HMWGLEVKI TMTIPMRI ERH EWWSGMEXIH
8SXEPGSWXJSVXLIRI[/104TVSTSWIHJEGMPMXMIWMWETTVS\M EFSZIKVSYRHJEGMPMXMIWERHTVIWWYVIVIKYPEXMSR
QEXIP] 97 QMPPMSR8LI XEVKIXIH MRWIVZMGI HEXI JSV XLI ;LIRGSQTPIXIHXLI4SQIPS'SRRIGXSV4MTIPMRI[MPPTVS
TVSNIGXMW%TVMP ZMHIHIOEXLIVQWTIVHE]SJVQXVERWTSVXEXMSRGETEG
8LITVSTSWIHTVSNIGXMRGPYHIWXLIEHHMXMSRSJXLVII MX] FIX[IIR8I\EW )EWXIVR8VERWQMWWMSR 04 ERH ER MRXVEWXEXI
LT O; 7SPEV8YVFMRI1EVWXYVFMRIHVMZIRGSQ LIEHIVW]WXIQ XLI2YIGIW,IEHIV XSFIGSRWXVYGXIHF]:EP
TVIWWSV YRMXW ERH ETTYVXIRERGIW EX 'SQTVIWWSV 7XEXMSR  PI]'VSWWMRK4MTIPMRI00'
'7 %YXLSVM^IHMR%TVMP'7MWER%GEHME4EVMWL 4SQIPSMWTVSTSWMRKXSGSRWXVYGXERHSTIVEXIXLI4SQIPS
0SYMWMEREKVIIRIPH GSQTVIWWSV WXEXMSR XS FI GSRWXVYGXIH 'SQTVIWWSV 7XEXMSR RIEV 6SFWXS[R8I\EW8LI WXEXMSR [MPP
EWTEVXSJXLI0EOI'LEVPIW)\TERWMSR4VSNIGX GSRWMWX SJ XLI X[S 'EXIVTMPPEV + REXYVEP KEWVIH GSQ
8LITVSTSWEPEPWSMRGPYHIWMRWXEPPEXMSRERHSTIVEXMSRSJGIV TVIWWSVIRKMRIW[MXL%VMIP.'+GSQTVIWWSVWERIQIVKIRG]
XEMREY\MPMEV]IUYMTQIRXEX'7MRGPYHMRKKEWGSSPMRKJYIP IRKMRI JSV FEGOYT TS[IV WXSVEKI XEROW JSV GSRHIRWEXI IR
KEWLIEXIV\IHVSSJWXSVEKIXEROWPXIVWITEVEXSVWX[SGSQ KMRIPYFISMPERHIRKMRIGSSPERXXVYGOPSEHMRKSTIVEXMSRWJSV
TVIWWSVFYMPHMRKW SRILSYWMRKX[SGSQTVIWWSVYRMXWERHXLI GSRHIRWEXI TVSGIWW JYKMXMZIW TVSGIWW ZIRXMRKFPS[HS[R ERH
SXLIVLSYWMRKSRIGSQTVIWWSVYRMX ERIQIVKIRG]KIRIVEXSV QEMRXIRERGIWXEVXYTERHWLYXHS[REGXMZMXMIW
EQEWXIVGSRXVSPFYMPHMRKERSJGIE[EVILSYWIEREY\MPMEV] 2EXYVEP KEW [MPP FI XVERWTSVXIH JVSQ XLI XVERWQMWWMSR PMRI
FYMPHMRKERHEQIXIVFYMPHMRK XSXLI4SQIPS'SQTVIWWSV7XEXMSR8LIMRGSQMRKREXYVEPKEW
WXVIEQ[MPPFIVSYXIHXLVSYKLEWITEVEXSV[LIVIER]IRXVEMRIH
PROJECT PMUYMHW [MPP FI GSPPIGXIH ERH WIRX XS XLI TMTIPMRI GSRHIRWEXI
POMELO CONNECTOR LLC: XERO8LIGSRHIRWEXI[MPPFIPSEHIHMRXSEXEROXVYGOJSVVI
POMELO CONNECTOR PROJECT QSZEPJVSQXLIWMXI%JXIVWITEVEXMSRXLIKEW[MPPFIVSYXIHXS
one of two gas compressors.
PLANNED COMPRESSION: 8LI ERXMGMTEXIH MRWIVZMGI HEXI JSV XLI 4SQIPS 'SRRIGXSV
Pomelo Compressor Station 4MTIPMRIMWRSPEXIVXLER3GXSFIV

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CPIcompression.com | 1-800-675-6646
CASE STUDIES
BY STEVEN B. TODARO

TORSIONAL TALES
ver the years Ive been called in on a number of coupling
O and/or torsional issues. Torsional analysis is not an area
where I can claim expertise, however. I might have been able
to handle the math in my early years (emphasis on might), but
my early years coincided with the development of personal
computers. Some of you may remember 8086, 8088, and math
coprocessor chips? Most torsional analysis at that time was
VYRSRQEMRJVEQIW%R][E]-ZIFIIRJSVXYREXIXSRHWQEVX
knowledgeable people to handle the heavy lifting and guide me
to solutions.
8LI VWX QIQSVEFPI GEWI [EW E TEMV SJ LT O; 
SJJWLSVI HMVIGX GYVVIRX ('  XVEGXMSR QSXSVHVMZIR VIGMTW -
had inherited the account shortly after the units shipped. A few
weeks after they were put into operation, I got a call from
XLIVSXEXMRKIUYMTQIRXIRKMRIIV8LI]LEHI\TIVMIRGIHERSR
vibration shutdown. On restart there was a distinctive knock. Photo 1. Coupling Hubs Mounted On The Compressor Shaft
They shut the unit down and found that the motor shaft had (Left) And The Motor Shaft (Right)
broken completely inside the coupling hub. The fracture was a
spiral at the shaft surface starting at the keyway. They inspected an adjacent stage and a corresponding spike in the crank effort
the second unit, which had fewer hours, and found a similar plot. A tweak of the valve selection, an increase in the coupling
crack that was just getting started. element durometer, and instructions to operating personnel to
A torsional analysis had been done but the report didnt ex spearhead and manage failing valves resolved the issue.
actly match the motors. During the construction of the pack 8LIJSPPS[MRKMRGMHIRXMWQSVIQIQSVEFPIERHXLI\[EWE
ages, there had been a strike at the motor manufacturing plant. lot more involved. During the Christmas season several years
The motor delay threatened to delay the delivery of the pack ago, I received an email followed almost immediately by an ur
ages, so a decision was made, with the clients concurrence, to gent phone call from an overseas engineering, procurement,
utilize remanufactured motors. The new motors were to have ERH GSRWXVYGXMSR )4'  GPMIRX8LI] [IVI MR XLI TVIWXEVXYT
SAE 4000 series alloy shafts and the torsional analysis had been WXEKISJEKEWTPERXERHLEHWXEVXIHXLIVWXSJX[SO;
done on that basis. The data sheet from the motor remanufac LT VTQQSXSVHVMZIRXLVS[GSQTVIWWSVW[MXL
turer indicated SAE 4000 series steel, but testing of the failed the compressor valves removed. A bad knock was noted and
shaft material showed it to be 1000 series steel with a lower
EWWSGMEXIH WXVIRKXL 6IGLIGOMRK XLI EREP]WMW [MXL XLI PS[IV
strength shaft material predicted, to no ones surprise, a fatigue
failure. Rebuilding the motors with higher strength steel shafts
resolved the issue.
Another case that comes to mind was in the early days of the
LMKLLSVWITS[IVERHG]PMRHIVKEWIRKMRIW%TEGOEKIMR
south Texas had failed two sets of elastomeric coupling elements.
Given that there were three identical units and both failures oc
GYVVIHSRXLIWEQIYRMXMX[EWERSFVEMRIVXSPSSOJSVWSQI
HMJJIVIRGI MR XLI TEGOEKI SV MXW STIVEXMSR;I HMHRX RH ER]
HMJJIVIRGIWFYX[IHMHRHXLEXXLIWEQIJVEQIIRHHMWGLEVKI
valve had failed shortly before each coupling failure. The trouble
WSQIZEPZI[EWSRESRIZEPZITIVGSVRIVG]PMRHIVQSYRXIHSR Drawing 1. Original Disk Pack Coupling Cross Section Showing
EQMHHPIXLVS[SJEXLVS[GSQTVIWWSV %TIVJSVQERGIWMQY Flange To Mount To Compressor Hub (Left), Spacer (Center), and
lation of the failing valve scenario showed a high rod load on Motor Hub (Right)

6 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


(VE[MRK 1SHMIH)PEWXSQIVMG'SYTPMRK'VSWW
7IGXMSR7LS[MRK 0IJXXS6MKLX 'SQTVIWWSV7LEJX
,YF *P][LIIP 7TEGIV (SYFPI )PEWXSQIVMG 'SY-
TPMRK,YFERH1SXSV7LEJX

the unit was shut down immediately. An examination of the - LEZI E JSVQYPE MR Q] FEK SJ XVMGOW JSV QMRMQYQ QSXSV
coupling showed that the hub had turned a small amount on shaft diameters for reciprocating compressors. If a motor shaft
the motor shaft. meets this criterion, then it generally can be considered a tor-
The units had been purchased prior to my being retained by sionally stiff element. If the motor shaft is smaller, then it should
XLIGPMIRXWS-HMHRXLEZIEHIXEMPIHHIWMKRPI-EWOIHXLIGPMIRX be analyzed as a torsional spring.
to send me the torsional analysis report, coupling drawing, and (min = (107 x bhp/rpm).35
QSXSVHEXEPI-LEHZMWMXIHXLIWMXIEGSYTPISJQSRXLWTVMSV
XS XLI RS PSEH VYR ERH LEH XEOIR WSQI TLSXSKVETLW;LMPI For the subject motor, the formula yielded 8.82 in. (224 mm).
waiting for the requested documents to arrive, I reviewed the The coupling drawing indicated a motor hub inside diameter of
photographs. One photograph (Photo 1) in my set showed the 6.30 in. (160 mm). Based on this, the motor shaft should have
compressor and motor hubs mounted on the shafts. I hadnt been modeled as a torsional spring.
been focused on the drive arrangement at the time because I 8LIXSVWMSREPLEHFIIRHSRIEWEWYFGSRXVEGXSJXLITEGOEKIV
had been more concerned about the elevated process pipe and 8LI TEGOEKIV [EW RS PSRKIV MR FYWMRIWW8LI XSVWMSREP EREP]WX
XLII\MFPITMTIGPEQTW0SSOMRKEXXLITLSXSKVETL[MXLEXSV- was a respected academic who was on holiday when the incident
WMSREPMWWYIMRQMRHXLIVWXXLMRKXLEXWXVYGOQI[EWXLIQS- EVSWI7IZIVEP[IIOW[SYPHTEWWFIJSVI[I[SYPHKIXEVIWTSRWI
tor shaft diameter relative to the compressor shaft diameter. from him. The motor manufacturer was less than supportive.
Not only was the visible motor shaft smaller than the sliver of They were slow to respond and seemed more concerned about
visible compressor shaft, but close examination of the motor avoiding a warranty claim than addressing the issue.
hub in the photograph showed that the motor shaft inside the At this point I recommended, and the EPC client agreed, to
hub was even smaller. initiate a new torsional analysis to include modeling the motor
The requested documents began to arrive. The coupling was WLEJXERHMRMXMEPP]PSSOMRKEXXLIRSPSEHGEWI8LIQSHIPTVIHMGX-
EHMWOTEGOWTEGIVX]TI (VE[MRK 1ER]QERYJEGXYVIVWQEOI IHXLIMWWYIXLEXLEHFIIRSFWIVZIHMRXLIIPH;IXLIRGSR-
variations on this style of coupling, and they are commonly used XMRYIHXS[SVO[MXLXLIEREP]WXERHEGSYTPMRKQERYJEGXYVIVXS
on reciprocating compressors. They are torsionally stiff and re- GSQIYT[MXLEREVVERKIQIRXXLEX[SYPH[SVO[MXLXLII\MWXMRK
quire no maintenance, but are not tolerant of misalignment. QSXSVWERHXLII\MWXMRKWLEJXIRHKET;IREPP]WIXXPIHSRER
The torsional analysis report was thorough. A number of IPEWXSQIVMGGSYTPMRK[MXLE][LIIPERHEWTEGIV (VE[MRK 8S
cases had been analyzed including no load and several differ- stay within the motor manufacturers overhung weight limit, we
IRXIPIGXVMGEPJEYPXW-XGSRGPYHIHXLEXRS][LIIP[EWVIUYMVIH WYTTSVXIHQSWXSJXLIQEWWJVSQXLIGSQTVIWWSVWLEJX;IEPWS
and that a 2-phase or 3-phase short circuit would exceed the MRGVIEWIHXLIWTEGIVPIRKXLTYWLMRKXLIQSXSVLYFERKIFEGO
maximum dynamic torque rating of the coupling. It recom- from the end of the motor shaft for the same reason.
mended that the coupling selection not be changed but that it
be allowed to act as a mechanical fuse in the event of a short ABOUT THE AUTHOR
GMVGYMX8LI][LIIPSQMWWMSR[EWRSXWYVTVMWMRKFIGEYWIQER] Steven B. Todaro is an independent com-
6-throw, balanced, opposed compressors dont require them pression consultant. He holds a BS, En-
JSVXSVWMSREPTYVTSWIW7QEPP][LIIPWEVISJXIRMRGPYHIHJSV gineering degree from the University of
use with a barring rig, particularly up in this power range. -PPMRSMW ERH E .( HIKVII JVSQ 0S]SPE 9RM-
Torsional analysis reports tend to be pretty dry reading. I ZIVWMX] 2I[ 3VPIERW ,I LEW [SVOIH JSV
WIPHSQQEOIMXXLVSYKLEGSQTPIXIVITSVXMRSRIWMXXMRK3RI 'EXIVTMPPEV-6(6'LIVGS+IQMRM;IEXL-
of the hard lessons learned is to read the whole report, not IVJSVHERH+EVHRIV(IRZIV,MWGSRWYPXMRK
only what it says but also what its missing. This report didnt activities cover all phases of compression, from applications,
contain the motor shaft drawing. The shaft modeling section of FYWMRIWWHIZIPSTQIRXQEVOIXMRKERHIRKMRIIVMRKXSTEGOEK-
the report contained the following note: The motor is consid- ing, testing, commissioning, and troubleshooting. He can be
IVIHEWMRKPIHMWORIKPIGXMRKMXWVSXSVXSVWMSREPWXMJJRIWW3YGL reached at steven.b.todaro@gmail.com.

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 7


BP BETS BIG
ON EMERGING
AFRICAN GAS BASIN
BP PARTNERS WITH KOSMOS ENERGY IN MAURITANIA AND SENEGAL
&=&,)26=,)2()6732

P has signed agreements with Kosmos Energy to acquire


B a working interest, including operatorship, of Kosmos Af-
rican exploration blocks in Mauritania and effective working
BLOCK
interest in Kosmos Senegal exploration blocks acreage that
C6
AHMEYIM-2 holds deepwater gas discoveries and exploration prospects
across both countries.
The approximate 12,740 sq.mi. (33,000 km2) of acreage
MAURITANIA TORTUE-1 GSZIVIH MR XLI EKVIIQIRXW MRGPYHIW XLI 8SVXYI IPH IWXM-
SENEGAL mated by Kosmos to contain more than 15 Tcf (4 x 1011 m3)
of discovered gas resources. The total acreage, by Kosmos
GUEMBEUL-1 BLOCK estimates, could contain roughly 50 Tcf (1.4 x 1012 m3) of gas
C12 resource potential and more than 1 billion barrels of liquids
resource potential.
BP will invest nearly US$1 billion, mostly in the form of a
multi-year exploration and development carry, to acquire a
62% interest and operatorship of offshore Blocks C6, C8, C12,
and C13 in Mauritania and an effective 32.49% interest in the
BLOCK MAURITANIA St. Louis Profond and Cayar Profond blocks in Senegal.
C8 8SVIHYGIHIZIPSTQIRXXMQIERHHVMZIGETMXEPIJGMIRG]XLI
BLOCK TORTUE partners plan to process and transport the gas from Tortue at
C13
WEST ERIEVWLSVIPMUYIIHREXYVEPKEW 02+ JEGMPMX]8LITVSTSWIH
SENEGAL complex could be expanded in phases to accommodate future
ST. LOUIS
gas discoveries, BP said.
OFFSHORE
Under the terms of the agreements, BP and Kosmos have
PROFOND
also agreed that Kosmos will remain the technical operator
CAYAR for the exploration phase of the project and drill three new
OFFSHORE exploration wells beginning in 2017.
PROFOND In addition to the existing blocks, the companies have agreed
to cooperate in areas of mutual interest in offshore Mauritania,
7IRIKEPERH8LI+EQFME[MXL/SWQSWEGXMRKEWXLII\TPSVE-
tion operator and BP as the development operator.
Atlantic Kosmos is an independent oil and gas exploration and pro-
Ocean duction company focused on frontier and emerging areas
along the Atlantic Margin. Its assets include existing produc-

8 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


tion and development projects offshore Ghana, large discov- +YIQFIYP 7IRIKEP
eries offshore Mauritania and Senegal, as well as exploration 'SQTPIXIH MR  XLI +YIQFIYP I\TPSVEXMSR [IPP IR-
PMGIRWIW[MXLWMKRMGERXL]HVSGEVFSRTSXIRXMEPSJJWLSVI4SV- GSYRXIVIHJX Q SJRIXKEWTE]MRX[SI\GIPPIRXUYEPM-
XYKEP 7nS8SQq ERH 4VuRGMTI 7YVMREQI 1SVSGGS ERH XLI X]VIWIVZSMVWMRGPYHMRKJX Q MRXLI0S[IV'IRSQERMER
Western Sahara. ERHJX Q MRXLIYRHIVP]MRK%PFMER-QTSVXERXP]+YIQ-
/SWQSW STIRIH E WMKRMGERX RI[ L]HVSGEVFSR TVSZMRGI FIYP HIQSRWXVEXIH VIWIVZSMV GSRXMRYMX] EW [IPP EW WXEXMG
when it discovered a large accumulation of natural gas under TVIWWYVIGSQQYRMGEXMSR[MXLXLI8SVXYI[IPPMRXLI0S[IV
the deep waters offshore Mauritania and Senegal in Africa. In Cenomanian, suggesting a single, large gas accumulation. Guem-
IEVP]  /SWQSW IRXIVIH MRXS E 1IQSVERHYQ SJ 9RHIV- FIYP[EWHVMPPIHETTVS\MQEXIP]QMPIW OQ XSXLIWSYXL
WXERHMRK 139 WMKRIHF]4qXVSPIWHY7qRqKEP 4IXVSWIR ERH SJ8SVXYI
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1MRMIV 71,41  XLI REXMSREP SMP GSQTERMIW SJ 7IRIKEP ERH %LQI]MQ 1EYVMXERME 
1EYVMXERMEVIWTIGXMZIP][LMGLWIXWSYXXLITVMRGMTPIWJSVERMR- 8LI%LQI]MQ[IPP[EWHVMPPIHXSEXSXEPHITXLSJ
tergovernmental cooperation agreement for the development JX Q %WERXMGMTEXIHMRXLI0S[IV'IRSQERMERERH%P-
SJXLIGVSWWFSVHIVVIWSYVGI8LI139IREFPIW/SWQSWERH FMER %LQI]MQ TIRIXVEXIH XLI WIMWQMGMRJIVVIH KEW[EXIV
XLIX[SKSZIVRQIRXWXS[SVOXSKIXLIVXS[EVHIEVP]HIZIPST- GSRXEGXWHIRMRKXLIIPHPMQMXERHI\XIRHMRKXLITVSHYGXMZI
QIRXSJXLIIPHXLIVIF]QE\MQM^MRKZEPYIJSVEPPWXEOILSPHIVW IPHEVIEJVSQETTVS\MQEXIP]XSWUQM XSOQ 
Kosmos completed its appraisal of the Tortue West struc- *YVXLIVQSVI XLI [IPP GSRVQIH WMKRMGERX XLMGOIRMRK SJ XLI
XYVIMRIEVP] KVSWW VIWIVZSMV WIUYIRGIW HS[RWXVYGXYVI ERH MQTSVXERXP]
[MXLMR XLI 0S[IV 'IRSQERMER WXEXMG YMH TVIWWYVI GSQQY-
GREATER TORTUE EXPLORATION AND APPRAISAL RMGEXMSR FIX[IIR XLI8SVXYI +YIQFIYP ERH%LQI]MQ
8SVXYI 1EYVMXERME [IPPW8LI [IPP IRGSYRXIVIH  JX  Q  SJ RIX KEW TE] MR
(VMPPIHMRQMHXLI8SVXYII\TPSVEXMSR[IPP PEXIVVI- X[SI\GIPPIRXUYEPMX]VIWIVZSMVWMRGPYHMRKJX Q MRXLI
REQIH%LQI]MQ IRGSYRXIVIHETTVS\MQEXIP]JX Q  0S[IV'IRSQERMERERHJX Q MRXLIYRHIVP]MRK%PFMER
SJRIXL]HVSGEVFSRTE]MRLMKLUYEPMX]VIWIVZSMVWERHWMRXLI 8LIWIVIWYPXWHIQSRWXVEXIIPH[MHIVIWIVZSMVGSRXMRYMX]ERH
'IRSQERMERERH%PFMERMRXIVZEPW MRHMGEXI8SVXYI;IWXMWEPEVKIWMQTPIKEWIPH

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TURBOMACHINERY SAFETY
INTEGRATED TURBOMACHINERY CONTROL AND MONITORING CAN MEET THE REQUIREMENTS

OF FUNCTIONAL SAFETY STANDARDS AND PRODUCE GREATER OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCIES


BY UWE BRUCKHOFF

A FlexSILon TMC system controls and pro-


tects the desulfurization plant at the Daqing
Petrochemical Company in China.
Image courtesy of Daqing Petrochemical Company.

he safety of turbomachinery is receiving increased levels complex system. The consequences are elaborate wiring, differ-
T of attention considering accidents in recent years. Cata-
strophic failures such as turbine over-speeding can result in
ent communication protocols, and greater engineering costs. It
is tempting, therefore, to share hardware, such as sensors, and
physical injuries and fatalities. Also, the loss of any turbine on even software code between multiple functions. Because there
which an industrial process depends equates to lost revenue. is no requirement for independent hardware and software for
Plus, there is the repair or replacement of the failed turbine to turbo machines as described in the IEC standards, according to
consider. Turbomachinery functional safety also leads to plant the new API 670,4 an integrated system could be an alternate
TIVJSVQERGIERHTVSXEFMPMX] to be considered. The only limitation is to use a 100% safety
Thankfully, many operators have begun to apply functional integrity level (SIL) 3 controller for an integrated system, for
safety methodologies to their turbomachinery, while general both safety-critical functions and non-safety-critical functions.
safety standards such as IEC 61511,1 IEC 61508,2 and ANSI/ For example, safety-critical control functions might include
ISA-84.00.01-20043 are now being used to assist with reducing speed control, load sharing, and steam distribution. Protection
the risk of catastrophic accidents. The integration of dedicated might come through vibration, axial shift, temperature, and
safety functions within turbomachinery control systems is seen pressure monitoring functions that could be implemented
as a way of not only meeting the relevant standards but also in one safety system with its SIL 3 under IEC 61508. Only over-
achieving higher plant productivity. speed trip (OST) needs to be independent and non-reactive
However, care needs to be taken when engineering such in- according to API 670. Using the HIMax system can offer an
tegration. A turbo machine is often controlled by many indi- integrated SIL 3 turbomachinery control system with a seg-
vidual components, made by several manufacturers, all within a regated OST module, meeting all international standards.

10 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Integrated TMC and moni-
toring, as available through
FlexSILon, can meet the
requirements of functional
safety standards and pro-
duce greater operational
IJGMIRGMIW

POINT IN CASE high cost) of multiple disparate and hard-to-wire solutions.


A safety-focused turbomachinery control (TMC) system Where the control of safety-critical functions is concerned,
was recently installed at the Daqing Petrochemical Company, the goal is without a doubt partitioned integration, which is
a regional branch of China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), achievable by building the system using independent functional
Chinas largest oil and gas producer and supplier. In addition to safety building blocks with dedicated hardware and software
GLIQMGEPWERHJIVXMPM^IVWXLIGSQTER]TVSHYGIWVIRIHTVSH- elements as appropriate.
ucts such as petrol, kerosene, diesel, lube oil, chemical light oil,
fuel oil, and solvent oil. A new desulfurization plant at the Daq- REFERENCES
ing Petrochemical Company is part of Chinas effort to improve 1
IEC 61511-1:2016, Functional Safety Safety Instrumented
its air quality by reducing the amount of sulfur in fuels for road Systems for the Process Industry Sector, Part 1: Framework,
vehicles, thereby reducing tailpipe emissions. (IRMXMSRW 7]WXIQ ,EVH[EVI ERH%TTPMGEXMSR 4VSKVEQQMRK
To achieve compressor and turbine control for its desul- Requirements (Geneva, Switzerland: International Electro-
furization plant, Daqing Petrochemical selected an integrated technical Commission [IEC], 2016).
HIMA FlexSILon TMC solution based on a fully redundant 2
IEC 61508:2010, Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/
HIMA HIMax platform. In addition to achieving SIL 3, in ac- Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems (Geneva,
cordance with IEC 61508 and IEC 61511, and meeting API 670 Switzerland: International Electrotechnical Commission
standards, the company also wanted hardware that would in- [IEC], 2010).
crease plant availability and remain operational during online 3
ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 Part 1 (IEC 61511-1: Mod), Func-
module replacement and online extensions, capabilities that are tional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process
inherent in the HIMax system. -RHYWXV] 7IGXSV  4EVX  *VEQI[SVO (IRMXMSRW 7]WXIQ
HIMaxs architecture allows for integration of safety and Hardware and Software Requirements (Research Triangle
non-safety critical control functions. Self-contained back- Park, NC: Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society
plane modules (the X-MIO 7/6 O1, for example) can per- [ISA], 2004).
form stand-alone functional safety functions. For instance, IEC 4
API Std. 670, Machinery Protection Systems, 5th ed. (Wash-
61508 SIL 3 and API 670-compliant OST can be implemented ington, DC: American Petroleum Institute [API], 2014).
independently of the other safety functions being performed
by the HIMax. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Integrated turbomachinery control and monitoring can meet Uwe Brockhoff is Application Manager at HIMA Group, an in-
the requirements of functional safety standards and produce dependent provider of solutions for safety-critical applications.
KVIEXIV STIVEXMSREP IJGMIRGMIW [MXLSYX XLI GSQTPI\MX] ERH www.hima.com

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 11


MOVING
TOWARD
THE INDUSTRIAL
INTERNET OF THINGS
DOVER ENERGY AUTOMATION TO
COLLABORATE WITH HONEYWELL
&=&,)26=,)2()6732

over Energy Automation and Honeywell have announced


D plans for an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) ecosys-
tem to help energy industrial customers improve the safety,
-XMWGPIEVXLEXEVSFYWXIGSW]WXIQMWOI]XSFIMRKEFPIXS
successfully implement an effective IIoT solution for manu-
JEGXYVIVWWEMH%RHVI[,MVHZMGITVIWMHIRXERHKIRIVEPQER-
IJGMIRG]ERHVIPMEFMPMX]SJXLIMVSTIVEXMSRW8LIGSPPEFSVEXMSR ager of Honeywell Process Solutions Digital Transformation
EWTEVXSJXLI,SRI][IPP-2WTMVITVSKVEQ[LMGLFVMRKWXS- FYWMRIWW ,EZMRK HIIT HSQEMR ORS[PIHKI ERH I\TIVMIRGI
gether a community of technology users and providers (in- EZEMPEFPI EGVSWW E VERKI SJ ETTPMGEXMSRW XS UYMGOP] ERH JYPP]
cluding customers, equipment vendors, process licensors, and IZEPYEXIETPERXWRIIHWGERRSXFISZIVWXEXIH(SZIVWHSQEMR
Honeywell experts), will jointly develop solutions for myriad expertise in equipment condition monitoring and asset integ-
STIVEXMSREPGLEPPIRKIW VMX] QEREKIQIRX MW [LEX QEOIW XLIQ ER MQTSVXERX TEVXRIV
(SZIVFVMRKWMXWORS[PIHKIMRGSRHMXMSRQSRMXSVMRKERHEWWIX MR E HMJJIVIRXMEXIH IGSW]WXIQ SJ GSPPEFSVEXSVW XLEX TVSZMHI
STXMQM^EXMSR[LMGLTEMVWRMGIP][MXL,SRI][IPPWGETEFMPMXMIWMR I\TIVXMWIJSVSYVGYWXSQIVW
HEXEGSRWSPMHEXMSRG]FIVWIGYVMX]ERHWSJX[EVIHIZIPSTQIRX Dover Energy Automation, an operating company within the
%GGSVHMRKXS(SZIVXLIGSPPEFSVEXMSR[MPPSJJIVEVSFYWX--S8 (SZIV)RIVK]7IKQIRXSJ(SZIV'SVTWYTTPMIWTVSHYGXWMR-
ecosystem that is designed to help customers solve previously telligent productivity tools, and related automation software
YRWSPZEFPITVSFPIQW8LIPEVKIVGSRWSPMHEXIHHEXEWIXXLEX[MPP JSV XLI IRIVK] WIGXSV XLEX IREFPIW SMP ERH KEW STIVEXSVW XS
FI JSVQIH EW E VIWYPX SJ XLMW GSPPEFSVEXMSR [MPP EPPS[ QERY- monitor, predict, and optimize performance to improve pro-
facturers to apply higher analytics and achieve more detailed HYGXMZMX] (SZIV )RIVK]%YXSQEXMSRW TVSHYGXW ERH WSPYXMSRW
insights, scale the data as needed to meet the varied needs of EVI QEVOIXIH YRHIV QYPXMTPI FVERHW MRGPYHMRK ;MRHVSGOW
single-site or enterprise-wide operations, and leverage a wider monitoring and analytical solutions for rotating and reciprocat-
TSSPSJHEXEI\TIVXWJSVQSRMXSVMRKERHEREP]WMW(SZIVWEMH ing equipment, Quartzdynes downhole pressure transducers,
We are excited to create an unparalleled partnership and the Well Site Automation suite of solutions for onshore
with Honeywell that will leverage our expertise in intelligent [IPPTIVJSVQERGISTXMQM^EXMSR
TVSHYGXMZMX]XSSPWERHGSRHMXMSRQSRMXSVMRKWEMH%PM6E^E Honeywell Process Solutions specializes in automation con-
TVIWMHIRX(SZIV)RIVK]%YXSQEXMSR;MXLSYVWYTTSVX[I trol, instrumentation, and services for the oil and gas and other
[MPPLIPT,SRI][IPPW--S8IGSW]WXIQSRFILEPJSJXLIGYW- MRHYWXVMIW4VSGIWW7SPYXMSRWMWTEVXSJ,SRI][IPPW4IVJSVQERGI
tomers to minimize unplanned shutdowns, maximize output, 1EXIVMEPWERH8IGLRSPSKMIWWXVEXIKMGFYWMRIWWKVSYT[LMGLEPWS
QMRMQM^I WEJIX] VMWO ERH STXMQM^I WYTTP] GLEMR WXVEXIKMIW includes Honeywell UOP, a leading international supplier and li-
8SKIXLIV [I PSSO JSV[EVH XS SJJIVMRK GYVVIRX ERH JYXYVI GIRWSVSJTVSGIWWXIGLRSPSK]GEXEP]WXWEHWSVFIRXWIUYMTQIRX
GYWXSQIVW QSVI VSFYWX WSPYXMSRW ERH MQTEGXJYP MQTVSZI- ERHGSRWYPXMRKWIVZMGIWXSXLITIXVSPIYQVIRMRKTIXVSGLIQM-
QIRXWMRXLIMVSTIVEXMSRW GEPERHKEWTVSGIWWMRKMRHYWXVMIW

12 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


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APPLYING API 617, 8TH EDITION,
TO EXPANDER-COMPRESSORS
WITH ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARINGS
A DISCUSSION FROM A PRACTICAL, USER-ORIENTED POINT OF VIEW

&=.)**6)=71-8,%2-/%2(=%22-'/4%90

igh-speed expander-compressors are commonplace in the gas pro-


H cessing industry. In recent years, expander-compressors equipped
with active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have gained wide acceptance and
EDITORS NOTE are now the norm in ethylene plant refrigeration turboexpander appli-
This paper is based on a tutorial presented at the GEXMSRWERHEVIMRGVIEWMRKP]WTIGMIHJSVKEWPMUYMHWITEVEXMSR*YVXLIV
44th Turbomachinery and 31st Pump Symposia, Hous- improvements in magnetic bearings are simplifying the technology for
ton, September 14-17, 2015. The Turbomachinery those responsible for the purchasing, commissioning, and maintaining
Symposium is organized and presented by the Tur- rotating machines. As well, it is becoming easier to verify that AMB ma-
bomachinery Laboratory, Texas A&M University, Col- chines comply with accepted design standards.
lege Station, Texas, USA. The 8th Edition of API 617, released in September 2014, includes a new
ERRI\ 4EVX%RRI\) ERHSXLIVQEXIVMEPWTIGMGEPP]EHHVIWWMRK%1&
%&398 8,)%98,367 equipped machinery.1 Unlike previous editions, which included only in-
Jeff Smithanik is sr. mechanical engineer with formative material, this new material provides detailed criteria by which
SKF Magnetic Bearings, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and AMB designers, purchasers, and users can evaluate API compliance of AMB-
he has worked there for 11 years. He has been in- IUYMTTIH QEGLMRIW8LIWI HIWMKR EREP]WMW ERH XIWX WTIGMGEXMSRW VIHYGI
volved with many aspects of active magnetic bearing the technical complexity of AMB technology for expander-compressor
technology development, including controls and ro- stakeholders, and contribute to continued growth in the market place. This
XSVH]REQMGWMRHMZIVWIIPHWWYGLEWLIEZ]MRHYWXV] article will discuss the application of API 617, 8th Edition, to AMB-equipped
WIQMGSRHYGXSV QERYJEGXYVMRK ERH WGMIRXMG MRWXVY- expander-compressors from a practical, user-oriented point of view.
ments. He has a BSc in mechanical engineering from Previous authors have presented excellent and detailed descriptions
the University of Calgary and an MSc in aerospace of high-speed expander-compressors.2 Other authors have provided a
engineering from the University of Maryland. Email: comprehensive description of general AMB theory and the design, analy-
jeff.smithanik@skf.com WMWERHXIWXMRKVIUYMVIQIRXWWTIGMIHMR%4-th Edition.3 Our goal
Yannick Paul is a rotor dynamics engineer with SKF here is to contribute a practical, hands-on application of criteria in the
Magnetic Mechatronics (S2M), Saint Marcel, France, RI[%4- WTIGMGEXMSR EW ETTPMIH WTIGMGEPP] XS I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVW
ERHLEW[SVOIH[MXL71MR*VERGIEWEIPHWIVZMGI This article contains recommendations and observations based on ex-
engineer (10+ years) commissioning industrial AMB perience gained through the design, analysis, and commissioning of many
machines, and recently as a rotor dynamics engineer AMB expander-compressors, both prior to and after the publication of
(10 years) preparing API 617 design reports and sup- the latest API 617 edition. All references to API 617 will be to the 8th
TSVXMRKGYWXSQIVERH71IPHGSQQMWWMSRMRK=ER- Edition, unless otherwise indicated.
RMGOLEWE&7GMRIPIGXVMGEPIRKMRIIVMRK )QEMP=ERRMGO
paul@skf.com INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING
EXPANDER-COMPRESSORS
An expander-compressor, also referred to as a turboexpander-compressor
or simply a turboexpander, refers to a machine with a common shaft,

14 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Machine Characteristic Typical Values EXPANDER-COMPRESSOR APPLICATIONS
Applications for AMB expander-compressors fall into two
Speed 6 to 70 kRPM
categories: refrigeration/liquefaction processes and pressure
Power 0.2 to 14 MW (0.27 to 18.7 kHP) let down energy recovery processes.
Radial AMB diameter 50 to 240 mm (2.0 to 9.5 in.)
Shaft mass 4 to 600 kg (9 to 1320 lb) REFRIGERATION/LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES
In these applications, the expansion of a gas for refrigera-
Number in operation >550
tion purposes is the desired output of the machine. By pass-
Table 1: Typical AMB Expander-Compressor Characteristics ing through the expanders inlet guide vanes and impeller, en-
ergy is removed from the process gas, resulting in a lower gas
with a centrifugal expander wheel on one end, expanding temperature and pressure. The process gas is a mixture of
gas with a temperature of less than 300C (570F), and a hydrocarbons, from which the heavier compounds can liquefy
centrifugal compressor wheel on the opposite end. Table 1 and drop out during the expansion process. These liquids can
provides typical characteristics of AMB expander-compressors FIVIGSZIVIHERHEVIIMXLIVETVSXEFPIF]TVSHYGXSVXLI
used in gas processing facilities today. More than 550 AMB TVMQEV]HIWMVIHSYXTYXSJXLIVIJVMKIVEXMSRTVSGIWW7TIGMG
expander-compressors have been installed and are in service examples of expander-compressor use for refrigeration are
as of 2015, in gas processing facilities around the world. A natural gas liquid separation, ethylene plant refrigeration, and
typical expander-compressor is shown in cross section in Fig- air separation.
ure 1. An operational AMB expander-compressor is shown In these applications, the (nearly) isentropic expander re-
in Figure 2. places the traditional (isenthalpic) throttling or J/T (Joule-
Typically, the compressor impeller (left-hand side in Figure Thompson) valve. While more complex, the expander is able
 MWXLIPEVKIVSJXLIX[S[LIIPW+EWS[JSVXLII\TERHIV to expand the gas to a much lower temperature than a J/T
MWVEHMEPP]MR[EVHE\MEPP]SYX[EVH+EWS[JSVXLIGSQTVIW- ZEPZIEGLMIZMRKKVIEXIVIJGMIRG]MRXLIVIJVMKIVEXMSRG]GPI
sor is the opposite axially inward, radially outward. In refrigeration/liquefaction applications, the compressor is
a convenient load device that can accept the energy being
removed from the process gas. AMBs are particularly suited
for these refrigeration applications because their oil-free na-
ture eliminates the possibility of lube-oil contamination of
cryogenic heat exchangers.

PRESSURE LET DOWN ENERGY RECOVERY PROCESSES


In these applications, the recovery of useful work from
a high-temperature and/or high-pressure gas is the desired
output of the machine. For example, a high-pressure process
gas could be expanded to a lower pressure (which may have
Compressor Expander ERGMPPEV] TVSGIWW FIRIXW  HVMZMRK E GSQTVIWWSV XLEX TVS-
vides pressurized air for combustion or some other plant
Figure 1: Typical AMB Expander-Compressor
purpose. A familiar example of this type of machine is an au-
tomotive turbocharger, where the expansion of hot exhaust
gases drives a compressor that provides pressurized engine
combustion air.

HISTORY OF API 617, 8TH EDITION, AND ACTIVE


MAGNETIC BEARINGS
The 6th Edition (February 1995) contains the 1.5-page Ap-
pendix J, Application Considerations for Active Magnetic
Bearings. This was substantially added to in the 7th Edition
(July 2002) to form the 4.5-page Annex 4F, of the same name.
While still an informative annex, this is where we began to
see the detailed requirements for AMB machines take shape.
It was also here that the API 617 committee adopted the
dynamic stability evaluation criteria used in the ISO 14839-3
standard.4 Therefore, the 16-page Annex 1E in the 8th Edition
Figure 2: Operational AMB Expander-Compressor. Note the dif- (September 2014) is the result of nearly 20 years of contribu-
fuser cone (far right), white ice-ball surrounding the cold expand- tions from AMB vendors, users, and academicians.
er volute (right), and the thermal protective blanket around the Prior to the 8th Edition, those engineers performing rotor
hot compressor volute (left). dynamic analyses and design work for AMB-supported ma-
4LSXSGSYVXIW]SJXLI%XPEW'STGS1E8VIRGL'SVTSVEXMSR Continued on page 16

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 15


Figure 3: API 617 Process Of An Expander-
Compressor

chines applied the lube oil-bearing (LOB) machine-oriented WGVMFIHMR%4-4EVX%RRI\%8LMWHSGYQIRXWTIGMIW


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SVSQMXXLSWITEVXMGYPEVVIUYMVIQIRXW
7)0)'8-2+%78%2(%6(*6%1)7->)
%'8-:)1%+2)8-'&)%6-2+7)<4%2()6 3)1W SJJIV E VERKI SJ JVEQI WM^IW SJ%1& I\TERHIVGSQ-
'3146)7736()0-:)6=463')77 TVIWWSVW 2IEVP] EPP%1& I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVW TYVGLEWIH
*MKYVIWYQQEVM^IWXLIWXITWXSGSQTP][MXL%4-JSV XSHE]EVIFYMPXEWEWXERHEVHJVEQIWM^I
ER%1&I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV )EGL JVEQI WM^I GER EGGSQQSHEXI E VERKI SJ I\TERHIV
8LI IRH YWIV)4' IRKMRIIVMRK TVSGYVIQIRX ERH GSR- ERH GSQTVIWWSV [LIIP WM^IW PSEHW ERH WTIIHW [MXL WSQI
WXVYGXMSR  WTIGMGEXMSR KIRIVEPP] [MPP JSPPS[ XLI JSVQEX HI- VERKI SZIVPET I\MWXMRK FIX[IIR EHNEGIRX JVEQI WM^IW *MKYVI
 WLS[W X[S I\XVIQIW SJ I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV%1& GEV-
XVMHKIW[LMPI*MKYVIVIPEXIWVEHMEPFIEVMRKVSXSVHMEQIXIVW
XSQEGLMRITS[IVERHWTIIH
&EWIHSRXLIIRHYWIV)4'WTIGMGEXMSRXLI3)1MWWYIW
ER%1&HIWMKRWTIGMGEXMSR8LMWGSRXEMRWHIXEMPWWYGLEW
*VEQIWM^I
1'37 QE\MQYQGSRXMRYSYWSTIVEXMRKWTIIH
8VMTWTIIH
1EWWMRIVXMEERHSZIVLERKSJI\TERHIVERHGSQTVIWWSV
[LIIPW
1 EKRIXMG FIEVMRK GSRXVSPPIV 1&'  STXMSRW WII RI\X
section)

7)0)'8-2+%2%'8-:)1%+2)8-'&)%6-2+
%2(-87348-327
%WQEKRIXMGFIEVMRKWKVS[MRWM^IWSXSSHSIWXLIMVHI-
QERH JSV EQTPMIV TS[IV )EGL JVEQI WM^I MW TEMVIH [MXL
Figure 4: Large (240 mm [9.45 in.]) And Small (51 mm [2.01 in.]) E WTIGMG 1&' [MXL ETTVSTVMEXI EQTPMIV TS[IV -R SXLIV
Expander-Compressor AMB Cartridges. [SVHWSRGIXLIJVEQIWM^IMWWIPIGXIHXLIWXERHEVH1&'JSV
Photo courtesy of S2M. XLEXJVEQIMWEYXSQEXMGEPP]WIPIGXIH

16 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Figure 5: Power, Speed, And Bearing Diameters

Options for the MBC that must be selected at this time include: EP SV RIKSXMEXMSR HIXEMPMRK [LIVI XLI] HS RSX GSQTP] [MXL
'EFPIPIRKXLFIEVMRKERHWIRWSVGEFPIW8LIWIGERFIYT IPIQIRXWSJXLIWXERHEVH
XSQ JX MRPIRKXL
'EFMRIXRMWLMRK WMXIWTIGMGTEMRXGSPSVW 63836(=2%1-'%2(03%(7%2%0=7-7
%PXIVREXMRK GYVVIRX %'  XS HMVIGX GYVVIRX ('  TS[IV %W QIRXMSRIH TVMSV XS XLI TYFPMGEXMSR SJ%RRI\ )%4-
GSRZIVXIV MRTYXTS[IVSTXMSRW [EWFIMRKETTPMIHXS%1&VSXEXMRKQEGLMRIWEWGPSWIP]EW
'YWXSQIVMRXIVJEGISTXMSRW WIVMEPHMKMXEPERHEREPSK-3 TSWWMFPI[MXLI\GITXMSRWERHEHHMXMSREPEREP]WIWEWTVIJIVVIH
9RMRXIVVYTXMFPITS[IVWYTTP] 947 FEXXIV]STXMSRW ERHRIKSXMEXIHF]XLIWXEOILSPHIVW%RRI\)GSRVQWXLMW
3RGIXLII\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVJVEQIWM^IERH1&'EVI TVEGXMGI ERH GPEVMIW QER]%1&WTIGMG VIUYMVIQIRXW8LMW
WIPIGXIH XLI VIWX SJ XLI HIPMZIV] TVSGIWW GER XEOI TPEGI WIGXMSRSYXPMRIWXLIEREP]WMWJSVETVSTSWIH%1&I\TERHIV
8LI QENSV IPIQIRXW SJ XLMW TVSGIWW EVI VSXSV H]REQMG GSQTVIWWSVJSGYWMRKSRXLI%1&WTIGMGEWTIGXW
EREP]WMW QEGLMRI FYMPH ERH EWWIQFP] ERH XIWXMRK EX XLI -XMWMQTSVXERXXSRSXIXLEXXLMWEREP]WMWMWEGSRVQEXMSR
3)1ERHIRHYWIVWMXIW 8LIWIWXITW[MPPFIHMWGYWWIHMR XLEXXLITVSTSWIHI\TERHIVERHGSQTVIWWSV[LIIPWEVIWYMX
XLIRI\XWIGXMSR EFPIJSVXLIWIPIGXIHJVEQIWM^IERHXLEXXLIWIPIGXIHJVEQI
WM^IMWWYMXEFPIJSVXLITVSGIWWPSEHW8LI[LIIPWWLSYPHLEZI
()7-+23*%2);*6%1)7->) FIIRWIPIGXIHJVSQ[MXLMRXLIWTIIHTS[IVERH[LIIPQEWW
)RHYWIVWERH)4'WKIRIVEPP]EVIRSXMRZSPZIHHMVIGXP]MR VERKIWWTIGMIHJSVXLIJVEQIWM^I4VMSVXSUYSXEXMSR3)1W
XLIHIWMKRSJERI[JVEQIWM^I8LI]QE]TVSZMHIMRTYXEWXS SV%1&ZIRHSVWGERTIVJSVQEREFFVIZMEXIHZIVWMSRSJXLMW
XLIVIUYMVIQIRXWFYXXLMWEGXMZMX]MWEGSPPEFSVEXMSRFIX[IIR EREP]WMWXSIRWYVITVSTIVJVEQIWIPIGXMSR
ER%1&ZIRHSVERHXLII\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV3)18LIHI 8LISYXTYXSJXLMWTVSGIWWMWXLIXVEHMXMSREP%4-GSQTPM
WMKRSJERI[JVEQIWM^IMRZEVMEFP]MRGPYHIWEJVEQIWXYH] ERXVSXSVH]REQMGWVITSVX[MXL[LMGLEPPVSXSVH]REQMGWTVSJIW
MR[LMGLXLI%1&ERHQEGLMRIHIWMKRIVWQETXLIQE\MQYQ WMSREPW EVI JEQMPMEV 2SXI XLEX EPP SJ XLI WEQTPI MQEKIW EVI JSV
GSQFMREXMSRW SJ TS[IV WTIIH ERH TVSGIWW PSEHW XLEX XLI ERI\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVYWMRKQQ MR VEHMEPFIEVMRKW
GSRGITXYEPQEGLMRIGEREGGSQQSHEXI 8LIQSWXMQTSVXERXTSMRXXLIEYXLSVW[SYPHPMOIXSQEOI
2S[ XLEX QENSV I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV 3)1W LEZI [IPP VIKEVHMRK XLI VSXSV H]REQMG EREP]WMW SJ ER%1& I\TERHIV
IWXEFPMWLIH JVEQI WM^IW EZEMPEFPI XLI HIWMKR SJ RI[ JVEQI GSQTVIWWSVMWXLEX[MXLXLII\GITXMSRSJWSQIRSXIHGVMXI
WM^IWMWVEVIP]YRHIVXEOIR7S[LMPIXLI]EVIQERYJEGXYVIH VMEGLERKIWXLITVSGIWWSJEREP]WMWMWMHIRXMGEPXSXLEXYWIH
XS SVHIV ZSPYQIW HS RSX ]IX EPPS[ JSVGSQQIVGMEP SJJ JSVEPP%4-GSQTPMERXQEGLMRIW
XLIWLIPJJVEQIEZEMPEFMPMX] RIEVP]EPP%1&I\TERHIVGSQ
TVIWWSVW SVHIVIH XSHE] EVI VITIEX GSRWXVYGXMSRW [MXL IW LATERAL ANALYSIS STEPS
XEFPMWLIH VIJIVIRGI GEWIW8LI] ZEV] SRP] MR XIVQW SJ XLI '6)%8-323*8,)*-2-8))0)1)2813()0
STXMSRWERH[LIIPTVSTIVXMIW[MXLMRXLIFSYRHWWIXF]XLIMV 8LI PEXIVEP EREP]WMW VIUYMVIQIRXW JSV %1& QEGLMRIW EVI
TVIZMSYWJVEQIWXYH] RIEVP]MHIRXMGEPXSXLSWISJ03&QEGLMRIWMRXIVQWSJEQTPM
)RHYWIVWERH)4'WWLSYPHWTIGMJ]XLEXI\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVW GEXMSRJEGXSVWWITEVEXMSRQEVKMRWERHYRFEPERGIVIWTSRWI
HIWMKRIH TVMSV XS XLI VIPIEWI SJ%4-  th )HMXMSR QYWX %VSXSVRMXIIPIQIRXQSHIP *)1 MWVWXGVIEXIHF]IR
QIIX XLI RI[ WXERHEVHW &IGEYWI XLI QENSV%1& ZIRHSVW XIVMRKKISQIXVMGQEWWERHWXMJJRIWWTVSTIVXMIWMRXSEXEFPIMR
ERHI\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV3)1WGSRXVMFYXIHXSXLIGVIEXMSR XIVJEGI8LIVIWYPXMRKXEFPIHIRIWXLIRSHIWSJXLI*)1ERH
SJ%RRI\)XLIERRI\VIIGXWXLIGYVVIRXIPIGXVMGEPERHQI JSVQW XLI MRTYX JSV ER SVHMREV]HMJJIVIRXMEPIUYEXMSR WSPZIV
GLERMGEPHIWMKRTVEGXMGIWSJXLIWI3)1W)\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV VSYXMRIXLISYXTYXSJ[LMGLMWXLIJVIIJVIIYRHEQTIHVSXSV
3)1WERH%1&ZIRHSVWQE]TVIWIRXI\GITXMSRWJSVETTVSZ Continued on page 18

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 17


Figure 6: Mode Shape Diagram

Figure 8: Campbell Diagram

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND TUNING


The rotor model is then incorporated into a closed-loop
dynamic model including the other system elements (magnet-
Figure 7: Undamped Critical Speed Map ic bearings, position sensors, digital signal processors [DSP],
EQTPMIVWWIEPWIXG %XXLMWWXEKIMRTYXJVSQXLI3)1MWVI-
model. The format of this model can vary, but its character- UYMVIHJSVXLIH]REQMGGSIJGMIRXW GVSWWGSYTPMRKERHHMVIGX
istics (free-free natural frequencies, mode shapes, etc.) serve stiffness) of the seals and (if applicable) the impellers.
as good criteria with which the OEM and AMB vendor can The mathematical relationship between shaft position and
compare their models, if separate models are used. With the bearing currents, implemented in the MBC, is known as the
AMB component locations (auxiliary bearings, sensors, and bearing tuning, and is also commonly referred to as the con-
magnetic bearings) added to the model, engineers examine trol law or the compensator design. The process of optimiz-
the modal visibility (discussed below). ing bearing tuning for individual machines is generally per-
The outputs of this analysis step are the mode shape dia- formed by the AMB vendor.
grams, the free-free Campbell diagram, and the undamped
critical speed map (Figures 6, 7, and 8). For the Campbell dia- STIFFNESS VS. STABILITY
gram and critical speed map, API 617 dictates the frequency The criteria for good bearing tuning are very simple.
ranges over which they must be plotted. The free-free Camp- *MVWXXLIXYRMRKQYWXTVSZMHIWYJGMIRXWXMJJRIWWERHHEQTMRK
bell diagram is the most useful of these outputs, and is often to provide adequate unbalance response. This is discussed
used in isolation as a quick check of the separation margin of later in this article. API 617 provides stiffness criteria indi-
XLIVWXFIRHMRKQSHI rectly it provides vibration limits, while the AMB system
Accuracy of the inputs from the machine OEM is impor- can only keep vibration within the criteria by supplying ad-
tant at this stage. The base rotor model will exist from the equate stiffness.
frame design, but the mass, inertia, and axial center of gravity 7IGSRHP]XLIGPSWIHPSSTW]WXIQQYWXFIWYJGMIRXP]WXE-
data of the wheels will normally be unique to the machine. It FPI-RWMQTPIXIVQWXLIEQTPMIVWGERFIMRWXVYGXIHXSEGX
is rare that more than a handful of machines have identical aggressively to position excursions (high gain or stiff tuning).
wheel properties, because wheel properties are customized Or, they can be instructed to react in a lazy manner, providing
for the target process conditions. The dynamic coefficients only small current changes for position variations (low gain
of the labyrinth seals can also vary widely from machine to or soft tuning). As a rule, stiffness and stability are mutu-
machine, though these have a smaller overall significance ally competitive. If bearing tuning is too stiff, a rotor will be
than the wheels. A common cause of poor agreement be- unstable and vibrate against the auxiliary bearings with the
tween the rotor dynamic model and field-measured data is slightest disturbance, or not levitate at all.
disagreement in the mass of the modeled and real wheels. Continued on page 20

18 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


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Zone Sensitivity Transfer Stability Description
Function Gain
A <3.0 (9.5 dB) The sensitivity functions of newly
commissioned machines would nor-
mally fall within this zone. Safe to run.
B <4.0 (12 dB) Machines with sensitivity functions
within this zone are normally con-
sidered acceptable for unrestricted
long-term operation.
C <5.0 (14 dB) Machines with sensitivity functions
within this zone are normally con-
sidered unsatisfactory for long-term
continuous operation. Generally, they
may be operated for a limited period Figure 9: Calculated Sensitivity Transfer Function
in this condition until a suitable op-
portunity arises for remedial action. Stability Analysis should be performed. In the experience of
D >5.0 (14 dB) The sensitivity function within this the authors, Level II analysis should be made initially, without
zone are normally considered to be considering the less-detailed Level I.
WYJGMIRXP] WIZIV IRSYKL XS GEYWI
damage to the machine. CLOSED-LOOP TRANSFER FUNCTION
Table 2: ISO 14839-3 Stability Zones API 617 also requires the calculation of the closed-loop
transfer function. The interested reader should refer to the
STABILITY CRITERIA previously mentioned references for a detailed description
Unlike for stiffness, API 617 provides very clear and direct of the closed-loop transfer function. In short, it is a useful
criteria for tuning stability. The criteria for system stability snapshot of the dynamics of a single axis, and is mainly used
are taken from ISO 14839-3,4 the ISO standard that address- JSVQSHIPZIVMGEXMSRTYVTSWIWEXXLIGSQQMWWMSRMRKWXEKI
es the vibration of AMB-equipped machinery. It is convenient %4-EPWSLEWMJWTIGMIHVIUYMVIQIRXWJSVXLIGEPGY-
that API used already-accepted criteria rather than establish lation of the open-loop transfer functions, as well as cross-
a new and competing technique. coupled transfer functions, which allow a designer to explore
The authors do not wish to present a detailed explanation the relationships between each of the four radial sensors and
of the stability criteria here, but refer the interested reader each of the four radial actuators.
to API 617, the ISO standard, and Swanson, et al.3 However, a
brief summary of the process follows. A NOTE ABOUT THE BACKWARD FIRST
The process by which stability is measured is simple, reli- BENDING MODE
able, and is automated in the control software of some MBC Expander-compressors tend to be quite gyroscopic com-
platforms. It involves, as a minimum, calculating (or measuring pared to other machines covered by API 617.This means they
HYVMRKGSQQMWWMSRMRK EWTIGMGXVERWJIVJYRGXMSRORS[REW experience comparatively more mode separation between
the sensitivity transfer function, for each bearing axis, with forward and backward modal frequencies as rotation speed
the machine at zero rotational speed. The customer may also increases. API 617, E.4.8.6.2, requires that all modes within
specify that the sensitivity transfer function must be mea- the running speed (<Nmc [maximum continuous speed]) have
WYVIH[LMPIVSXEXMRK8LIEQTPMGEXMSRSVKEMRSJXLMWXVERW- a log decrement greater than 0.1, and greater than 0 for all
fer function must lie below a certain value for the system to modes above 125% of Nmc. In practice, this can be impossible
FI GSRWMHIVIH WXEFPI -73 HIRIW JSYVWXEFMPMX] ^SRIW EW or require too great of a stiffness compromise to achieve for
described in Table 2. XLI FEGO[EVH VWX FIRHMRK QSHI FIGEYWI XLI K]VSWGSTMGW
Figure 9 illustrates a typical analytical sensitivity transfer force this mode to enter the running speed. This is an excep-
function, calculated for the sample expander-compressor, at tion that would normally be requested by the author.
full speed. The three traces correspond to the VW13 (ex-
pander side) and VW24 (compressor side) radial bearings, UNBALANCE RESPONSE ANALYSIS
and the axial bearing. The unbalance response analysis requirements for AMB
In addition to the sensitivity transfer function require- expander-compressors are nearly identical to those of non-
ments, API 617 requires that the closed-loop system modes %1& QEGLMRIW VIKEVHMRK EQTPMGEXMSR JEGXSV WITEVEXMSR
have positive log decrements, with a minimum value depend- margin, etc.), with one exception. The mechanical test vibra-
ing on the frequency (either above 0, above 0.1, or above a tion limit (Avl) is three times greater than for LOB machines.
calculated value between 0 and 0.1). These log decrement As explained earlier,3 magnetic bearings are less stiff and pro-
values can only be calculated, and cannot be compared to vide more damping than LOB systems, and thus transfer less
measured values at the commissioning stage. force to the machine casing as a result of unbalance, for an
API 617 provides criteria for selecting if a Level I or Level II equivalent amount of shaft displacement. A larger vibration

20 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Figure 10: Unbalance Response
Analysis Plot

limit takes advantage of the unique properties of AMBs with of the force (dF/dt) will exceed the bearings ability to produce
no compromise to machine safety. Figure 10 shows one of that force. Above a certain frequency, the bearing system will
the typical outputs of an unbalance response analysis. create a sinusoidal force, the amplitude of which continuously
decreases with frequency. This transition frequency is seen in
LOAD ANALYSIS Figure 11 as the point at which the horizontal maximum bear-
A rolling element or hydrodynamic bearing, if temporar- ing capacity envelope becomes a slanted line.
ily overloaded (but not so much as to cause immediate fail- The second capacity factor of safety requirement relates to the
ure), will continue to operate and support the rotor, but with maximum static axial bearing capacity. Expander-compressors
shortened life and higher running temperature. In contrast, are required in API 617 to be equipped with an automatic
an AMB, if overloaded, will no longer constrain the rotor thrust equalizing valve. This valve is meant to actively main-
and will allow it to contact the auxiliary bearings. Because an tain a low axial load by venting from or injecting to balancing
overload condition will cause an immediate machine trip, API chambers in the machine. This valve cannot compensate per-
GSRXEMRWXLIJSPPS[MRKX[SWTIGMIH%1&JSVGIJEGXSVSJ fectly for thrust loads. Therefore, API 617 requires the axial
safety requirements. magnetic bearing capacity to be two times greater than the
8LI VWX MW XLEX JSV IEGL VEHMEP YRFEPERGI VIWTSRWI GEWI largest anticipated residual loads.
the factor of safety relative to the maximum-rated dynamic
capacity of the radial bearing shall be 1.5 or greater. AXIAL ANALYSIS
The dynamic capacity of a bearing is frequency-dependent. Just like radial levitation, axial levitation requires feedback
If an AMB system has a static capacity of maximum achievable control. It therefore requires a full dynamic stability analysis.
AMB axis force (Fmax), at low frequencies it will be able to cre- API 617 allows the use of a simple lumped mass model. This
ate a sinusoidal force on the rotor, with an amplitude of Fmax makes the axial analysis and compensator design much sim-
(varying between + and Fmax). As the frequency of a sinusoidal pler than the radial.
force command increases, the commanded time-rate-of-change
BEARING STIFFNESS TRANSFER FUNCTION
In summary, once the above is complete for the simulated
AMB rotor MBC system, the following will have been
validated:
WXEFMPMX] XLVSYKLXLIWIRWMXMZMX]XVERWJIVJYRGXMSR
WXMJJRIWW XLVSYKLXLIYRFEPERGIVIWTSRWIEREP]WMW
WXEXMGERHH]REQMGPSEHGETEGMX]
The expander-compressor OEM, and potentially the ma-
chine end user, will wish to perform their own independent
rotor dynamic analysis. API requires AMB vendors to provide
WYJGMIRXHIXEMPXS3)1WSVIRHYWIVW)4'WXSHSXLMW8LI
AMB vendor will provide the combined transfer function of
XLI GSRXVSPPIV EQTPMIV FIEVMRK ERH WIRWSV8LMW MW TVSZMH-
ed as a bearing stiffness transfer function. This is a transfer
function that characterizes force response at the bearings
to shaft motion at the sensors. An independent analysis can
Figure 11: Radial Force Envelope Analysis Continued on page 22

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 21


combine the bearing stiffness transfer functions with an inde-
TIRHIRXP]KIRIVEXIHRMXIIPIQIRXVSXSVQSHIPXSWMQYPEXI
the combined rotor/control behavior.
The bearing stiffness transfer function can be provided in
pole/zero, state-space, or frequency-response data formats.
Most usefully, it can be provided in engineering units of stiff-
ness (N/m or lbf/in.) and damping (N-s/m or lbf-s/in.) vs. dis-
turbance frequency.
The bearing stiffness transfer function can be used to verify
the unbalance response, and the response to process loads
and conditions. It cannot, however, be used for stability analy-
sis. The bearing stiffness transfer function simulates a bearing
that, without a feedback loop, has stiffness and damping prop-
erties at each frequency within the analysis range, matching
those of the simulated AMB system.

AUXILIARY BEARING ANALYSIS


The AMB vendor is required to demonstrate, by a basis Figure 12: Illustrating Rotation About The Rotor Mass Center
agreed upon by the vendor and OEM, that the auxiliary bear-
ings will maintain zero contact between the rotor and sta- MODAL VISIBILITY
tionary components during a de-levitated coast down. This In examining the free-free mode shapes, ideally a modal
analysis will include the effects of ball bearing and damping node will not be co-located with a sensor (low modal vis-
VMRKGSQTPMERGIYRFEPERGIERHTVSGIWWJSVGIWVSXSVI\MFMP- ibility) or a bearing (low modal controllability), and will not
MX]ERHMJWTIGMIHQEKRIXMGFIEVMRKJSVGIW lie between the associated sensor and bearing of an axis. In
Minimizing the time required to reach zero speed is critical the experience of the authors, this is not as critical as has
for maintaining auxiliary bearing performance. been reported only a minor separation between modal
RSHIWERHFIEVMRKSVWIRWSVPSGEXMSRWMWWYJGMIRXXSEGLMIZI
OTHER ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING- good control, assuming other good design practices are used.
SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS Nodes between sensor and bearing locations can also nor-
UNDAMPED CRITICAL SPEED MAP APPLICABILITY mally be accommodated in the tuning process, as discussed
The undamped critical speed map (UCSM) is useful in ana- by Swanson, et al.3
lyzing LOB systems. The stiffness of hydrodynamic bearings
GLERKIW[MXLXLIWLEJXVSXEXMSRWTIIH[LMGLMRXYVRQSHMIW UNBALANCE FORCE REJECTION CONTROL
the modal frequencies; the UCSM is a useful way to examine API 617 requires that all levitated lateral analysis be done
this evolution. with unbalance force rejection control disabled. This is a
The stiffness and damping of AMBs does not change sig- commonly used technique that instructs the MBC to NOT
RMGERXP][MXLVSXSVWTIIH-XHITIRHWSRXLIJVIUYIRG]SJ react to synchronous rotor displacements. The MBC is in-
the disturbance encountered, not the frequency of the rotor. structed to ignore the rotor imbalance. This results in al-
In other words, while the stiffness and damping to synchro- lowing the rotor to rotate about its mass center (Figure 12)
nous forces changes with rotation frequency, the response rather than trying to force it to rotate about its geometric
of AMBs to non-synchronous disturbances is independent of center. This greatly reduces or eliminates the synchronous
rotation speed. vibrations sensed by the bearing housings. This also reduces
This fact renders the UCSM less useful for AMB systems XLIEQTPMIVIJJSVXF]GLERKMRKMXWSYXTYXGYVVIRXWJVSQWM-
than for LOB systems. In the experience of the authors, this nusoids at the rotation frequency, to DC values, which vary
map is not used by AMB designers or rotor dynamics engi- only with process loads. In practice, enabling unbalance force
neers, and is included in analyses only to comply with API and rejection can either slightly increase the synchronous posi-
provide customers with a familiar plot. tion response, or, in the majority of cases, reduce the position
response, depending on the machine speed, bearing tuning,
ANALYSIS SOFTWARE and dynamics of the system.
The solver routine software used by AMB vendors, in the *SVTISTPIIRGSYRXIVMRKXLMWXIGLRSPSK]JSVXLIVWXXMQI
experience of the authors, normally is provided by third par- it is a remarkable experience to feel a high-speed industrial
ty software companies or groups (XLRotor, XLTRC, Madyn, machine operating with the casing vibration as a result of the
university research groups such as ROMAC, etc.). These vali- imbalance reduced to zero.
dated programs are used as a part of a larger application or
suite of software tools that are tailored to the AMB vendors CONSTRUCTION, COMMISSIONING, AND TESTING
WTIGMG EREP]WMW -X WLSYPH FI RSXIH XLEX QSWX GSQQIVGMEP Figure 13 summarizes the commissioning process for an
rotor dynamics software applications now include or are de- AMB expander-compressor. Two similar test campaigns are
veloping AMB modules. used for each machine. For the purposes of this paper, they

22 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


response when rotating. The pressure
housings, volutes, wheels, pressure sen-
sors, piping, and all other non-AMB-
related equipment are provided by the
expander-compressor OEM.
After construction, the OEM will
install the machine into either a test
loop (prior to the FAT) or the end
user process loop (SAT). The test loop
can be as simple as an evacuated pipe
loop, or as accurate as a fully pressur-
ized test loop with an inert process
gas. Junction boxes typically lie be-
tween the machine and the MBC. It is
the responsibility of the OEM (or end
Figure 13: Commissioning And Testing Summary YWIVXIGLRMGMERWMJMRXLIIPH XSGSR-
nect the cables, junction boxes, and
are referred to as the factory accep- hydraulic or thermal expansion. They ei- MBC properly.
tance test (FAT) and the site accep- XLIV GER FI MRWXEPPIH MR E RMWLIH WXEXI
tance test (SAT). A major advantage of SVRMWLQEGLMRIHSRXLIVSXSV[LMGL- PHYSICAL TESTS (FAT AND SAT)
AMB technology is the built-in machine ever the OEM prefers. It is critical to Once constructed, a number of physi-
intelligence (sensing and computation), avoid damage to the rotor sensor target cal tests are performed. These include:
[LMGLWYTTSVXWXLIEYXSQEXIHZIVMGE- surfaces. If a sensor surface is clamped in Wire and Insulation Checks: Us-
tion of API 617 compliance. a lathes three-jaw chuck, even using ma- ing a multimeter and insulation tes-
chined soft-jaws, it can easily be perma- ter, the resistance, inductance, and
CONSTRUCTION RIRXP]HIIGXIHSVWGVEXGLIHMRHYGMRKE isolation to ground are checked
AMB hardware supplied by the AMB strong three-time position and current Continued on page 26
vendor to the expander-compressor
OEM includes:
X[S WXEXSV GEVXVMHKIW GSRXEMRMRK
the radial and axial bearings, speed
and position sensors, and auxiliary
bearings and housings)
VSXSV GEVXVMHKIW [MXL XLI FIEVMRK
and sensor targets
EY\MPMEV]FIEVMRKPERHMRKWPIIZIW
1&' ERH MXW STXMSRW ERH GYWXSQ-
izations
IRHYWIVGEFPIWXIWXGEFPIW STXMSREP
These components (excluding the
end user cables) are standard items,
with a lead time dictated by the pur-
chasing agreement in place between
the AMB vendor, OEM, and end user.
The base rotor, usually including the
E\MEP FIEVMRK ERKI MW VIXEMRIH MR XLI
machine OEMs scope of supply. There
is nothing proprietary about the base
rotor that would require it to be made
by the AMB vendor as long as the
QEXIVMEP MW EW WTIGMIH MX MW WMQTP] E
machined item. Also, it contains the
critical and highly controlled features
for wheel attachment, which OEMs
prefer to have in their scope of supply.
The rotor cartridges and auxiliary
bearing landing sleeves are installed onto
the rotor by the OEM, through either

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 23


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quiring machine disassembly and risk of damage. Also, the ex-
pander-compressor ought not to be rotated until the tuning
MWUYEPMIHERHQSHIPZEPMHEXIH%WEVIWYPXMRXLII\TIVMIRGI
SJ XLI EYXLSVW XLI 966:8 MW VEVIP] MJ IZIV YRHIVXEOIR JSV
expander-compressor model validation.
8LISXLIVQSHIPZIVMGEXMSRSTXMSRKMZIRF]%4-MWXLI
transfer function-based procedure (TFBP). This requires that
closed-loop transfer functions, measured on each machine
levitation axis, be compared to those generated from the
rotor dynamic model, while levitated and non-rotating. The
standard provides criteria within which the measured and
modeled closed-loop transfer functions must match, up to
125% of Nmc. Modern MBC platforms can collect the data
necessary for this validation automatically.
8LI WXERHEVH EPWS MRGPYHIWMJ WTIGMIH GPEYWIW EPPS[MRK
the purchaser to require the measurement of at-speed trans-
Figure 14: Sensor Calibration Result fer functions (measured while rotating) and cross-coupled
transfer functions. These are the transfer functions between
for each wire pair. This process is important to identify each of the four radial sensors and each of the four radial
mislabeled or mis-wired connections. actuators. Only the TFBP is applicable to the axial axis.
MBC Cable Customizations: If required, the MBC is API 617 requires that the model be updated to match the
customized for cable length. IPHQIEWYVIQIRXW8LMWQIERWEHNYWXMRKXLIQSHIPFIEVMRK
Interlock, Alarm, and Communication Checks: Prior tuning to match that entered into the MBC, and then adjust-
to levitation and rotation, the machine protection inter- ing the rotor and/or associated system subcomponents until
PSGOW QYWX FI GSRRIGXIH ERH ZIVMIH MR XIVQW SJ FSXL the closed-loop transfer functions match to within the speci-
hardware and software operation. Bypass valves, tem- IHGVMXIVME8LMWMWHMWGYWWIHJYVXLIVMRXLIRI\XWIGXMSR
perature and pressure sensors, automatic thrust equal-
izers, and many other sensors and actuators must have STABILITY CHECK (FAT AND SAT)
their control and command links established and tested, 3RGIXLIQSHIPLEWFIIRZIVMIHXSXLIWEXMWJEGXMSRSJXLI
as with any industrial rotating machine. The AMB position AMB vendor and purchaser, the tuning stability is checked. At
alarms must also be checked at this stage. both the analysis and commissioning stages, tuning stability
Initial Levitation: The rotor must be levitated for the is evaluated by comparing the sensitivity transfer function of
next steps. If the Revision A bearing tuning, created dur- each bearing axis to API/ISO criteria. At the analysis stage,
ing the rotor dynamic analysis, cannot achieve stable the modeled sensitivity transfer function is used; at the com-
PIZMXEXMSRMXQYWXFIEHNYWXIH-JXLIQSHIPHMJJIVWWMKRM- missioning stage, the measured transfer functions are used.
cantly from the physical system (because a wheel mass is For the radial bearing axes, the peak magnitude of the sensi-
different or a wheel is poorly attached, etc.), there can tivity transfer functions must fall within zone A, below 3.0 in
sometimes emerge a high-frequency ring on the rotor. absolute terms. For the axial axis, this value may fall within
By reducing the overall gain of the tuning, and adding or zone A or B, below 4.0. Modern MBC platforms can measure
QSZMRKKEMRVIHYGXMSRXYRMRKPXIVWYWMRKWSJX[EVIXSSPW these transfer functions automatically.
stable levitation is achieved. %1& ZIRHSV IPH WIVZMGI XIGLRMGMERW X]TMGEPP] LEZI EHHM-
Position Sensor Calibration/Sensitivity and Clearance
Checks: This allows the clearance to the auxiliary bear-
ings to be examined as an automated or manual process.
This is done by moving the rotor within the auxiliary
bearing clearance, looking for signs of contact with the
bearings, and adjusting the levitation set point to place
the rotor in the middle of its clearances. A characteristic
example of a calibration output is shown in Figure 14.

MODEL VERIFICATION (FAT AND SAT)


API 617 requires that, once levitated, the dynamic model
FI ZIVMIH EKEMRWX XLI TL]WMGEP QEGLMRI8LMW GER FI HSRI
F] SRI SJ X[S QIXLSHW8LI VWX MW XLI YRFEPERGIH VSXSV
VIWTSRWIZIVMGEXMSRXIWX 966:8 8LMWMRZSPZIWQIEWYVMRK
multiple unbalance case responses running the machine
over its speed range with controlled amounts and locations
of imbalance. This is a time-consuming process, normally re- Figure 15: Measured And Modeled Closed-Loop Transfer Function

26 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Figure 17: Maximum Position Response, 17 kRPM

Figure 16: Measured Sensitivity Transfer Function

tional tests (for example, recording a position step response


XIWX RSXWTIGMIHMR%4-XLEXXLI]TIVJSVQXSJYVXLIVGLEV-
EGXIVM^IXLIGPSWIHPSSTWXEFMPMX]SJXLIPIZMXEXMSRW]WXIQ%4-
EPPS[WE\MEPQSHIWHSQMREXIHF]XLITVSTIVXMIWSJEI\-
MFPI GSYTPMRK XS FI I\GPYHIH MR FSXL XLI QSHIP ZIVMGEXMSR
ERHXLIWIRWMXMZMX]EREP]WMW*MKYVIWLS[WEGSQTEVMWSRSJ
QSHIPIHERHQIEWYVIHGPSWIHPSSTXVERWJIVJYRGXMSRW[LMPI
*MKYVIWLS[WEQIEWYVIHWIRWMXMZMX]XVERWJIVJYRGXMSR

6922-2+8)787 *%8%2(7%8  Figure 18: Bearing Current Spectrum


;MXL XLI TL]WMGEP GLIGOW GSQTPIXI XLI TVSGIWW SV XIWX
PSST GSRRIGXIH ERH XLI XYRMRK WXEFMPMX] ERH QSHIP ZIVMIH
XLI QEGLMRI MW VIEH] XS VYR8LI QEMR KSEP SJ XLI QIGLERM-
GEP VYR XIWX MW XLI ZEPMHEXMSR SJ XLI I\TERHIV ERH GSQTVIW-
WSVTIVJSVQERGI-RXIVQWSJXLI%1&W]WXIQVYRRMRKXIWXW
EVITVMQEVMP]XSIRWYVIXLEXXLIVIWMHYEPMQFEPERGIERHTVS-
GIWWPSEHWHSRSXVIWYPXMRTSWMXMSRI\GYVWMSRWI\GIIHMRKXLI
EPEVQPMQMXW4SWMXMSREPEVQPMQMXWEVIRSVQEPP]WIXEXFIX[IIR
 ERH SJXLIQIGLERMGEPGPIEVERGI XLIRSQMREPVEHMEP
HMWXERGI FIX[IIR XLI VSXSV PERHMRK WPIIZI ERH XLI EY\MPMEV]
FIEVMRKMRRIVVEGI 8LIWIEVIRSVQEPP]PEVKIVXLERXLI%ZPZM-
FVEXMSRPMQMXWIXF]%4-8LIWTIGMIH%ZP[LMPIVYRRMRKMW
XLIWEQIEWMWYWIHEXXLIEREP]WMWWXEKI
*MKYVIW  XLVSYKL  WLS[ X]TMGEP QIEWYVIQIRXW XEOIR XS Figure 19: Unbalance Response
ZEPMHEXI XLI TSWMXMSR TIVJSVQERGI SJ ER I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSV
2SXIXLEXXLIWIXLVIIKYVIW[IVIGSPPIGXIHSREQSXSVHVMZIR UYMVIQSHMGEXMSRXSXLIFIEVMRKXYRMRK8LIQENSVWSYVGIW
GSQTVIWWSVWMRGIXLIWQSSXLWTIIHGSRXVSPGVIEXIWEFIXXIVMP- SJ*%8XS7%8HMJJIVIRGIWEVIRSXIHFIPS[
PYWXVEXMZII\EQTPISJXLIQIEWYVIHYRFEPERGIVIWTSRWITPSX:IVM- *SV WMQTPMGMX] XLI XIWX PSST YWIH HYVMRK XLI *%8 MW RSV-
GEXMSRXLEXXLIETTPMIHJSVGIWEVI[MXLMRXLIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]JEG- QEPP]RSXPPIH[MXLL]HVSGEVFSRKEW8LIVIJSVIXLIGSSPMRK
XSVSJWEJIX]GERFISFWIVZIHMREWTIGXVYQTPSXSJXLIQIEWYVIH IJJIGXWSJXLITVSGIWWKEWSRXLIQEKRIXMGFIEVMRKWERHXLIMV
FIEVMRKGYVVIRXWEWWLS[RMR*MKYVI XLIPMQMXWEVIQYGLLMKLIV VIWYPXMRK WXIEH]WXEXI XIQTIVEXYVI GER ZEV] JVSQ *%8 XS
XLERXLIWGEPISJXLITPSXERHRSXWIIR -JEW]WXIQMWIUYMTTIH 7%8(MJJIVIRGIWMRXLIQSYRXMRKSJXLIQEGLMRIGERPIEHXS
[MXLYRFEPERGIJSVGIVINIGXMSREXPIEWXX[SVYRWXSJYPPWTIIHEVI ZEVMEXMSRMRXLIQIEWYVIHXVERWJIVJYRGXMSRWERHGERVIUYMVI
RSVQEPP]HSRISRI[MXLSYXERHSRI[MXLVINIGXMSRIREFPIH QSHMGEXMSRW XS XLI FIEVMRK XYRMRK (MJJIVIRGIW MR GEFPI
PIRKXLFIX[IIRXLI*%8XIWXGEFPIWERH7%8NSFGEFPIWGER
438)28-%0(-**)6)2')7&)8;))2*%8%2(7%8 PIEH XS WQEPP ZEVMEXMSRW MR XLI QIEWYVIH XVERWJIV JYRGXMSRW
(MJJIVIRGIW MR XIWX GSRHMXMSRW FIX[IIR XLI *%8 ERH 7%8 ERHWIRWSVWIRWMXMZMXMIW*MREPP]GEVIJYPGLIGOMRKSJXLI[MVMRK
GER PIEH XS GLERKIW MR SFWIVZIH TIVJSVQERGI ERH GER VI- Continued on page 28

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 27


ever, if traditional, manual techniques are used (proportional,
MRXIKVEPHIVMZEXMZI?4-(AEYKQIRXIH[MXLVWXERHWIGSRH
SVHIV PXIVW  YTHEXMRK XLI EREP]XMGEP QSHIP MW RSX RSVQEP-
ly necessary or useful. Further documentation updates of
the rotor dynamics report are of limited utility. This model
matching does not contribute to the two key AMB-related
TIVJSVQERGI GVMXIVME   XLI FIEVMRK W]WXIQ MW WYJGMIRXP]
WXEFPIERH XLIFIEVMRKW]WXIQMWWYJGMIRXP]WXMJJXSEGGSQ-
modate process conditions.
For example, it is common for two machines, with (by de-
sign) identical housings and impellers, supplied with identical
bearing tuning, to have transfer function differences exceed-
ing the API 617 model/measurement matching criteria, but
for both to meet the stability and performance criteria. Many
expander-compressor end users will purchase a spare rotat-
ing assembly (SRA). It is also common for the primary rotor
and SRA, as a result of the unavoidable manufacturing toler-
ances, to have differences exceeding the API matching cri-
teria, when installed in the same machine, even though they
Figure 20: Position (Peak-Peak) And Speed Response Of A Touch are built to be identical. If the bearing tuning must be modi-
and Go Test IHRSVQEPP]ZIV]WPMKLXP]XLIRWMKRMGERXXMQIMWVIUYMVIHXS
update the rotor dynamics report to have two rotor mod-
is required at both the FAT and SAT to ensure no errors have els, two bearing tunings, and all of the new modeled transfer
been made during interconnection. functions, etc.
Housing natural frequencies can also cause departures be-
AUXILIARY BEARING VALIDATION tween modeled and measured transfer functions. These can
API 617 requires that the AMB system have some means vary slightly (but exceeding the API limits) from machine to
for verifying the operability of the auxiliary bearings that machine, or even between installations of an individual ma-
does not require machine disassembly. One aspect of this is GLMRI8LI]GER[MXLHMJGYPX]ERHI\TIRWIFIQSHIPIHTSWX
the clearance check if the clearances to the auxiliary bear- installation, but accurately predicting them is not feasible, and
ing have changed dramatically, barring a sensor malfunction, not necessary, especially for expander-compressors. Expand-
it normally means that damage has occurred to the bearing er-compressor manufacturers generally ensure mounting is
race or balls. WYJGMIRXP] VMKMH XS GEYWI LSYWMRK QSHIW XS FI QEREKIEFPI
Another technique is known as a touch and go (Figure Engineers skilled in tuning AMB systems will be able to iden-
20), in which the rotor, while rotating at an agreed-upon tify unacceptable housing modes, and make a request for im-
WTIIHMWHIPIZMXEXIH F]MRLMFMXMRKXLIEQTPMIVWJSVI\EQ- proved machine mounting. This occurs during OEM testing
ple), and then re-levitated. In this test, the position response more commonly, when the machine may be only temporarily
and speed can be monitored, and based on previous tests and QSYRXIH9RPIWWWTIGMIHF]XLITYVGLEWIVSVYRPIWWQSHIP
jointly agreed-upon criteria, the status of the auxiliary bear- based tuning is used, the utility of spending large amounts of
ings can be estimated.This test also validates the ability of the XMQI SR QSHIP ZEPMHEXMSR ERH LEVQSRM^MRK HIWMKR ERH IPH
control system and bearing tuning to recover from the upset measurement reports should be carefully considered.
condition of rotating on the auxiliary bearings, and validates
that the auxiliary bearing damping system prevents destruc- CONCLUSIONS
tive whirl from becoming established. A full coast down test Annex 1E of the 8th Edition of API 617 is a welcome and
MWWSQIXMQIWWTIGMIHEJXIV[LMGLXLIEY\MPMEV]FIEVMRKWEVI valuable addition to the standard, and will support the ex-
normally replaced to ensure a system with the maximum life panded use of AMB expander-compressors. Some of its
possible remains in operation. strong points are:
-XHIZIPSTWGSQQSRXIVQMRSPSK]
A NOTE ON MODEL VALIDATION -XPIZIVEKIWXLI-73WXEFMPMX]GVMXIVMEVEXLIVXLER
Model validation is useful for identifying major mechani- establishing new norms.
cal errors, such as a wrong or improperly attached impeller -X VIEGLIW E KSSH FEPERGI FIX[IIR QERHEXSV] VIUYMVI-
wheel. Gross discrepancies should be investigated and un- QIRXWERHMJWTIGMIHIPIQIRXW
derstood prior to beginning bearing tuning efforts. However, -XETTVSTVMEXIP]I\TERHWXLIZMFVEXMSRPMQMXWXSFIETTPMIH
spending effort (and money) to accurately match the mod- to AMB machines.
eled and measured transfer functions can, in many cases, be -XGSRXEMRWXLIEGGYQYPEXIHI\TIVMIRGISJ%1&HIZIPST-
of limited commercial or technical value. If the AMB vendor ers, machine builders, and end users.
YWIWQSHIPFEWIHXYRMRKXIGLRMUYIW XLI,MRRMX]QIXLSH -X FYMPHW JYVXLIV GSRHIRGI MR TSXIRXMEP TYVGLEWIVW SJ
for example), then the model must be very accurate; how- AMB expander-compressors.

28 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Based on the experience with expander-compressors, the
authors wish to also make the following comments regarding
the new Annex:
8LI WXVSRK VIUYMVIQIRX JSV QSHIP ZEPMHEXMSR ERH VI
GEPGYPEXMSR SJ EREP]XMGEP VIWYPXW YWMRK IPH XYRMRK WLSYPH
FI EWWIWWIH F] XLI YWIV XS YRHIVWXERH XLI FIRIX XLI]
would realize from a potentially time-consuming exercise
SJQSHIPZEPMHEXMSR
8LI VIUYMVIQIRX JSV EPP EREP]XMGEP QSHIW XS QEMRXEMR E
PSKHIG"MWRSXEP[E]WJIEWMFPIJSVXLIVWXFEGO[EVH
FIRHMRKQSHI
-RGVIEWIHKYMHERGISVGVMXIVMEVIKEVHMRKFIEVMRKGSSPMRK
VIUYMVIQIRXW[SYPHFI[IPGSQIERHYWIJYP

APPENDIX A: COMPONENTS OF AN ACTIVE


MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEM
%'8-:)1%+2)8-'&)%6-2+)<4%2()6'3146)77367
8LITVMRGMTPIWERHHIXEMPWSJ%1&XIGLRSPSK]LEZIFIIR[IPP
described in many sources3,5ERH[MPPRSXFIGSZIVIHMRHIXEMP
LIVI8STVSZMHIGSRXI\XJSVXLIVIEHIVWRSXJEQMPMEV[MXL%1&
XIGLRSPSK]XLIJSPPS[MRKFVMIJHIWGVMTXMSRMWTVSZMHIH

1%+2)8-'&)%6-2+'3286300)6
8LMW GEFMRIX GSRXEMRW EPP SJ XLI IPIGXVSRMG IPIQIRXW VI-
UYMVIHXSEGLMIZIPIZMXEXMSRMRXLIQIGLERMGEPW]WXIQ8LIWI
MRGPYHI FIEVMRK EQTPMIVW WIRWSV HVMZI IPIGXVSRMGW ERH E
GSQTYXEXMSRHIZMGIX]TMGEPP]ELMKLWTIIHHMKMXEPWMKREPTVS-
GIWWSV (74  [LMGL I\IGYXIW XLI JIIHFEGO GSRXVSP PSST EX
XLILIEVXSJQEKRIXMGPIZMXEXMSR8LI1&'EPWSGSRXEMRWRIG-
IWWEV] ERH STXMSREP WYTTSVX IUYMTQIRX WYGL EW%' XS ('
TS[IVGSRZIVXIVWGSRHMXMSRQSRMXSVMRKSVHEXEPSKKMRKHI-
ZMGIW&2'FVIEOSYXFSEVHWJSVWMKREPEGGIWWFEGOYTTS[IV
FEXXIVMIWSVE947 KVSYRHJEYPXQSRMXSVWGSQQYRMGEXMSRW
links, interlock inputs and outputs, temperature monitoring
VIWMWXERGIXIQTIVEXYVIHIXIGXSV?68(A MRTYXWIXG
%1& ZIRHSVW GPEWWMJ] XLIMV 1&'W MR XIVQW SJ XLIMV QSWX
MQTSVXERX JIEXYVI  XLI ZSPXEKI ERH GYVVIRX HIPMZIVIH F]
XLIMVTS[IVEQTPMIVWXSXLIQEKRIXMGFIEVMRKW%WEQTPMIV
TS[IVMRGVIEWIWXLIGETEFMPMX]SJER1&'XSEGGSQQSHEXI
LMKLIV WTIIHW LIEZMIV VSXSVW ERH KVIEXIV H]REQMG JSVGIW
MRGVIEWIW *SV%1& I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVW X]TMGEP EQTPMIV INCREASE PERFORMANCE
ZSPXEKIWVERKIJVSQXS:[LMPIGYVVIRXWVERKIJVSQ
XS% EXTEND RUNTIME
6%(-%01%+2)8-'&)%6-2+7 ON-SITE SERVICIABILITY
8;3*396%'89%8367)%',
8LIWI UYERXMX] X[S  GIRXIV XLI WLEJX ERH QEMRXEMR RS REDUCE MAINTENANCE COST
GSRXEGXPIZMXEXMSRVEHMEPP][SVOMRKEKEMRWXKVEZMX]ERHEPPVEHMEP
TVSGIWWPSEHW)EGLFIEVMRKVIJIVVIHXSEWEWXEXSVGSRWMWXW
of four separate actuators spaced at 90 degrees around the
GMVGYPEV FIEVMRK8LI EGXYEXSVW STTSWMXI IEGL SXLIV JSVQ E
FIEVMRKE\MW
6EHMEP%1& WXEXSVW EVI GSRWXVYGXIH SJ PEQMREXIH WMPMGSR
steel, similar to a transformer core, with coils of magnet wire
EVSYRH IEGL TSPI8LI PEQMREXMSRW VIHYGI XLI JSVQEXMSR SJ
eddy currents in the stator magnetic core in the presence of
GLERKMRKY\HIRWMX]ERHKVIEXP]MRGVIEWIXLIH]REQMGTIV-
JSVQERGISJXLIVEHMEPFIEVMRK
WWW.ZAHROOFVALVES.COM
Continued on page 30 SALES@ZAHROOFVALVES.COM
+1 713.554.2678
Figure A2: Typical AMB Expander-Compressor Radial And Axial Air
Gaps (mm)

Figure A1: Radial And Axial AMB And Sensor Elements FIEVMRKWXEXSVWETSWMXMSRWIRWSVIPIQIRXERHXLIMVEWWSGM
EXIHVSXSVIPIQIRXW
In some AMB designs, permanent magnets are used to
GVIEXIFMEWY\MRXLIWXEXSVWERHVIHYGIXLIHIQERHSRXLI %9<-0-%6=&)%6-2+7
FIEVMRKGSMPWFYXJYPPIPIGXVSQEKRIXMGPIZMXEXMSRMWF]JEVXLI 8LIWIEVIVSPPMRKIPIQIRXFIEVMRKWRSVQEPP]ERKYPEVGSRXEGX
XIGLRSPSK]QSWXGSQQSRP]YWIHMRI\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVW FEPP FIEVMRKW %'&&  [LMGL WYTTSVX XLI WLEJX [LIR MX MW RSX
8LI VEHMEP FIEVMRKW GSRWMHIVIH LIVIMR EVILIXIVSTSPEV PIZMXEXIHF]XLI%1&WHYVMRKERYTWIXIZIRX IK1&'JEMPYVI
FIEVMRKW QIERMRK ER] TSMRX SR XLI VSXSV MRXIVEGXMRK [MXL FIEVMRKSZIVPSEHGSRHMXMSRIXG SV[LIRXLIQEGLMRIMWRSX
XLI FIEVMRK WXEXSV [MPP WII QYPXMTPI QEKRIXMG TSPEVMX] VI MR STIVEXMSR8LIWI FIEVMRKW EVI TVIPSEHIH XS TVIZIRX HVEK
ZIVWEPW JVSQRSVXLXSWSYXLERHFEGO EWMXGSQTPIXIWSRI MRHYGIHVSXEXMSR[LMGLGERUYMGOP]HIWXVS]XLIFIEVMRKERHXS
VIZSPYXMSR VIQSZIFEGOPEWLGEYWIHF]MRXIVREPGPIEVERGI8LI]GEREGGITX
&IMRKIPIGXVSQEKRIXMGMRREXYVIXLIVEHMEPERHE\MEPFIEV FSXLVEHMEPERHE\MEPPSEHW8LI]EVIEP[E]WGEKIPIWWERHX]TM
MRKWGERSRP]TYPPSRXLIWLEJX6ITYPWMZI TEWWMZI QEKRIXMG cally contain steel bearing races and a full complement of steel
FIEVMRKW EVI RSX YWIH MR QSHIVR LMKLWTIIH MRHYWXVMEP QE SVGIVEQMGFEPPW8LI]GERFIKVIEWIHSVGSEXIH[MXLHV]PY
GLMRIWERHEVIRSXHMWGYWWIHMR%4- FVMGEXMSR JSVI\EQTPIQSP]FHIRYQHMWYPHI?1S72A SVFSXL
ERHGERLEZIWIEPWXSVIXEMRXLIKVIEWIMJTVIWIRX8LIVEHMEPERH
%<-%01%+2)8-'&)%6-2+7 8;3 E\MEPGPIEVERGIFIX[IIRXLIVSXSVERHXLIEY\MPMEV]FIEVMRKWMW
8LIE\MEPQEKRIXMGFIEVMRKWGIRXIVXLIWLEJXERHQEMRXEMR X]TMGEPP]LEPJSVPIWWXLERXLIGPIEVERGIXSXLIQEKRIXMGFIEVMRKW
RSGSRXEGX PIZMXEXMSR E\MEPP]8LI] EGX SR E ERKI [LMGL MW ERHWIRWSVW
RSVQEPP] ER MRXIKVEP TEVX SJ XLI GSQQSR I\TERHIVGSQ %4-WTIGMIWXLEXXLIFIEVMRKWQYWXFIWYTTSVXIHMR
TVIWWSV WLEJX FYX GER FI EJ\IH XS XLI WLEJX EW E WITEVEXI XLIMVLSYWMRKWF]EGSQTPMERXHEQTMRKQEXIVMEP8LMWQEXIVMEP
GSQTSRIRX8LI E\MEP FIEVMRK EGXYEXSVW EVI QEHI SJ WSPMH EPPS[WXLISYXIVVEGISJXLIEY\MPMEV]FIEVMRKXSQSZIWPMKLXP]
WXIIPGSVIWEJYPP]PEQMREXIHGSVI[SYPHMRGVIEWIH]REQMG MRMXWLSYWMRKTVSZMHMRKHEQTMRKXSXLISXLIV[MWIZIV]WXMJJ
TIVJSVQERGIFYXMWHMJGYPX I\TIRWMZI XSEGLMIZIERHRSX FIEVMRKGLEVEGXIVMWXMGW
RSVQEPP]RIGIWWEV]9WMRKTEVXMEPP]PEQMREXIHE\MEPGSVIWERH 8LMWHEQTMRKQEXIVMEPMWRIGIWWEV]XSTVIZIRXVSXSV[LMVP
GEVIJYP HIWMKR TVEGXMGI MW KIRIVEPP] WYJGMIRX JSV I\TERHIV JVSQHIZIPSTMRKHYVMRKEHIPIZMXEXIHGSEWXHS[RJVSQLMKL
GSQTVIWWSVETTPMGEXMSRW WTIIH-HIEPP][LMPIVYRRMRKSRXLIEY\MPMEV]FIEVMRKWELSVM
%4-VIUYMVIWXLEXIEGLVEHMEPERHE\MEPFIEVMRKWXEXSV ^SRXEPVSXSV[MPPVIQEMRMRXLIFSXXSQWIGXMSRSJXLIEY\MP
GSRXEMRX[SXIQTIVEXYVIQIEWYVIQIRXHIZMGIWSRITVM MEV]FIEVMRKVSGOMRKWPMKLXP]FEGOERHJSVXLSRP]GPMQFMRKYT
QEV]ERHSRIMRWXEPPIHWTEVI XLIMRRIVVEGIF]EJI[HIKVIIW6SXSV[LMVP MRXLMWGSRXI\X 
MW[LIRXLIVSXSVGPMQFWYTERHEVSYRHXLIMRRIVVEGIERH
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8LIWI TVSZMHI WLEJX VEHMEP ERH E\MEP TSWMXMSR JIIHFEGO ERGI8LIHEQTMRKQEXIVMEPXVERWJSVQWPEXIVEPQSXMSRSJXLI
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XS LEZI WXEFPI VSXSV PIZMXEXMSR )ZIR WSGEPPIHWIRWSVPIWW XMSR H]REQMG W]WXIQ VIHYGIW XLI PMOIPMLSSH ERH WIZIVMX] SJ
%1&W LEZI TSWMXMSR JIIHFEGO  XLI] EGLMIZI XLMW [MXLSYX XLMWX]TISJVSXSV[LMVP
HIHMGEXIH WIRWSV LEVH[EVI MR XLI QEGLMRI ERH [MXL GSQ
TVSQMWIH WIRWSV TIVJSVQERGI 2SVQEPP] X[S E\MEP WIRWSVW ,397-2+7
EVI MRGPYHIH SRI EX IMXLIV IRH SJ XLI QEGLMRI XS TVSZMHI ,SYWMRKW EVI VIUYMVIH XS EXXEGL ERH GSQFMRI EPP SJ XLI
VSXSVXSWXEXSV HMJJIVIRXMEP I\TERWMSR MRJSVQEXMSR 7IRWSV QEKRIXMGFIEVMRKGSQTSRIRXWXSKIXLIVERHXSXLII\TERHIV
EWWIQFPMIW EPWS MRGPYHI E TVMQEV] ERH WTEVI WLEJX VSXEXMSR ERH GSQTVIWWSV ZSPYXIW8LI LSYWMRKW EVI QIRXMSRIH LIVI
WTIIH WIRWSV *MKYVI% MW ER MPPYWXVEXMSR SJ VEHMEP ERH E\MEP FIGEYWI 3)1W ERH%1& ZIRHSVW [SVO XSKIXLIV XS GEVI

30 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


fully select the housing materials used in the machine frame
sizes. Both non-magnetic (austenitic) and magnetic (martens-
MXMG WXEMRPIWWWXIIPMWYWIHXSQEREKIPIEOEKIY\JVSQERH
around bearings and sensors.
%WVIUYMVIHF]%4-EVEHMEPERHE\MEPFIEVMRKWIRWSV
ERH EY\MPMEV] FIEVMRK EVI MRGSVTSVEXIH MRXS E VIQSZEFPI
LSYWMRKVIJIVVIHXSEWEGEVXVMHKI%QEGLMRI[MPPLEZIWITE-
VEXII\TERHIVWMHIERHGSQTVIWWSVWMHIGEVXVMHKIW

ROTOR Figure A3: AMB Axis Naming Convention Gaps (mm)


8LIVSXEXMRKEWWIQFP]GSRWMWXWSJXLII\TERHIVERHGSQ-
TVIWWSVMQTIPPIVWSV[LIIPW&IX[IIRXLI[LIIPWEVIEPPSJ E\MW PIZMXEXMRK ZIVXMGEPP] ERH SRI LSVM^SRXEPP]8LI X]TMGEP
XLIVSXEXMRKGSQTSRIRXWSJXLIFIEVMRKWIRWSVERHWIEPW]W- REQMRKGSRZIRXMSRJSVXLIVEHMEPERHE\MEPE\IWMW
XIQW8LIVSXSVMWGSRWXVYGXIHSJEWLEJX[MXLEGIRXVEPERKI  )\TERHIV6EHMEP&IEVMRK: TVSRSYRGIH:SRIXLVII
MRXIKVEPSVEXXEGLIH JSVXLIE\MEPFIEVMRKXSTYPPYTSRERH  ; TVSRSYRGIH;SRIXLVII
laminated sections beneath the radial bearing stators. While  'SQTVIWWSV6EHMEP&IEVMRK: TVSRSYRGIH:X[SJSYV
PEQMREXMSRWMRXLIVEHMEPWXEXSVGSVIMRGVIEWIH]REQMGTIVJSV-    ; TVSRSYRGIH;X[SJSYV
mance, they are necessary on the rotor to not only increase  %\MEP&IEVMRK> TVSRSYRGIH>SRIX[S
TIVJSVQERGIFYXXSTVIZIRXXLIFIEVMRKVSXSVJVSQUYMGOP] 8LIXSTFIEVMRKWEVIXLIEGXYEXSVWXLEXTYPPMRXLITSWM-
QIPXMRK JVSQ XLI VETMH QEKRIXMG Y\ VIZIVWEPW WIIR SR XLI XMZI HMVIGXMSR EPSRK XLIMV VIWTIGXMZI FIEVMRK E\IW > :
WLEJX8LI VSXSV EPWS WYTTSVXW WIRWSV XEVKIXW PEQMREXIH SV ;:; [LMPIXLIFSXXSQFIEVMRKWTYPPMRXLIRIKEXMZI
WSPMH ERHVIQSZEFPILEVHIRIHPERHMRKWPIIZIW[LMGLMRXIV- HMVIGXMSR >:;:; 7IIXLIMPPYWXVEXMSRMR*MKYVI
EGX[MXLXLIEY\MPMEV]FIEVMRKW % -J SRI [MWLIW XS FPIRH MR [MXL%1& TVSJIWWMSREPW SRI
8]TMGEP GPIEVERGIW FIX[IIR XLI VSXSV ERH XLI TSWMXMSR WLSYPHFIWYVIXSYWIJSVI\EQTPIXLIXIVQ:SRIXLVII
WIRWSVWQEKRIXMG FIEVMRKW XLIQEKRIXMG KET  EVI  XS ERHRSX:XLMVXIIR
 QQ  XS  MR  &IX[IIR XLI VSXSV ERH XLI 4EVX  SJ%4-  GSRXEMRW HIWMKR WTIGMGEXMSRW VIPEXMRK
EY\MPMEV] FIEVMRKW XLIQIGLERMGEP KET  XLI GPIEVERGI MW XS XLIWI QEGLMRIW KIRIVEPP] ERH WTIGMIW XLEX MJ QEKRIXMG
RSVQEPP] LEPJ XLEX SJ XLI QEKRIXMG KET SV PIWW *MKYVI%  FIEVMRKWEVIYWIHXLI]WLEPPFIWYTTPMIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXL
%1& I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVW EVI RSVQEPP] WYFGVMXMGEP QE- %RRI\)SJ4EVX
GLMRIWQIERMRKXLI]STIVEXIFIPS[XLIVSXSVJMVWXJPI\MFPI
mode frequency. APPENDIX B: ADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE
MAGNETIC BEARINGS
CABLES IN EXPANDER-COMPRESSORS
8LI GSRRIGXMSR FIX[IIR XLI 1&' ERH I\TERHIVGSQ- Maintenance/Reliability: ;MXL XLIMV ^IVSGSRXEGX WYT-
TVIWWSV MW EGLMIZIH F] X[S GYWXSQ MRHYWXVMEP GEFPIW TIV TSVX%1&WEVIEGGITXIHEWXLIPS[IWXQEMRXIRERGILMKLIWX
FIEVMRK GEVXVMHKI SRI GEVV]MRK EQTPMJMIV GYVVIRXW ERH XLI VIPMEFMPMX]FIEVMRKWSPYXMSREZEMPEFPI[LIRYWIH[MXLMRXLIMV
SXLIV GEVV]MRK WIRWSV WMKREPW MRGPYHMRK 68( XIQTIVEXYVI STIVEXMRKPMQMXW-RXIVQWSJXLIQEGLMRISRP]EY\MPMEV]FIEV-
signals. As length increases, these cables can be a significant MRKWEVIGSRWMHIVIHEGSRWYQEFPITEVXERHXLI]VIUYMVIRS
TSVXMSR SJ XLI SZIVEPP W]WXIQ GSWX ERH GER VIEGL YT XS EXXIRXMSRSRETVSTIVP]STIVEXMRKQEGLMRI
Q JX MRPIRKXLHITIRHMRKSRXLI1&'ERHGEFPI *SVXLI1&'GSSPMRKJERPXIVW[LMGLGERVIUYMVITIVMSHMG
technology used. GPIERMRKHITIRHMRKSRWMXIEMVUYEPMX]ERHFEGOYTFEXXIVMIW
It is common for a machine to be tested at the OEM fac- [LMGL GER HIKVEHI SZIV WIZIVEP ]IEVW EVI XLI SRP] VIKYPEV
tory with a standard set of short test cables, and commis- QEMRXIRERGI MXIQW )PIGXVSRMG GSQTSRIRX HIKVEHEXMSR ERH
sioned at the end user site with long, custom cables. SFWSPIWGIRGI GER PMQMX XLI 1&' WIVZMGI PMJIXMQI XS E JI[
HIGEHIWLS[IZIVXLIWIMWWYIWGERRSVQEPP]FIQEREKIH[MXL
MAGNETIC BEARING AXIS CONVENTIONS E WMQTPI WTEVIW QEREKIQIRX WXVEXIK] SV XLVSYKL ER 1&'
%1&I\TERHIVGSQTVIWWSVWEVIZIE\MWQEKRIXMGPIZM- YTKVEHIWGLIHYPI8LI1&'GERFIVITPEGIHSVWIVZMGIHHYV-
XEXMSRQEGLMRIW[MXLEGXMZIPIZMXEXMSRGSRXVSPEPSRKSRIE\MEP MRK E FVMIJ TPERRIH QEGLMRI SYXEKI 6IQSZMRK SMP FIEVMRKW
E\MWERHJSYVVEHMEPE\IW8LIWM\XLHIKVIISJJVIIHSQMWVS- eliminates the maintenance required on the entire oil sys-
XEXMSREFSYXXLIE\MEPE\MWGSRXVSPPIHF]XLISTIVEXMSRSJXLI XIQERHEPPSJXLIEWWSGMEXIHWIRWSVW PIZIPXIQTIVEXYVIERH
GSQTVIWWSVERHI\TERHIV TVIWWYVI ZEPZIWTMTMRKERHPXIVW
8LI E\MEP E\MW MW VIJIVVIH XS EW XLI > E\MW -RWXIEH SJ ER Zero Contamination: Particularly in the case of cryo-
<= LSVM^SRXEPZIVXMGEP GSRKYVEXMSR EW RSXIH FYX RSX KIRMGW]WXIQWYWIHMRIXL]PIRITPERXWXLIEFWIRGISJPYFVM-
WTIGMIH  MR%4-  XLI VEHMEP E\IW EPQSWX EP[E]W LEZI cation oil eliminates the risk of frozen oil fouling the heat
E HMEKSREP   GSRKYVEXMSR VIJIVVIH XS EW: ERH; I\GLERKIV GSPH FS\  -X MW [IPP ORS[R XLEX SRGI JSYPIH MX
following the right-hand rule (V rotates into W with the MW EPQSWX MQTSWWMFPI XS GSQTPIXIP] HIGSRXEQMREXI QSHIVR
VMKLX LERH KVEWTMRK > XLYQF MW TSWMXMZI > 8LMW EPPS[W LIEXI\GLERKIVW
FSXLVEHMEPE\IWXS[SVOEKEMRWXKVEZMX]VEXLIVXLERSRI Continued on page 32

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 31


Figure B1: LOB vs. AMB Compres-
sor Installation Size.
Photo courtesy of GE.

Reduced Footprint, Mass: While magnetic bearings typi- porting against API 617 requirements. This improves the
cally require a slightly larger envelope in the expander-com- speed of acceptance testing and simplifies the performance
pressor itself, the overall machine footprint and mass are evaluation.
much smaller because of the absence of an oil skid. This is il-
lustrated in Figure B1, which is an aerial view comparison of REFERENCES
the footprints of comparable LOB and AMB high-speed mo- 1
API Std. 617, Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Ex-
tor-compressor units. While not an expander-compressor, pander-Compressors, 8th ed. (Washington, DC: American
this example is still illustrative. This footprint reduction is Petroleum Institute [API], 2014).
especially critical offshore. The reduced mass also decreases 2
Jumonville, J., A Tutorial on Cryogenic Turboexpanders,
the crane and transport requirements, and in some cases, Proceedings of the 39th Turbomachinery Symposium, Tu-
allows AMB units to be installed on an elevated mezzanine torial 10 (College Station, TX: Turbomachinery Laboratory,
instead of directly on the ground. Texas A&M University, 2010), p. 147-154.
Better Condition Monitoring, Diagnostics: AMB ex- 3
Swanson, E., Masala, A., Hawkins, L., A New Active Magnetic
pander-compressors have built-in vibration, bearing load, Bearing Requirements for Compressors in API 617 Eighth
speed, and temperature sensing that can provide valuable Edition, Proceedings of the 43rd Turbomachinery Sympo-
reliability information when the MBC is connected to online sium, Tutorial 10 (College Station, TX: Turbomachinery Labo-
condition monitoring software. ratory, Texas A&M University, 2014).
Reduced Case Vibration: Using a control technique 4
ISO 14839-3:2006, Mechanical Vibration Vibration of Ro-
known as unbalance force rejection control (also known as tating Machinery Equipped with Active Magnetic Bearings
auto-balancing or vibration control) the synchronous vibra- Part 3: Evaluation of Stability Margin (Geneva, Switzerland:
tion induced on the machine by the unbalance forces of ro- International Standards Organization [ISO], 2006).
tation can be eliminated. This is achieved by allowing the ro- 5
Schweitzer, G., Maslen, E.H., eds., Magnetic Bearings: Theory,
tor to rotate about its mass center, rather than its geometric Design and Application to Rotating Machinery (Berlin, Germany;
center (Figure 12). Springer-Verlag, 2009).
Environment: The elimination of oil reduces the chance
SJSMPWTMPPWSVPIEOW-XMQTSVXERXP]VIHYGIWXLIVIVMWOSJXIR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
VIHYGMRK XLI GSWX SJ MRWYVERGI ERH GSHIVIUYMVIH VI WYT- The authors wish to acknowledge the support and assis-
TVIWWMSRW]WXIQW%1&FIEVMRKWEVILMKLP]IJGMIRXTVSHYG- XERGISJ.SWITL0MPPEVHSJXLI%XPEW'STGS1E8VIRGL'SQ-
ing roughly one-tenth of the bearing losses of LOB systems. pany in preparing this tutorial and paper. They also wish to
Reduction of Seals: AMB expander-compressors typical- acknowledge Robert Fischer of the ExxonMobil Company
ly have a labyrinth seal behind each impeller, to prevent very for acting as the Turbomachinery Symposium monitor for
cold or very hot gases entering the bearing cavities. They this tutorial. Finally, they wish to thank Damien Diepdale,
do not, however, normally require dry gas seals, as a result Bertrand Barbey, Blair Martin, Robert Gates, Christopher
of the submersion of the bearings in the process gas, saving Howe, Alexis Steer, Shawn Gibson, and Frederic Ponson of
cost and complexity. SKF for their contributions. For additional information or
Automated Verification of API 617 Criteria: MBCs answers to questions, contact the authors directly through
are capable of automating the collection of data and re- their email addresses.

32 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


PACKAGER
PROFILE: BY BRENT HAIGHT

ALEGACY EQUIPMENT
Waller, Texas, USA

TYPE OF COMPRESSION: Reciprocating


Phone: 832-916-3700
TYPES OF DRIVERS: Reciprocating Engine, Electric Motor
Email: info@alegacy.biz
Website: www.alegacy.biz CAPACITY RANGE:
Year Founded: 2013 100 hp min. (74 kW min.)
10,000 hp max. (7460 kW max.)
Number of Employees: 60+
Geographic Territory: USA SERVICES OFFERED:
Fabrication and packaging of new gas compression equipment;
COMPANY OFFICERS: revamping the gas compression package; upgrading gas compres-
Will Reyes, Managing Partner sion equipment
Bob Nickles, Principal Located in Waller, Texas, USA, Alegacys 20-acre (8-ha) campus
Bo Pierce, Principal includes a 60,000-sq.ft. (5574-m2) assembly shop, a 30,000-sq.ft.
(2787-m2 JEFVMGEXMSRWLSTFPEWXERHTEMRXGIPPWERHSJGIWTEGI
Alegacys focus is the fa fabrication and packaging of skid-
mounted natural gas co compression equipment. While it
also offers package rev revamp and upgrade services, its
business model is cleaclear: We build it and ship it. Thats
MXWEMH2MGOPIW;IHSRX[ERXXSFIXLIIIX;I
MXWEMH2MGOPIW;I
think that those who comingle in that environment
are kind of competing
comp against their own custom-
ers and will create an identity crisis at some point.
Our focus ha has always been the compressor
package, said Nickles. When we began, we
focused exclusively
exclus on building units for com-
TVIWWSVIIXWWYGLEW97%'SQTVIWWMSRERH
TVIWWSVIIXW
Kodiak Gas Services,
Ser among others. Today, we
also build product fo for end users such as Anadarko,
Plains All American Pipe Pipeline, Rice Energy Inc., and more.
rom its humble beginnings, operating from a
F Holiday
H lid IInn EExpress hhotel,
t l Al
Alegacy hhas grown iinto
t
a world-class packager of gas compression equipment. Found-
;IZI FIIR MRZSPZIH MR WSQI
projects
j t with ith companies
WS
like H
i lik
VWXKIRIVEXMSR MRRSZEXMZI
HICOR and Mission West Inc., for
example. We have already built the prototype unit for HICOR
ed in 2013, Alegacy specializes in the fabrication and packaging XLEXMWMRIPHXIWXRS[;ILEZIERSXLIVIQIVKMRKXIGLRSPSK]
of engine and electric motor-driven reciprocating compression project in development with Mission West. The prototype unit
equipment from 100 to 10,000 hp (74 to 7460 kW). To date, is scheduled to be built in Q2-2017. We are absolutely looking
the company has packaged natural gas compressors and re- for emerging technologies, improvements, and strategic devel-
lated equipment in excess of US$250 million. opments. We want to build the next generation of products,
3YVIEVP]HE]W[IVIZIV]LYQFPMRKFYXEPWSPPIH[MXLXLI not just whats in our portfolio today.
purpose of wanting to build a legacy, said Bob Nickles. Nick- Having weathered the unprecedented market challenges of
les, along with Bo Pierce, serve as principals of Alegacy. We 2016, Nickles sees a brighter forecast for Alegacy in 2017.
keep customer needs at the center of everything we do and We saw the market shrink in 2016 over 2015, but thanks
maintain a responsibly managed growth environment. Today, to one extremely strong customer, Kodiak Gas Services, we
Alegacy is located on a 20-acre (8-ha) campus in Waller, Texas, only retracted about 20% year-over-year. Given everything that
USA, complete with a 60,000-sq.ft. (5574-m2) assembly shop, a has happened within the industry last year, we are thrilled with
30,000-sq.ft. (2787-m2) fabrication shop, blast and paint cells, that number. Our crystal ball for 2017 is far more bold. Our
SJGIWTEGIERHVSSQXSI\TERH conservative forecast is that we will more than double last year.
The total square footage under roof is 100,000 sq.ft. Orders are already coming in.
(9290 m2), said Nickles. When we designed this campus, Nickles attributes the success of Alegacy to a company-
we started with a clean sheet of paper. We decided where wide attention to detail lead by Managing Partner Will Reyes.
the road was going to be, the building heights, the building Our attention to detail separates us in the marketplace,
widths, placement of the paint shop every aspect was said Nickles. Its not something you see on a resume. Its not
well thought out before we began construction. The as- something you see in a bio. You begin to see it the moment
sembly shop was purpose-built around a Caterpillar 3516/ you see the equipment lined up in our yard, the moment you
Ariel JGT4 compressor package. The bay doors, the crane WIIXLIGPIERIHERHFYJJIHWLSTSSVWXLIQSQIRX]SYWII
capacity everything was designed to accommodate large- the quality of our work. We take great pride in every aspect
horsepower gas compression. of what we do.

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 35


Dont replace.

IN THE NEWS
general management within Industrial for B&W MEGTEC and will be included
8IGLRMUYI HYVMRK XLI VWX  ]IEVW &I- in B&Ws Industrial operating segment.
MA

X[IIRERHLILIPHTSWMXMSRW The new company will be named Bab-


T S R A H M ST R

as general manager for customer centers cock & Wilcox Universal and will operate
in Sweden, Canada, and then in the Unit- under the trade name B&W Universal.
ed Kingdom. Before he took on his cur- B&W MEGTEC is a global supplier of
VIRXTSWMXMSRMRLI[EWTVIWMHIRXSJ environmental control technologies and
the Tools and Assembly Systems General engineered products tailored to meet

M
Industry division within Atlas Copcos In- customers manufacturing process re-
dustrial Technique. He has an MBA from quirements. The companys key technol-
ATLAS COPCO NAMES NEW the Henley Management College in the SKMIWMRGPYHIS\MHM^IVWJEFVMGPXIVW[IX
PRESIDENT & CEO United Kingdom. Rahmstrm will be the and dry electrostatic precipitators, sol-
The Board of Directors of Atlas Cop- 12th president and CEO since the com- vent recovery systems, scrubbers, selec-
co AB has appointed Mats Rahmstrm pany was established in 1873. tive catalytic and selective non-catalytic
as the new president and CEO of Atlas reduction (SCR/SNCR) products, and
Copco AB. Effective April 27, Rahm- B&W ACQUIRES UNIVERSAL distillation equipment.
strm will replace Ronnie Leten, who ACOUSTIC & EMISSIONS Universal AET solutions target mid-
has requested to leave his position after TECHNOLOGIES INC. stream natural gas pipeline, natural gas
having managed Atlas Copco success- Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises Inc. power generation, general industrial, and
fully for eight years. (B&W) has acquired Universal Acoustic other end markets. Universal AET em-
Rahmstrm, currently senior execu- & Emission Technologies Inc. (Universal TPS]WETTVS\MQEXIP]TISTPIQEMRP]MR
tive vice president and president of the AET), a Wisconsin-based provider of cus- the United States and Mexico. Universal
Industrial Technique business area, began tom-engineered acoustic, emission, and AETs product offering includes gas tur-
his Atlas Copco career in 1988. He held PXVEXMSRWSPYXMSRW bine inlet and exhaust systems, custom
positions in sales, service, marketing, and Universal AET is a bolt-on acquisition WMPIRGIVWPXIVWERHGYWXSQIRGPSWYVIW

36 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


Rebuild.
The Altronic Flashguard 2.0 Secondary Spark Plug Lead System
gives you the ability to fully rebuild spark plug leads in the eld.
*ODPSQPSBUJOHDVTUPN5FPOFYUFOTJPOT JODMVEJOH JOTUBMMFESFQMBDFNFOUDPNQPOFOUT JODMVEJOHOFX0SJOHT 
TQFDJBMFYUFOTJPOTGPSUIF$BUFSQJMMBSBOE XJSFT CPPUT PSHSPNNFUTUFSNJOBMQJOTBDRVJSFEEJSFDUMZ
FOHJOFT NVMUJQMFXJSFTUZMFT BSBOHFPGQSJNBSZBOE GSPNZPVS%JTUSJCVUPSTJOWFOUPSZPSZPVSPXO
TFDPOEBSZDPOOFDUJPOT BOEBOBTTPSUNFOUPGMFBE 5IJTTZTUFNPGGFSTBDDFTTJCJMJUZ SFMJBCJMJUZ BOEUIF
BDDFTTPSJFT ZPVDBODPTUFGGFDUJWFMZTQFDJGZBMFBEGPS QFSGPSNBODFUIBUBSFDSJUJDBMUPNJOJNJ[FEPXOUJNF XIJMF
NBOVGBDUVSFCZZPVSMPDBM%JTUSJCVUPS PSMPDBMMZCZZPVS ESJWJOHUIFOFDFTTBSZDPTUDPOUSPMBOETFSWJDFBCJMJUZUIBU
PXOQFSTPOOFM*OFJUIFSDBTF MFBETDBOCFTFSWJDFE BSFTPDSVDJBMUPUXFOUZSTUDFOUVSZPQFSBUJPO
SFCVJMUXIFOOFDFTTBSZXJUINPEFSBUFMZQSJDFE FBTJMZ
$POUBDUZPVS"MUSPOJD%JTUSJCVUPSGPSBMMUIFEFUBJMT

HOERBIGER Engine Solutions

Find a distributor near you at www.altronic-llc.com

Universal AET expands our industrial XSVIWSPZIMHIRXMIHKETWERHI\IGYXMRK WTSRWMFPIJSVVYRRMRKXLISJGIERH[MPP


environmental portfolio into noise abate- against these recommendations, SEAL- act as point of contact for the compa-
ment, introduces us to new end markets CO is ensuring that it has the processes nys US clients.
and customers, and gives us another necessary to consistently improve qual- We are very fortunate to have Al-
avenue to serve natural gas power gen- MX]SREVIKYPEVUYERXMEFPIERHHIQSR- berto join us because, with his valuable
eration customers, said B&W Chairman strable basis, the company said. expertise and experience, we continue
and CEO E. James Ferland. This acquisi- Achieving AS9100C/ISO 9001:2008 to strengthen our position in offering
tion aligns with our strategy to grow our GIVXMGEXMSR MW E XIVVMG QMPIWXSRI JSV services to our US client base, said Nils
industrial market exposure and continue both Seal Company and our customers, van Nood, CEO of GustoMSC.
to increase our non-coal revenue base. said David Oldham, president of SEALCO. Dr. Morandi holds a PhD from the
Headquartered in Charlotte, North 8LIGIVXMGEXMSRTVSGIWWVIUYMVIHEPSX University of Glasgow in reliability of
Carolina, USA, Babcock & Wilcox is a of hard work over a 19-month period marine structures and an MSc in na-
global provider of energy and environ- and demonstrates Seal Companys con- val architecture from the University of
mental technologies and services. tinued commitment to our customers So Paulo. He is a chartered engineer
and our quality. in the UK and a professional engineer
SEALCO ACHIEVES AS9100C/ISO Headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the state of Texas, contributing to
9001:2008 CERTIFICATION USA, SEALCO is a global manufactur- technical committees and developing
Seal Company Enterprises Inc. (SEALCO) er and distributor of gaskets, seals, O- international standards and industry
has achieved AS9100C/ISO 9001:2008 rings, and related sealing products used practices.
GIVXMGEXMSRW %7'-73  throughout myriad industries, including Headquartered in The Netherlands,
standards specify Quality Management gas compression, oil and gas, and power GustoMSC is an independent design
System (QMS) requirements focused on generation. and engineering company serving the
an organizations ability to meet and im- offshore oil and gas market. With this
prove upon customer satisfaction and GUSTOMSC NAMES NEW appointment, GustoMSC aims to further
quality requirements. As part of the cer- GENERAL MANAGER ensure close working relations with its
XMGEXMSR TVSGIWW 7)%0'3 IWXEFPMWLIH GustoMSC has named Dr. Alberto local clients and to facilitate easy access
its own QMS. By identifying areas for im- Morandi as general manager of its to the technical expertise of its head-
provement, creating recommendations ,SYWXSR 97% SJGI ,I [MPP FI VI- quarters, the company said.

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 37


G A S C O M P R E S S I O N:

A PRIMER ON GAS COMPRESSION EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY


BY W. NORM SHADE, PE

8 Process and Refinery


Compression Applications

C H A P T E R

A basic introduction to gas compression,


intended for operators, maintenance
technicians, supervisors, engineers, stu-
dents, and others who want to gain a fun-
damental understanding of gas compres-
sor rating, application, analysis, and control.

The following is an excerpt from the forthcoming book, Gas Compression: A Primer On Gas Compression Equipment & Technology. Each
month, Gas Compression Magazine will publish approximately one chapter. At a later date, it is planned that all the individual chapters
and sections will be combined into a comprehensive text book that will include sample problems and even some homework assignments.
Part I:
Introduction to Compression: Compressor Types and Applications

8
CHAPTER

Process and Refinery Compression Applications

s introduced in Chapter 6 and symbolized in Figure


A 6.1 (see December 2016 Gas Compression Magazine,
p. 37), the oil and natural gas industry is generally catego-
rized into three segments: upstream, midstream, and down-
stream. Each segment has unique requirements. Chapter 6
discussed the most common upstream compression appli-
cations in some detail. Continuing down the supply stream,
the midstream sector of the oil and gas industry covers
the processing, storing, marketing, and transportation of
crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. Chapter 7 (see
January 2017 Gas Compression Magazine, p. 12) discussed
several midstream natural gas compression applications, *MKYVI7MQTPMIH,]HVSGEVFSR4VSGIWWMRK-RHYWXV]*PS[GLEVX
including gas processing, process refrigeration, gas pipeline
transmission, and gas storage and withdrawal. Chapter 8 will as hydrocarbon processing, it generally uses feedstocks of
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ical process facilities typically
use dozens of compressors to
pressurize various gas streams
throughout the sprawling pro-
cess complex.

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 39


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40 KEWGSQTVIWWMSRQEKE^MRIGSQ`FEBRUARY
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MR'LETXIV WII%YKYWXGas Compression Maga- 4IXVSPIYQ-RWXMXYXI?%4-A 

KEWGSQTVIWWMSRQEKE^MRIGSQ`FEBRUARY 41
2017
NOTABLE DATES & INDUSTRY ANNOUNCEMENTS

EVENTS CALENDAR | February August


February
GAS/ELECTRIC PARTNERSHIP GULF SOUTH ROTATING
Houston, Texas, USA MACHINERY SYMPOSIUM
February 8 9 Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
www.gaselectricpartnership.com April 24 26
www.gsrms.org

March May
CORROSION 2017
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA EASTERN GAS COMPRESSION
March 26 30 ROUNDTABLE
www.nacecorrosion.org Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
May 23 25
www.egcr.org

April
GASTECH CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION
Tokyo, Japan
June
April 4 7 GLOBAL PETROLEUM
www.gastechevent.com Calgary, Canada
June 13 15
PIPELINE & ENERGY EXPO www.globalpetroleumshow.com
Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
April 4 7 POWER-GEN EUROPE
www.pipelineenergyexpo.com Cologne, Germany
June 27 29
www.powergeneurope.com
GPA MIDSTREAM ASSOCIATION
CONVENTION
San Antonio, Texas, USA
April 9 12
www.gpaconvention.org/register August
POWER-GEN NATURAL GAS
GCA EXPO & CONFERENCE Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Galveston, Texas, USA August 15 17
April 23 26 www.power-gennaturalgas.com
www.gascompressor.org/meetings

gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017 43


INDEX OF ADVERTISERS
FEBRUARY

ACI Services, Inc. 9 FW Murphy Fourth Cover

Altronic 3637 Gulf South Rotating


Machinery Symposium 45
Ariel 13
KB Delta
ARMCO Compressor Products Corp. 3 Compressor Valve Parts, Mfg. 1, 2425, Third Cover
AXH Air-Coolers 23 Robt. L. Rowan & Assocs., Inc. Second Cover
CPI 5 Zahroof Valves 29
FLSmidth Inc. 19

To advertise in Gas Compression Magazine, contact Sarah Yildiz at


syildiz@thirdcoastpublishing.net or 832.271.7300, ext. 702

CLASSIFIED SECTION
R U N A N N E E D
A D V E R T I S E M E N T A S S I S T A N C E ?

Have a posting or announcement 'LERKMRK]SYVEHHVIWW#


you would like to run in our 6IRI[MRK]SYVWYFWGVMTXMSR#
GPEWWMIHWIGXMSR# 7[MXGLMRKXSTVMRXSVHMKMXEP#

Contact Sarah Yildiz at 832.271.7300, ext. 702 WE CAN HELP.


Or syildiz@thirdcoastpublishing.net
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materials or have our design team create
one for you free of charge.

44 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


GULF SOUTH ROTATING MACHINERY SYMPOSIUM 2017
April 2426, 2017
Crowne Plaza Executive Center
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

GSRMS Training Institute Technical and Short Courses From 416 Hours

Tutorials PresentedIndustry Standards, Innovations and Practices

Networking OpportunitiesConnect With Colleagues and Potential Customers

Trade ShowLeading Vendors In The Industry

Visit www.gsrms.org for conference details and registration information


Follow us on Twitter @GSRMS2017 and
Facebook- Gulf South Rotating Machinery Symposium

GSRMSGulf South Rotating Machinery Symposium


LSU Continuing Education, 2146 Pleasant Hall, Baton Rouge, LA. 70803
Phone: 225-578-4853 Email: gsrms@outreach.lsu.edu
HAIGHT
REPORT BRENT HAIGHT, PUBLISHER
bhaight@thirdcoastpublishing.net

EPA EYES NATURAL GAS


PROCESSING FACILITIES

T he US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has pro-


posed a rule that would require natural gas processing
plants to publicly report toxins that are being released into
Not included in the EPAs proposal are well sites, compres-
sor stations, pipelines, and other smaller facilities that employ
fewer than 10 people.
the environment. The move is in response to a 2012 petition Some natural gas processing facilities are already subject to
by 19 environment and open-government groups requesting TRI reporting requirements. For example, facilities that primar-
that the EPA exercise its discretionary Toxics Release Inven- ily recover sulfur from natural gas are part of a manufactur-
tory (TRI) sector addition authority to add the oil and gas ing sector that was originally subjected to reporting by the US
extraction industrial sector to the scope of industrial sectors Congress.The proposal presented by the EPA last month would
covered by the reporting requirements of the TRI. The group expand coverage to all natural gas processing facilities that re-
PIHEPE[WYMXEKEMRWXXLI)4%MR.ERYEV]XSGSQTIPXLI GIMZIERHVIRIREXYVEPKEW%GGSVHMRKXSXLI)4%)RXMXMIWTS-
EKIRG]XSVIWTSRHXSMXWMRMXMEPTIXMXMSR[LMGLMXREPP]HMHMR tentially regulated by this proposed action are those facilities
3GXSFIV[LIRMXEKVIIHXSGSQQIRGI[MXLXLIRIGIW- that primarily engage in the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons
sary rulemaking process to propose adding natural gas pro- JVSQ SMP ERH KEW IPH KEWIW MRGPYHMRK JEGMPMXMIW XLEX IRKEKI MR
GIWWMRKJEGMPMXMIWXSXLIWGSTISJXLI86--R.ERYEV]XLI)4% sulfur recovery from natural gas, as well as those which manu-
unveiled its proposal. facture, process, or otherwise use chemicals listed at 40 CFR
The EPA is proposing to add natural gas processing facilities ERHQIIXXLIVITSVXMRKVIUYMVIQIRXWSJ)4'6%WIGXMSR
to the scope of the industrial sectors covered by the reporting 313, 42 U.S.C. 11023, and PPA section 6607, 42 U.S.C. 13106.
requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and According to the EPA, adding these facilities to the TRI would
Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), commonly known as increase the publicly available information on chemical releases,
the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and section 6607 of the Pol- while furthering the goals of section 313 of the Emergency
lution Prevention Act (PPA). Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.
According to the proposal, adding these facilities would The EPA estimates that the proposal, industry-wide, would
meaningfully increase the information available to the public on GSWXYTXS97QMPPMSRJSVXLIVWX]IEVSJVITSVXMRKERH
releases and other waste management of listed chemicals from up to US$7.3 million for each reporting year thereafter.
the natural gas processing sector. While environmentalists are celebrating the move, analysts
%VITSVXGMXIHF]XLI)4%IWXMQEXIWXLIVIEVI are quick to point out that the future of the EPA proposal re-
natural gas process facilities in the United States. According mains uncertain. Sitting atop the list of potential challenges to
to the EPA, more than half of these plants would meet the the proposal: The new political administration in Washington,
TRIs chemical reporting thresholds for 21 different toxic DC, brings a whole different approach to government, affec-
GLIQMGEPW MRGPYHMRK FIR^IRI L]HVSKIR WYPHI RLI\ERI tively presenting the biggest wild card any analyst, lobbyist, or
and methanol. industry insider has ever tried to predict.

46 gascompressionmagazine.com | FEBRUARY 2017


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