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Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

Civil Engineering Department


Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

PROBLEM 1 Analyze the stability of given gravity dam (Figure 1) for the following conditions: Friction coefficient between
concrete-foundation is 0.70, respectively. Allowable shear stress at the foundation level is 2200 kN/m 2, allowable compressive and
shear stresses in concrete are 2700 kN/m2, and 2400 kN/m2, respectively. Allowable compressive stress in foundation material is
2700 kN/m2. Take specific weights of concrete and water as 24 kN/m3, and 10 kN/m3, respectively.

65 m 55 m
70 m 50 m
1 H : 10 V 0.7 H : 1 V

O 15 m
O
6m 4m 45 m
6m 5m 30 m
55 m
41 m
Figure 1
Figure 2
PROBLEM 2 Analyze the stability of given gravity dam (Figure 2) for the following conditions: The ice tickhness at the resevoir
surface is 50 cm with the increase in temperature of 5 oC/h. Friction coefficients between concretes, and concrete-foundation are
0.75 and 0.65, respectively. Allowable shear stress at the foundation level is 2000 kN7m2, allowable compressive and shear stress
in concrete are 2500 kN/m2, and 2200 kN/m2, respectively. Allowable compressive stress in foundation material is 2500 kN/m2.
Relief drainage may reduce the uplift force by 50 %. The earthquake coefficient is 0.1. Take specific weights of concrete and water
as 25 kN/m3, and 10 kN/m3, respectively.

PROBLEM 3 Determine the total volume of an arch dam 120 m high to span a 300 m wide U-shaped valley. The crest width is 6
m. Take = 10 kN/m3, = 120o, all = 6200 kN/m2. Ignore the variation of span width and a in the vertical direction. Consider
vertical upstream face.

PROBLEM 4 Determine the optimum central angle of an arch dam giving the minimum volume of rib.
Answer :a = 133o.34

PROBLEM 5 Elevation of an arch dam (Figure 3) is 75 m. Span (top width) of a U-shaped valley is 350 m. Central angle is 150 o.
Allowable compressive stress in concrete is 5500 kN/m2. Ignoring the variation of , and span width with respect to depth,
determine:
a) The cross-section for a vertical upstream faced arch dam having 6 m thickness at the crest,
b) Thickness of arch at 30 m below the water surface, 6m
c) Volume of arch per unit height assuming 1 m unit height at the bottom,
d) Total volume of arch dam
In the computations, take con = 24 kN/m3, and w = 10 kN/m3
hx

75 m

tb

Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net Figure 3


Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

SOLUTION 1
Forces and loads acting the dam:
Fwh: Hydrostatic force produced by water in the reservoir and tail water in the downstream
Fwv: Water load produced by water weight
Fu : Uplift force produced by groundwater
W : The weight of the dam (W1, W2, W3)

Free body diagram is shown in figure 4

Fwv

xm
65 m 70 m
Fwh

W1 W2 W3
O
6m 4m 45 m

55 m

Figure 4

Fu
The value of the forces, total vertical and total horizontal forces, and moments:

FORCE (kN/m) MOMENT ARM ABOUT O(m) MOMENT (kN/m/m)

W1 = 6 * * 70 * 24 = 5040 kN XW1 = 1/3 * 6 + 4 + 45 = 51.00 m W1 * XW1 = 257040 kNm

W2 = 4 * 70 * 24 = 6720 kN XW2 = * 4 + 45 = 47.00 m W2 * XW2 =315840 kNm

W3 = 45 * * 70 * 24 = 37800 kN XW3 = 2/3 * 45 = 30.00 m W3 * XW3=1134000 kNm

Fwv = 6 * * 65 * 10 = 1950 kN Xwv = 2/3 * 6 + 4 + 45 = 53.00 m Fwv * XFv =103350 kNm

Fwh = 65 * * 65 * 10 = 21125 kN XFwh = 1/3 * 65 = 21.67 m Fwh * XFh =457779 kNm

Fu = 65 * * 55 * 10 = 17875 Kn XFu = 2/3 * 55 = 36.67 m Fu * XFu =655476 kNm

MO = 457779 + 655476 = 1113255 kNm/m


Mr = 257040 + 315840 + 1134000 + 103350 = 1810230 kNm/m
V = W1 + W2 + W3 + Fwv - Fu = 33635 kN/m
H = Fwh = 21125 kN/m
Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net
Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

Stability Check For the Whole Dam:

1. Overturning (F.S0): The dam must be safe against overturning for all loading conditions. F.S0 should
be greater than 2.0 for usual loading, and than1.5 for unusual or severe loading.

F.S0 =
M r
=
1810230
= 1.626 > 1.5 O.K.
M O 1113255

2. Sliding (F.SS): The dam must be safe against sliding over any horizontal plane. F.SS should be greater
than 1.5 for usual loading and than 1.0 for unusual or severe loading.

f V 0.7 33635
F.SS = = = 1.11 > 1.0 O.K
H 21125

3. Shear and sliding together (F.SSS): The dam must be also checked for shear and sliding together. F.SSS
should be greater 5.0 for usual loading and 3.0 unusual and severe loading.

f V 0.5 A S 0.7 33635 0.5 55 2200


F.SSS = = = 3.98 > 3.0 O.K.
H 21125

4. Stress (max/min): The contact stress between the foundation and the dam must be greater than zero and
all points or the dam will be unsafe against overturning. Maximum base pressure (max) should be
less than the allowable compressive stress and minimum base pressure (min) should be greater than
zero.

X
M r M O = 1810230 1113255 = 20.72 m
V 33635
55
e= 20.72 = 6.78 (eccentricity)
2
M = V * e = 33635 * 6.78 = 228045.3 kNm/m (the net moment about the centerline of the base)

55
C= = 27.5 m
2

55 3 1
I= = 13864.58 m3 ( the moment of interia)
12

max/ min
V
M C
=
33635 228045.3 27.5

B I 55 13864.58

max = 1063.87 kN/m2 < 2700 kN/m2 O.K.


max = 159.22 kN/m2 > 0.00 kN/m2 O.K.
Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net
Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

SOLUTION 2

Forces and loads acting the dam:

Fi : Ice Load (for cold climates and Fi1, and Fi2 for reservoir and tail water in the downstream,
respectively)
Fw: Water force produced by earthquake (Fw1, and Fw2 for reservoir and tail water in the
downstream, respectively)
Fwh: Hydrostatic force produced by water in the reservoir and tail water in the downstream (Fwh 1,
and Fwh2)
Fwv: Water load produced by water weight (Fwv1, and Fwv2 for reservoir and tail water in the
downstream, respectively)
Fu : Uplift force produced by groundwater (since the tail water in the downstream, the diagram of
uplift force will be in trapezoidal shape)
W : The weight of the dam (W1, W2, W3Wn)
Fd : Earthquake forces (Fdh1 and Fdv1: horizontally and vertically)

Free body diagram is shown in figure 4

Fi1
Fwv1 Fdv
Fdh
xm 55 m
50 m Fw1
Fwh1 Fi2
Fwv2 Fw2

Fwh2 15 m
W1 W2 W3
O
6m 5m 30 m

41 m

Figure 5 Fu
Shear and sliding check due to ice force at the reservoir surface:

90
Average shear stress: = 18 kN/m2 << 2200 O.K.
5

0.75 5 5 25
Sliding check: = 5.21 >> 1.00 O.K.
90
Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net
Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

The value of the forces, total vertical and total horizontal forces, and moments:

FORCE (kN/m) MOMENT ARM ABOUT O(m) MOMENT (kN/m/m)

W1 = 50 * 6.0 * 0.5 *25 = 3750 kN 37.00 m 138750 kNm


W2 = 55 * 5.0 * 1.0 *25 = 6875 kN 32.50 m 223438 kNm
W3 = 50 * 30 * 0.5 * 25 = 18750 kN 20.00 m 375000 kNm
Fwv1 = 50 * 6 * 0.5 * 10 = 1500 kN 39.00 m 58500 kNm
Fwv2 = 15 * 9 * 0.5 * 10 = 675 kN 3.00 m 2025 kNm
Fwh1 = 55 * 55 * 0.5*10 = 15125 kN 17.00 m 257125 kNm
Fwh2 = 15 * 15 * 0.5*10 = 1125 kN 5.00 m 5625 kNm
Fu =[(50+15)/2]*41*10*0.5= 6663 kN 23.30 m 168295 kNm
FW1 = 0.726*C*k**h12
FW1 = 0.726*0.65*0.1*10*502 = 1180 kN 17.00 m 20056 kNm
FW2 = 0.726*0.46*0.1*10*152 = 75 kN 5.00 m 375 kNm
Fi1 = 90 kN 50.00 m 4500 kNm
Fi2 = 90 kN 15.00 m 1350 kNm
Fdv = k *W=0.1* 29375 =2937.5 kN 30.10 m 88419 kNm
Fdh = k * W=0.1*29375 =2937.5 kN 20.64 m 60630 kNm

Stability Check For the Whole Dam (When vertical Fd (Fdv) is considered):

MO = 257125+168295+20056+4500+88419 = 538395 kNm/m

Mr = 138750+223438+375000+58500+2025+5625+375+1350 = 805063 kNm/m

V = W1 + W2 + W3 + Fwv1 + Fwv2- Fu -Fdv = 21950 kN/m

H = Fwh1- Fwh2 + FW1 - FW2 + Fi1 - Fi2 = 15105 kN/m

1. Overturning (F.S0): The dam must be safe against overturning for all loading conditions. F.S0 should
be greater than 2.0 for usual loading, and than1.5 for unusual or severe loading.

F.S0 =
M r
=
805063
= 1.495 < 1.5 NOT O.K.
M O 538395

2. Sliding (F.SS): The dam must be safe against sliding over any horizontal plane. F.SS should be greater
than 1.5 for usual loading and than 1.0 for unusual or severe loading.

f V 0.65 21950
F.SS = = = 0.94 < 1.0 NOT O.K.
H 15105

Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net


Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

3. Shear and sliding together (F.SSS): The dam must be also checked for shear and sliding together. F.SSS
should be greater 5.0 for usual loading and 3.0 unusual and severe loading.

f V 0.5 A S 0.65 21950 0.5 41 2200


F.SSS = = = 3.93 > 3.0 O.K.
H 15105

4. Stress (max/min): The contact stress between the foundation and the dam must be greater than zero and
all points or the dam will be unsafe against overturning. Maximum base pressure (max) should be
less than the allowable compressive stress and minimum base pressure (min) should be greater than
zero.

X
M r M O = 805063 538395 = 12.15 m
V 21950
41
e= 12.15 = 8.35 (eccentricity)
2
M = V * e = 21950 * 8.35 = 183307 kNm/m (the net moment about the centerline of the base)

41
C= = 20.5 m
2

413 1
I= = 5743.42 m4 ( the moment of interia)
12

max/ min
V
M C
=
21950 183307 20.5

B I 41 5743.42

max = 1189.64 kN/m2 < 2700 kN/m2 O.K.

max = -118.91 kN/m2 < 0.00 kN/m2 NOT O.K.

Stability Check For the Whole Dam (When horizontal Fd (Fdh) is considered):

MO = 257125+168295+20056+4500+60630 = 510606.0 kNm/m

Mr = 138750+223438+375000+58500+2025+5625+375+1350 = 805063.0 kNm/m

V = W1 + W2 + W3 + Fwv1 + Fwv2 - Fu = 19012.5 kN/m

H = Fwh1- Fwh2 + FW1 - FW2 + Fi1 - Fi2 + Fdh = 18042.5 kN/m

Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net


Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

1. Overturning (F.S0): The dam must be safe against overturning for all loading conditions. F.S0 should
be greater than 2.0 for usual loading, and than1.5 for unusual or severe loading.

F.S0 =
M r
=
805063
= 1.58 > 1.5 O.K.
M O 510606

2. Sliding (F.SS): The dam must be safe against sliding over any horizontal plane. F.SS should be greater
than 1.5 for usual loading and than 1.0 for unusual or severe loading.

f V 0.65 19012.5
F.SS = = = 0.65 < 1.0 NOT O.K.
H 18042.5

3. Shear and sliding together (F.SSS): The dam must be also checked for shear and sliding together. F.SSS
should be greater 5.0 for usual loading and 3.0 unusual and severe loading.

f V 0.5 A S 0.65 19012.5 0.5 41 2200


F.SSS = = = 3.19 > 3.0 O.K.
H 18042.5

4. Stress (max/min): The contact stress between the foundation and the dam must be greater than zero and
all points or the dam will be unsafe against overturning. Maximum base pressure (max) should be
less than the allowable compressive stress and minimum base pressure (min) should be greater than
zero.

X
M r M O = 805063 510606 = 15.49 m
V 19012.5
41
e= 15.49 = 5.0 (eccentricity)
2
M = V * e = 19012.5 * 5.0 = 95299.25 kNm/m (the net moment about the centerline of the base)

41
C= = 20.5 m
2

413 1
I= = 5743.42 m4 ( the moment of interia)
12

max/ min
V
M C
=
19012.5 95299.25 20.5

B I 41 5743.42

max = 803.87 kN/m2 < 2700 kN/m2 O.K.

max = 123.57 kN/m2 > 0.00 kN/m2 O.K.


Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net
Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

SOLUTION 3
6m
B 300 6m
r = = 173 m
120
2 Sin 2 Sin 300 m
2 2 300 m

Thickness at the base: 120o


120o
h r 10 120 173 Figure 6
tb = = = 33.5 m
all 6200
6m

6 6200
h = 21.5 m
10 173
h*=21.5 m

L = r * = 173 120 = 362 m
180
120 m

b tb
VT = b h h h L
2

6 33.5
= 6 21.5 120 21.5 362 = 750924 m3
2
tb = 33.5 m

Figure 7
SOLUTION 4

The optimum central angle for a minimum volume of arch rib can be determined by differentiating the equation written below
with respect to and equating to zero.

h r2
V= V = Continue
all

Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net


Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli
Civil Engineering Faculty WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics 2011-FALL
EXERCISES 2- DAMS - ACTING FORCES

SOLUTION 5
6m
a)
B 350
r = = 181 m
150
2 Sin 2 Sin hx=18.23 m
2 2

Thickness at the base: 75 m


h r 10 75 181
tb = = = 24.7 m
all 5500

6 5500
h = 18.23 m
10 181 tb=24.7 m

b)
10 30 181
t30 = = 9.87 m
5500 Figure 8
c)
h r2 10 75 1812
V= = 150 = 11695.65 m3/m
all 5500 180
d)

L = r * = 181 150 = 474 m
180

b tb 6 24.7
VT = b h h h L = 6 18.23 75 18.23 474 = 464899 m3
2 2

Abdsselam ALTUNKAYNAK www.altunkaynak.net


Research Assist. smail DABANLI www.akademi.itu.edu.tr/dabanli