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Cold-Weather CSA A23.1

Concreting When air temp. is at or below 5C
or when there is a probability of it
CAC Chapter 17 falling below 5C within 24 hours of


Winter Concrete

Winter concrete

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Effect of Freezing Fresh Relationship Between Initial

Concrete Set and Casting Temperature
Up to 50% reduction of ultimate
strength can occur if frozen
within a few hours
before reaching a str.of 3.5 MPa

Frozen only once at an early age

With curing nearly all strength can
be restored
Less resistance to weathering
Cold-Weather More permeable Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Relationship Between Final Relationship Between Slump
Set and Casting Temperature and Casting Temperature

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Effect of Temperature on Effect of Low Temperature

Strength Development on Strength

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Early-Age Strength Retaining Heat of Hydration

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Cold-Weather Concreting
Methods to accelerate strength
Type 30 High-early-strength
Additional portland cement
(60 to 120 kg/m3 )
Chemical accelerators

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Effect of F/T on Strength of

Non-Air-Entrained Concrete

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Effect of Temperatures of Materials

Permissible Concrete on Concrete Temperature
Temperatures at Placing 0.22(TaMa + TcMc) + TwMw + TwaMwa
T= 0.22(Ma + Mc) + Mw + Mwa
CSA A23.1
T = temperature of the freshly mixed
Thickness Temperature, C concrete, C
of Section, m Minimum Maximum Ta, Tc, Tw, and Twa = temperature in C of
Less than 0.3 10 35 aggregates, cement, added mixing water, and
free water on aggregates, respectively
0.3-1 10 30
Ma, Mc, Mw, and Mwa = mass, kg, of
1-2 5 25
aggregates, cementing materials, added
More than 2 5 20 mixing water, and free water on aggregates,
Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Max. Permissible Temp. Differential
Between Concrete Surface and
Ambient Air Wind up to 25 km/hr.

Max. permissible temp.

Thickness differential C
L to H ratio of structure
m 0 3 5 7 20 or
0.3 29 22 19 17 12
0.6 22 18 16 15 12
0.9 18 16 15 14 12
1.2 17 15 14 13 12
Cold-Weather Cold-Weather 1.5 16 14 13 13 12
Concreting Concreting

Checking Fresh Concrete Checking Hardened Concrete

Temperatures Temperatures

Now embedded thermocouples

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting
and data loggers are used

Checking Hardened Concrete Temperature of

Temperatures Test Cylinders

and wireless
Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting data logger Concreting

Recommended Duration of (A) Recommended Duration of (B)
Concrete Temp. in Cold Weather Concrete Temp. in Cold Weather
Air-entrained concrete Fully stressed, exposed, air-entrained concrete

Protection from early-age For safe stripping Days at 10C Days at 21C
freezing strength Required %
Type of portland cement Type of portland cement
Convent. High-early Convent. High-early- of standard-
concrete, strength concrete, strength cured 28-day
Service category days concrete, days days concrete, days GU MS HE GU MS HE
No load, not exposed,
2 1 2 1 50 6 9 3 4 6 3
favorable moist-curing
No load, exposed, but later
has favorable moist- 3 2 65 11 14 5 8 10 4
curing 3 2 85 21 28 16 16 18 12
Partial load, exposed 6 4
Fully stressed, exposed
Cold-Weather See next slide (B) 95
Cold-Weather 29 35 26 23 24 20
Concreting Concreting

Cold-Weather Thermal Resistance (R) for

Insulation, 10-mm Thickness of Material
Aboveground Density
Board and Slabs (m2 . C)/W
Expanded polyurethane 24 0.438
Expanded polystyrene 29 0.277
Mineral fiberboard 256 - 272 0.204
Plywood 545 0.087
Loose fill
Wood fiber, soft woods 32 - 56 0.231
Vermiculite 112 - 131 0.148

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Insulating Blankets Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF)

Thermal resistance of 1.2

mineral fibre blanket
(50 to 70-mm thick) (m2 C)/W
Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Insulated Column
Forms Rigid
High-density polystyrene
Rough Canvas
Polyethylene Film

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Heated Enclosure

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Indirect-Fired Heater Hydronic Systems

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting

Maturity Concept

M = (C + 10) t

M = maturity factor
= summation
C = concrete temperature, C
t = duration of curing at
C, usually in hours

Cold-Weather Cold-Weather
Concreting Concreting