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ARCHAEO 2 REVIEWER Chapter 2: Culture & Approaches

Culture Ideational & Adaptive (defining human

Chapter 1: Encountering the Past behavior)
The Past is a Foreign Country Approaches: Scientific & Humanistic
- resides in the present thru material remains
- Archaeo & Paleo study bio and culturall Chapter 3: Archaeo Inquiry
evolution Theories:
- Archaeo MATERIAL REMAINS -> reflection of Low level data (observations that allow us to make
adaptations - CULTURE interpretations)
Age of Earth Middle range hypothesis connects archaeo record to
- Young earth human behaviour/natural processes
- Frere discovery of flint -> concept od - taphonomy, experi archaeo, ethnography
stratigraphy (Smith) High level larger why questions
- Denial of antiquity church
- Lyell Paradigms:
Evolution Processual explains socio, econ and cult change thru
- Darwin material conditions caused by external conditions
- Natural selection Post-processual very humanistic; interpreting past >
Modern view dynamic testing hypotheses
Chapter 2: Probing the Past
- Sites Chapter 4: Survey
o How are they formed? Site formation Gatecliff gumshoe survey
process-natural, manmade, etc Systematic gumshoe survey
o How are they preserved? Natural Santa Catalina
processes (ie. Otzi) Full Coverage survey
o How are they found?
Pedestrian survey Chapter 5: Remote Sensing & GIS
Subsurface; test pits & remote-
sensing devices Proton Magnetometer measures anomalies in earths
o How is info uncovered? magnetism St. Catallina
o How are they analyzed? Soil Resistivity monitors resistance of soil in volumes
Raw materials near site
Experimental replication
Social patterns Ground penetrating radar sends pulses if there are
o How are human and prehuman bones possible burried features
By a representative bone Geographic Informations System- computer
Sex of skeleton repository/catalog of cartographic data for storing,
Age of death retrieving, analyzing etc
Geographic origin
Pathology and disease Chapter 10: Roots of Complexity
Preserved bodies - to meet an immediate need
The Searchers: History of Archaeology Characteristics:
1) Speculative Period - food surplus
2) Descriptive - large popn
Cultural Historical Period - social strata
Explanatory - formal govt
3) Critical processual & post-processual - labor specialization
- record keeping
- monumental works