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FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING & EARTH RESOURCES

ENGINEERING SURVEYING FIELDWORK

TOPOGRAPHICAL (DETAILING)

SUBJECT CODE BAA1912

SUBJECT NAME ENGINEERING SURVEYING FIELDWORK

EXPERIMENT TITLE TOPOGRAPHICAL (DETAILING)

DATE OF EXPERIMENT
24 APRIL 2014 16 MAY 2014

GROUP NUMBER GROUP 33

SECTION 04

1. AA13186 FIRDAUZUDDIN B. BAHARUDDIN


GROUP MEMBER : 2. AA13204 LIM SU PUEH
ID NUMBER & NAME 3. AA13149 NURUL HAZIQAH BT. JABAR
4. AA13088 NURUL AMYLIA AIDA BT. NORIZAN
5. AA13176 SITI NUR LIYANA BT. SHEIKH ROSLAN
6. AA13163 NUR SYAMIMI SYAHIRAINE BT. ABU ZAKI

LECTURER EN. MOHD BADWI BIN YUNUS

MARKS

REMARKS

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ENDORSEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

NO CONTENTS PAGES

1. Introduction / Principles 3-5

2. Objectives 6

3. Devices 6-7

4. Procedure (Flowchart) 8

5. Product

Fieldbook 9-25

Plan 26-27

6. Discussion 28

Analysis Error / Precaution 29-32

7. Conclusion 33

8.
Appendixes / References 34-36

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INTRODUCTION
Topography is generally known as the study of earths surface, and its features and
shape. It also gives the description of the features (such as surface, shapes, vegetation cover
and elevations), depicted in maps which are called TOPO. In essence, topography mainly
concerned with local details such as vegetative and man-made features including local history
and culture. More specifically, topographic surveying involves the gathering information on
terrain, three dimensional details of the surface including recognizing the specific landforms.
In modern terms, it is the generation of data digitally or electronically. The outcome of
topographic survey is the graphic representation of a given land parcel on a map using several
techniques such as contour lines, Hypsometric tints and relief shading.

A topographic survey is also defined as an engineering process used to map the


surface of the earth. Topographic assessments differ from other types of surveys in that they
are primarily concerned with mapping the shape of the earth, including land contours and
elevations, rather than roads. Upon completion of a topographic survey, mapmakers can
create a topographic or contour map. These maps are then used for land planning,
construction, mining, and agriculture. When completing a survey, engineers map the location
of both natural and man-made structures within a defined area. This includes bodies of water,
land contours, and even buildings or fences. The survey measures the distance between these
elements, as well as changes in elevation between each one.

A topography survey is used for wide variety of applications such as military


planning, geological exploration, civil engineering, construction, public works and
reclamation work. Depending on the type of application the objectives of using topographic
information may vary. For example, detail information terrain is and surface features are
important for the planning, designing and implementation of a large civil engineering or
irrigation or public works project. In other words, topography surveys will help the planner to
determine the features on given land surface and any special location in terms of coordinates
(latitude, longitude, and altitude).

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There are variety of methods used in topographic surveying. For example, direct
surveying, remote sensing, aerial and satellite imagery, photogrammetry radar and sonar. The
most appropriate method to be used depends on the scale, size and complexity of the are
subject to study. Also, it depends on the accessibility and the quality of existing surveying
information.

Topographic surveys may also be used when determining the optimal plan for
drainage ditches, grading, or other features, using the natural landscape as the basis for such
improvements. A topographic land survey may be used for homeowners or those in the
construction industry or environmental sector. The point of a topographic land survey is to
note the natural and manmade features within the land. These may include hills, ravines,
streams, trees, fences, buildings, and other improvements over the natural state of the land. A
survey like this shows the location, size, and height of these types of improvements, as well
as gradual changes in elevation. Topographic surveys are sometimes called contour surveys,
and may be conducted before the land changes hands, or as the landowner is preparing to
improve the land.

It is important to note that direct surveying is still an important method for


determining accurately the terrestrial or 3-D space position of points and the distance and
angles between these points. Although the recent advances in surveying (such as remote
sensing, GPS, Satellite Imagery, Photogrammetry) have helped us to speed up information
gathering and accuracy, the traditional survey is still useful by providing basic control points
and necessary framework for topographic survey. As such, it is essential to realize the
importance of direct survey and how it complements with the modern surveying techniques
used for topographic surveying.

A topographic maps or surveys are extensively used for many engineering projects
ranging from irrigation, dam, land settlement, large housing projects, Trans basin canal
project, pipe laying, etc. As such, it is very popular among engineers, architects or building
contractors who need to know detailed information regarding overall site condition related to
elevations and grade. This information given in topo maps may be used for site
improvements, estimation of volume of earthworks to be hauled or removed, or for many
numerous construction and development projects.

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PRINCIPLES OF RADIAL POSITIONING:

This figure illustrates the principles. Station 1 is a survey station with known
coordinate (x,y,z). The reference object (RO) act as the starting point for all the bearing of
line that is needs to be measured. Station 6 can be used as RO. Bearing line 1-6 must be
known. Points 1-6 are the points of detail of survey. The three-dimensional coordinates of the
points are required.

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OBJECTIVE

1) To gather data (i.e location man-made and natural features) of a parcel of ground within UMP
area using radial positioning and tachometry.

2) To produce of the scaled drawing of a parcel of ground within UMP area.


3) To determine the position of any feature or more generally any point in terms of both a
horizontal coordinate system

4) Identifying features and recognizing typical landform patterns are also part of the field.
5) Determining enough horizontal location and elevation ground points to provide enough data
for plotting when the map is prepared.

LIST OF DEVICES
1) 1 set of Built-in EDM or Theodolite completed with accessories.

2) 1 unit tripod.

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3) 1 set of ranging pole and prism.

4) 1 unit of measuring tape.

5) Fieldbook.

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PROCEDURE

F irstly, one of the 5 point that form


traverse
a had
been marked. Then, the theodolite was
set up at that point.
00 was set before we started to take the detailing.

Theodolitewas set up at station4 stand and station3 was chosenas the point to set
00 . Area of topograph must be 50m or more forextended
every station.

Next, all objectin the traversewas identifiedwhich were tree, road, drain, slope, pipe,
signboard and divider. The object distance was measured theodolite.
from the Every
5 m or
more along every object was taken.

The pole was used to take the reading every 5m along the object thatchosen
we .have been
We started with the road about 100 m from our traverse
followed
point
by the
drain, slope,
road, and div
ider etc.

Then the theodolite was move


the topoint as other detailing could
take
not
clearly at Station
4 . So, we have choose
to point
5 to set 00 (step1- 4 was repeated
)

50 m was taken around the traverse


including50m outof thetraversearea.

Lastly,the datathat havebeen takenwas key in the CDS software.Then,the data was
transferinto a map formfrom AutoCADformat.

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FIELDBOOK
PLAN

DISCUSSION / ANALYSIS

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Topographical survey conducted to obtain data to make a map indicating inequalities
of land surface by measuring elevations and to locate the natural and artificial features of the
parcel of ground within UMP area using radial positioning and tacheometry.

Tacheometry is a method of surveying in which both horizontal and vertical distance


is determined by observing a graduated staff with a transit equipped with a special telescope.
It is very useful when the direct measurements of horizontal distances are inaccessible. It is
usually recommended for making contour plans.

The apparatus and equipment that are needed are theodolite or Built-in EDM, tripod, 1
set of pole and prism as well as measuring tape. The height of pole varies as needed to sustain
data collection from the theodolite and the height of instrument that we obtained for station 2
is 1.494m, station 3 is 1.495m, station 4 is 1.285m and station 5 are 1.368m and

1.417m .

After that, to start the survey, radial positioning methods is implemented using
theodolite with tacheometry technique. A station is set with known coordinate (x, y, z). The
reference object (RO) is the point chosen as the starting point, from which the bearings of all
lines of the survey will be measured. Bearings line 1-5 must be known. The staff was set at
the point with a spirit level bubble on it to make sure the staff is in straight level. The
requirement for the staff and theodolite is 50 meter for outside survey.

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ANALYSIS OF ERROR
All theodolites measure angles with some degree of imperfection. These imperfections result
from the fact that no mechanical device can be manufactured with zero error. In the past very
specific measuring techniques were taught and employed by surveyors to compensate for
minor mechanical imperfections in theodolites. With the advent of electronic theodolites, the
mechanical errors still exist but are related to in a different way. One must now do more than
memorize techniques that compensate for errors. One must clearly understand the concepts
behind the techniques and the adjustments for errors that electronic theodolites now make.
The following paragraphs provide the major sources of error when using a theodolite and also
the particular method employed to compensate for that error.

a. Horizontal collimation error. Horizontal collimation error exists when the optical axis of the
theodolite is not exactly perpendicular to the telescope axis. To test for horizontal collimation
error, point to a target in face one then point back to the same target in face two; the
difference in horizontal circle readings should be 180 degrees. Horizontal collimation error
can always be corrected for by meaning the face one and face two pointing of the instrument.

b. Height of standards error. In order for the telescope to plunge through a truly vertical plane
the telescope axis must be perpendicular to the standing axis. As stated before there is no such
thing as perfection in the physical world. All theodolites have a certain degree of error caused
by imperfect positioning of the telescope axis. Generally, determination of this error should
be accomplished by a qualified technician because horizontal collimation and height of
standards errors interrelate and can magnify or offset one another. Horizontal collimation
error is usually eliminated before checking for height of standards. Height of standards error
is checked by pointing to a scale the same zenith angle above a 90-degree zenith in "face-
one" and "face-two." The scales should read the same in face one as in face two.

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c. Circle graduation error. In the past, circle graduation error was considered a major problem.
For precise measurements surveyors advanced their circle on each successive set of angles so
that circle graduation errors were meaned out. Current technology eliminates the problem
of graduation errors. This is accomplished by photo-etching the graduations onto the glass
circles and making a precise master circle and photographing it. An emulsion is then applied
to the circle and a photo-reduced image of the master is projected onto the circle. The
emulsion is removed and the glass circle has been etched with very precise graduations.

d. Vertical circle error. It is important to check the vertical circle indexing adjustment on
surveying instruments on a routine basis. When direct and indirect zenith angles are measured
to the same point, the sum of the two angles should equal 360. Over time, the sum of these
two angles may diverge from 360 and consequently cause errors in vertical angle
measurements. While averaging the direct and indirect zenith angles easily eliminates this
error, on many jobs it may not be cost effective to make two readings.

e. Pointing errors. Pointing errors are due to both human ability to point the instrument and
environmental conditions limiting clear vision of the observed target. The best way to
minimize pointing errors is to repeat the observation several times and use the average as the
result.

f. Uneven heating of the instrument. Direct sunlight can heat one side of the instrument
enough to cause small errors. For the highest accuracy, utilize an umbrella or pick a shaded
spot for the instrument.

g. Vibrations. Avoid instrument locations that vibrate. Vibrations can cause the compensator to
be unstable.

h. Collimation errors. When sighting points a single time (e.g., direct position only) for
elevations, check the instrument regularly for collimation errors.

i. Vertical angles and elevations. When using total stations to measure precise elevations, the
adjustment of the electronic tilt sensor and the reticule of the telescope becomes very

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important. An easy way to check the adjustment of these components is to set a baseline. A
line close to the office with a large difference in elevation will provide the best results.

j. Adjustment of prism poles. When using prism poles, precautions should be taken to ensure
accurate measurements. A common problem encountered when using prism poles is the
adjustment of the leveling bubble. Bubbles can be examined by establishing a check station
under a doorway in the office. First, mark a point on the top of the doorway. Using a plumb
bob, establish a point under the point on the doorway. If possible, use a center punch to make
a dent or hole in both the upper and lower marks. The prism pole can now be placed into the
check station and easily adjusted.

k. Recording errors. The two most common errors are reading an angle incorrectly and/or
entering incorrect information into the field book. Another common (and potentially
disastrous) error is an incorrect instrument or rod height. Although electronic data collection
has all but eliminated these errors, it is still possible for the surveyor to identify an object
incorrectly, make a shot to the wrong spot, or input a bad target height (HR) or HI.

l. Angles. As a rule, a surveyor will turn a doubled angle for move-ahead, traverse points,
property corners, or other objects that require greater accuracy. On the other hand, single
angles are all that are required for topographic shots. Refer to the total station operating
instructions for repeating angle methods where required.

m. Slope to grid and sea level EDM corrections. Slope distances will be reduced to horizontal
distances in the data collector, and then reduced to a grid distance if a grid scale factor (or
combined scale sea level factor) is input into the data collector. For most topographic survey
applications involving short side shots, the grid scale factor is ignored (e.g., 1.000 is used).
This would not be correct for control traverses covering larger distances.

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PRECAUTION

1) We use the bright vest to give attention to the drivers that use the roads when we are doing
survey on same roads.

2) We try to get better shelter place to continue the work and give priority to the pole handler.

3) We take a new reading with new bearing, so that we can learn out mistake to be careful with
next reading.

4) We still continue the pole handling during strong wind by extend our base legs to stabilize the
pole properly.

CONCLUSION

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In the conclusion, we had achieved the objective of this project after we did the
topographical and site survey project. We learnt to collect data of a parcel ground within UMP
area by using radial positioning and tachometry, and the production of the calculation of
reduced level.

In this fieldwork, we understand the function of tachometry techniques and how to


utilize it to the site works in the next project. From this topographical fieldwork, we had
learnt the way to measure different elevation between two points. We also learnt how to
conduct and obtain data to make a map showing inequalities of land surface by measured
elevations and to locate the natural and artificial features of the earth.

Other than that, we also discovered the problem such as the height of instrument is
affected by the condition of the ground. For an example, the soft ground is likely sink a bit
when the instrument is setting up on the ground. Sometimes we cannot get the consistency
and accurate readings due to physical errors, gross errors and random errors. Like random
errors, due to imperfections of human sight and touch which make it quite impossible to get
the targets accurately or read the images correctly.

We can ask the lecturers opinion for more information about this project as a
guideline because they were more experienced than us that know more about the
topographical surveying and calculation. All in all, we have ability to work effectively in a
team to show cooperative effort to carry out a surveying project.

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APPEDIXES

Our group member is holding a prism where for the person who view
theodolite to locate the point or detailing.

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Measure and record the height of the instrument to proceed the work.

Focusing the prism to take all the reading.

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(Bearing, horizontal distances, vertical distance)

REFENCES

1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topography

2) http://www.terrainsurveys.co.uk/topographical-surveys/

3) http://www.greenhatch-group.co.uk/topographical-detail-surveys

4) http://www.landsurveyors.com/resources/topographic-land-surveyors/

5) https://www.google.com.my/search?q=TOPOGRAPHICAL+
(DETAILING)
-
wiki&biw=1366&bih=768&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=NI5_U4
Dw
K9HqrQea5IDwCQ&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ

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